Development and Testing of the Provider and Staff Perceptions of Integrated Care (PSPIC) Survey.
ABSTRACT: This article discusses development and testing of the Provider and Staff Perceptions of Integrated Care Survey, a 21-item questionnaire, informed by Singer and colleagues' seven-construct framework. Questionnaires were sent to 2,936 providers and staff at 100 federally qualified health centers and other safety net clinics in 10 Midwestern U.S. states; 332 were ineligible, leaving 2,604 potential participants. Following 4 mailings, 781 (30%) responded from 97 health centers. Item analyses, exploratory factor analysis, and confirmatory factor analysis were undertaken. Exploratory factor analysis suggests four latent factors: Teams and Care Continuity, Patient Centeredness, Coordination with External Providers, and Coordination with Community Resources. Confirmatory factor analysis confirmed these factor groupings. For the total sample, Cronbach's alpha exceeded 0.7 for each latent factor. Descriptive responses to each of the 21 Provider and Staff Perceptions of Integrated Care questions appear to have potential in identifying areas that providers and staff recognize as care integration strengths, and areas that may warrant improvement.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Patient safety culture involves leader and staff interaction, routines, attitudes, practices and awareness that influence risks of adverse events in patient care. The Safety Attitudes Questionnaire (SAQ) is an instrument to measure safety attitudes among health care providers. The instrument aims to identify possible weaknesses in clinical settings and motivate quality improvement interventions leading to reductions in medical errors. The Ambulatory Version of the SAQ (SAQ-A) was developed to measure safety climate in the primary care setting. The original version of the SAQ includes six major patient safety factors: Teamwork climate, Safety climate, Job satisfaction, Perceptions of management, Working conditions, and Stress recognition. Patients in nursing homes are particularly vulnerable to adverse events. We present the psychometric properties of the Norwegian translation of the SAQ-A for the nursing home setting. METHODS:The study was conducted in five nursing homes in Tønsberg, Norway, in February 2016. A total of 463 employees working more than 20% received a paper version of the translated SAQ-A adapted to the Norwegian nursing home setting and responded anonymously. Filled-in questionnaires were scanned and transferred to an SPSS file. SPSS was used to estimate Cronbach alphas, corrected item-total correlations, item-to-own and item-to-other correlations, and item-descriptive statistics. The confirmatory factor analysis was done by AMOS. RESULTS:Of the 463 health care providers, 288 (62.2%) responded to the questionnaire. The confirmatory factor analysis showed that the total model of the six factors Teamwork climate, Safety climate, Job satisfaction, Perceptions of management, Working conditions, and Stress recognition had acceptable goodness-of-fit values in the nursing home setting. CONCLUSIONS:The results of our study indicate that the Norwegian translated version of the SAQ-A, with the confirmed six factor model, is an appropriate tool for measuring patient safety climate in the nursing home setting. Future research should study whether there is an association between patient safety climate in nursing homes and occurrence of adverse events among the patients.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:The aim of this study was to develop and validate a scale to measure the coping strategies used by emergency staff in response to workplace stress. To achieve this aim, we developed a refined Jalowiec Coping Scale (JCS), termed the Jalowiec Coping Scale-Emergency Department (JCS-ED) and validated this scale on a sample of emergency clinicians. DESIGN:A cross-sectional survey incorporating the JCS, the working environment scale-10 and a measure of workplace stressors was administered between July 2016 and June 2017. The JCS-ED was developed in three stages: 1) item reduction through content matter experts, 2) exploratory factor analysis for further item reduction and to identify the factor structure of the revised scale and 3) confirmatory factor analyses to confirm the factors identified within the exploratory factor analysis. SETTING:Six Emergency Departments (EDs) in Australia and four in Sweden. There were three tertiary hospitals, five large urban hospitals and two small urban hospitals. PARTICIPANTS:Participants were eligible for inclusion if they worked full-time or part-time as medical or nursing staff in the study EDs. The median age of participants was 35 years (IQR: 28-45 years) and they had been working in the ED for a median of 5 years (IQR: 2-10 years). 79% were females and 76% were nurses. RESULTS:A total of 875 ED staff completed the survey (response rate 51%). The content matter experts reduced the 60-item scale to 32 items. Exploratory factor analyses then further reduced the scale to 18 items assessing three categories of coping: problem-focussed coping, positive emotion-focussed coping and negative emotion-focussed coping. Confirmatory factor analysis supported this three-factor structure. Negative coping strategies were associated with poor perceptions of the work environment and higher ratings of stress. CONCLUSIONS:The JCS-ED assesses maladaptive coping strategies along with problem-focussed and emotion-focussed coping styles. It is a short instrument that is likely to be useful in measuring the types of coping strategies employed by staff.
Project description:External supervision of primary health care facilities to monitor and improve services is common in low-income countries. Currently there are no tools to measure the quality of support in external supervision in these countries.To develop a provider-reported instrument to assess the support delivered through external supervision in Rwanda and other countries."External supervision: Provider Evaluation of Supervisor Support" (ExPRESS) was developed in 18 steps, primarily in Rwanda. Content validity was optimised using systematic search for related instruments, interviews, translations, and relevance assessments by international supervision experts as well as local experts in Nigeria, Kenya, Uganda and Rwanda. Construct validity and reliability were examined in two separate field tests, the first using exploratory factor analysis and a test-retest design, the second for confirmatory factor analysis.We included 16 items in section A ('The most recent experience with an external supervisor'), and 13 items in section B ('The overall experience with external supervisors'). Item-content validity index was acceptable. In field test I, test-retest had acceptable kappa values and exploratory factor analysis suggested relevant factors in sections A and B used for model hypotheses. In field test II, models were tested by confirmatory factor analysis fitting a 4-factor model for section A, and a 3-factor model for section B.ExPRESS is a promising tool for evaluation of the quality of support of primary health care providers in external supervision of primary health care facilities in resource-constrained settings. ExPRESS may be used as specific feedback to external supervisors to help identify and address gaps in the supervision they provide. Further studies should determine optimal interpretation of scores and the number of respondents needed per supervisor to obtain precise results, as well as test the functionality of section B.
Project description:The effectiveness of