A Serum-Induced Transcriptome and Serum Cytokine Signature Obtained at Diagnosis Correlates with the Development of Early Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma Metastasis.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Despite the accessibility of blood, identification of systemic biomarkers associated with cancer progression has been especially challenging. The aim of this study was to determine a difference in baseline serum immune signatures in patients that experienced early pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) metastasis compared with patients that did not. We hypothesized that immune mediators would differ in the baseline serum of these patient cohorts. To test this hypothesis, novel approaches of systemic immune analysis were performed. METHODS:A serum-induced transcriptional assay was used to identify transcriptome signatures. To enable an understanding of the transcriptome data in a global sense, a transcriptome index was calculated for each patient taking into consideration the relationship of up- and downregulated transcripts. For each patient, serum cytokine concentrations were also analyzed globally as a cytokine index (CI). RESULTS:A transcriptome signature of innate type I IFN inflammation was identified in patients that experienced early metastatic progression. Patients without early metastatic progression had a baseline transcriptome signature of TGF?/IL10-regulated acute inflammation. The transcriptome index was greater in patients with early metastasis. There was a significant difference in the CI in patients with and without early metastatic progression. CONCLUSIONS:The association of serum-induced transcriptional signatures with PDAC metastasis is a novel finding. Global assessment of serum cytokine concentrations as a CI is a novel approach to assess systemic cancer immunity. IMPACT:These systemic indices can be assessed in combination with tumor markers to further define subsets of PDAC that will provide insight into effective treatment, progression, and outcome.
Project description:Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas (PDACs) are highly metastatic with poor prognosis, mainly due to delayed detection. We hypothesized that intercellular communication is critical for metastatic progression. Here, we show that PDAC-derived exosomes induce liver pre-metastatic niche formation in naive mice and consequently increase liver metastatic burden. Uptake of PDAC-derived exosomes by Kupffer cells caused transforming growth factor ? secretion and upregulation of fibronectin production by hepatic stellate cells. This fibrotic microenvironment enhanced recruitment of bone marrow-derived macrophages. We found that macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) was highly expressed in PDAC-derived exosomes, and its blockade prevented liver pre-metastatic niche formation and metastasis. Compared with patients whose pancreatic tumours did not progress, MIF was markedly higher in exosomes from stage I PDAC patients who later developed liver metastasis. These findings suggest that exosomal MIF primes the liver for metastasis and may be a prognostic marker for the development of PDAC liver metastasis.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Aim of this study was to assess the biological function in tumor progression and metastatic process carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecules (CEACAM) 1, 5 and 6 in pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PDAC). EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: CEACAM knock down cells were established and assessed in vitro and in a subcutaneous and intraperitoneal mouse xenograft model. Tissue and serum expression of patients with PDAC were assessed by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and by enzyme linked immunosorbent assays. RESULTS: Presence of lymph node metastasis was correlated with CEACAM 5 and 6 expression (determined by IHC) and tumor recurrence exclusively with CEACAM 6. Patients with CEACAM 5 and 6 expression showed a significantly shortened OS in Kaplan-Meier survival analyses. Elevated CEACAM6 serum values showed a correlation with distant metastasis and. Survival analysis revealed a prolonged OS for patients with low serum CEACAM 1 values. In vitro proliferation and migration capacity was increased in CEACAM knock down PDAC cells, however, mice inoculated with CEACAM knock down cells showed a prolonged overall-survival (OS). The number of spontaneous pulmonary metastasis was increased in the CEACAM knock down group. CONCLUSION: The effects mediated by CEACAM expression in PDAC are complex, though overexpression is correlated with loco-regional aggressive tumor growth. However, loss of CEACAM can be considered as a part of epithelial-mesenchymal transition and is therefore of rather importance in the process of distant metastasis.
Project description:Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) has a 5-year survival rate of 7%. This dismal prognosis is largely due to the inability to diagnose the disease before metastasis occurs. Tumor cell dissemination occurs early in PDAC. While it is known that inflammation facilitates this process, the underlying mechanisms responsible for this progression have not been fully characterized. Here, we functionally test the role of metastasis suppressor 1 (MTSS1) in PDAC. Despite evidence showing that MTSS1 could be important for regulating metastasis in many different cancers, its function in PDAC has not been studied. Here, we show that loss of MTSS1 leads to increased invasion and migration in PDAC cell lines. Moreover, PDAC cells treated with cancer-associated fibroblast-conditioned media also have increased metastatic potential, which is augmented by loss of MTSS1. Finally, overexpression of MTSS1 in PDAC cell lines leads to a loss of migratory potential in vitro and an increase in overall survival in vivo. Collectively, our data provide insight into an important role for MTSS1 in suppressing tumor cell invasion and migration driven by the tumor microenvironment and suggest that therapeutic strategies aimed at increasing MTSS1 levels may effectively slow the development of metastatic lesions, increasing survival of patients with PDAC.
Project description:Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) has a high metastatic potential. However, the mechanism of metastatic colonization in PDAC remains poorly understood. Metadherin (MTDH) has emerged in recent years as a crucial mediator of metastasis in several cancer types, although the biological role of MTDH in PDAC has not been investigated. Here, we demonstrated the functional roles of MTDH in PDAC progression, especially focusing on the metastatic cascade. In vitro studies showed that MTDH provides cancer stem cell (CSC) properties in metastatic PDAC cells and contributes to anoikis resistance with epithelial characteristics in PDAC cells. We also performed in vivo studies using both orthotopic transplantation and intra-portal vein injection as experimental models of liver metastasis to examine the function of MTDH at the metastatic site. MTDH knockdown dramatically reduced the incidence of liver metastases along with epithelial features in both experimental mouse models. Collectively, MTDH facilitates metastatic colonization with putative CSC and epithelial properties in PDAC cells. PDAC cells were transiently treated with TGF-?1 to investigate the roles of MTDH on epithelial plasticity. Intriguingly, MTDH expression was negatively correlated with Twist1 expression during the Mesenchymal-Epithelial transition (MET) induction in metastatic PDAC cells. These results suggest that MTDH may contribute to MET induction via downregulation of Twsit1. Lastly, immunohistochemistry indicated that MTDH overexpression is closely associated with hematogenous metastasis and predicts poor prognosis in patients with PDAC. This is the first demonstration of MTDH function in PDAC metastatic colonization. Our data suggest that MTDH targeting therapy could be applied to control PDAC metastasis.
Project description:Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a devastating metastatic disease for which better therapies are urgently needed. Macrophages enhance metastasis in many cancer types; however, the role of macrophages in PDAC liver metastasis remains poorly understood. Here we found that PDAC liver metastasis critically depends on the early recruitment of granulin-secreting inflammatory monocytes to the liver. Mechanistically, we demonstrate that granulin secretion by metastasis-associated macrophages (MAMs) activates resident hepatic stellate cells (hStCs) into myofibroblasts that secrete periostin, resulting in a fibrotic microenvironment that sustains metastatic tumour growth. Disruption of MAM recruitment or genetic depletion of granulin reduced hStC activation and liver metastasis. Interestingly, we found that circulating monocytes and hepatic MAMs in PDAC patients express high levels of granulin. These findings suggest that recruitment of granulin-expressing inflammatory monocytes plays a key role in PDAC metastasis and may serve as a potential therapeutic target for PDAC liver metastasis.
Project description:Several reports showed that interleukin-6 (IL-6) or -8 (IL-8) might be useful inflammatory biomarkers for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), although these clinical impact is still open to debate. The aim of this study was to elucidate whether serum levels of IL-6 and IL-8 at diagnosis could predict the tumor progression pattern of PDAC, especially in extensive hepatic metastasis.According to the tumor burden of hepatic metastasis at the last follow-up, tumor progression pattern was defined as follows: no or limited (unilobar involvement and 5 or less in the within liver, limited group) and extensive hepatic metastasis (bilobar or more than 5, progressed group). Fifty-three PDAC patients with initially no or limited hepatic metastasis were enrolled retrospectively.Around 42 (79.2%) were included in the limited and 11 (20.8%) in the progressed group. The median serum level of IL-6 in the progressed group was elevated significantly compared with the limited group. However, the median serum level of IL-8 was not. Furthermore, multivariate analysis revealed that the elevated serum level of IL-6 was an independent risk factor for progression to extensive hepatic metastasis (odds ratio 1.928, 95% confidence interval 1.131-3.365, P = 0.019), but IL-8 was not. However, higher IL-6 did not predict shorter survival.High serum IL-6 can be an independent risk factor for progression to extensive hepatic metastasis in PDAC patients.
Project description:Metastasis development represents an important threat for melanoma patients, even when diagnosed at early stages and upon removal of the primary tumor. In this scenario, determination of prognostic biomarkers would be of great interest. Serum contains information about the general status of the organism and therefore represents a valuable source for biomarkers. Thus, we aimed to define serological biomarkers that could be used along with clinical and histopathological features of the disease to predict metastatic events on the early-stage population of patients. We previously demonstrated that in stage II melanoma patients, serum levels of dermcidin (DCD) were associated with metastatic progression. Based on the relevance of the immune response on the cancer progression and the recent association of DCD with local and systemic immune response against cancer cells, serum DCD was analyzed in a new cohort of patients along with interleukin 4 (IL-4), IL-6, IL-10, IL-17A, interferon ? (IFN-?), transforming growth factor-? (TGF- ?), and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF). We initially recruited 448 melanoma patients, 323 of whom were diagnosed as stages I-II according to AJCC. Levels of selected cytokines were determined by ELISA and Luminex, and obtained data were analyzed employing machine learning and Kaplan-Meier techniques to define an algorithm capable of accurately classifying early-stage melanoma patients with a high and low risk of developing metastasis. The results show that in early-stage melanoma patients, serum levels of the cytokines IL-4, GM-CSF, and DCD together with the Breslow thickness are those that best predict melanoma metastasis. Moreover, resulting algorithm represents a new tool to discriminate subjects with good prognosis from those with high risk for a future metastasis.
Project description:Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is an aggressive cancer type with poor prognosis due to its high metastatic potential, however, the role of metabolic reprogramming in the metastasis of PDAC cell is not known. Here, we report that COX6B2 drive metastasis but not cancer cell proliferation in PDAC by enhancing oxidative phosphorylation function (OXPHOS). Transcriptome and clinical analyses revealed that cytochrome c oxidase subunit 6B2 (COX6B2) positively associated with metastasis of PDAC cells. Knockdown of COX6B2 in PDAC cells tuned down the assembly of complex IV and downregulated the function of OXPHOS, whereas re-expression of COX6B2 restored the function of OXPHOS and metastatic potential. Mechanistically, COX6B2 upregulated OXPHOS function to active purinergic receptor pathway for the metastasis of PDAC cells. Notably, the metastatic potential in PDAC could be reversely regulated by metformin, a drug was found accelerating the degradation of COX6B2 mRNA in this study. Collectively, our findings indicated that a complex metabolic control mechanism might be involved in achieving the balance of metabolic requirements for both growth and metastasis in PDAC, and regulation of the expression of COX6B2 could potentially encompass one of the targets.
Project description:The poor correlation of mutational landscapes with phenotypes limits our understanding of the pathogenesis and metastasis of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). Here we show that oncogenic dosage-variation has a critical role in PDAC biology and phenotypic diversification. We find an increase in gene dosage of mutant KRAS in human PDAC precursors, which drives both early tumorigenesis and metastasis and thus rationalizes early PDAC dissemination. To overcome the limitations posed to gene dosage studies by the stromal richness of PDAC, we have developed large cell culture resources of metastatic mouse PDAC. Integration of cell culture genomes, transcriptomes and tumour phenotypes with functional studies and human data reveals additional widespread effects of oncogenic dosage variation on cell morphology and plasticity, histopathology and clinical outcome, with the highest KrasMUT levels underlying aggressive undifferentiated phenotypes. We also identify alternative oncogenic gains (Myc, Yap1 or Nfkb2), which collaborate with heterozygous KrasMUT in driving tumorigenesis, but have lower metastatic potential. Mechanistically, different oncogenic gains and dosages evolve along distinct evolutionary routes, licensed by defined allelic states and/or combinations of hallmark tumour suppressor alterations (Cdkn2a, Trp53, Tgf?-pathway). Thus, evolutionary constraints and contingencies direct oncogenic dosage gain and variation along defined routes to drive the early progression of PDAC and shape its downstream biology. Our study uncovers universal principles of Ras-driven oncogenesis that have potential relevance beyond pancreatic cancer.
Project description:Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), which accounts for 96% of all pancreatic cancer cases, is characterized by rapid progression, invasion and metastasis. Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-?) signaling is an essential pathway in metastatic progression and microRNAs (miRNA) play central roles in the regulation of various biological and pathologic processes including cancer metastasis. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in regulation of miRNAs and activation of TGF-? signaling in PDAC remain to be established. The results of this study suggested that miR-323-3p expression in PDAC tissues and cell lines was significantly decreased compared to levels in normal pancreatic tissues and primary cultured pancreatic duct epithelial cells. Further investigation revealed that miR-323-3p directly targeted and suppressed SMAD2 and SMAD3, both key components in TGF-? signaling. Lower levels of miR-323-3p predicted poorer prognosis in patients with PDAC. Ectopic overexpression of miR-323-3p significantly inhibited, while silencing of miR-323-3p increased the migration and invasion abilities of PDAC cells in vitro. Moreover, using an in vivo mouse model, we demonstrated that overexpressing of miR-323-3p significantly reduced, while knockdown of miR-323-3p enhanced lung metastatic colonization of PANC-1 cells. Furthermore, miR-323-3p-induced TGF-b signaling inhibition and cell motility suppression were partially rescued by overexpressing of Smad2 and Smad3 in PDAC cells. Our findings suggest that re-expression of miR-323-3p might offer a novel therapeutic target against metastasis in patients with PDAC.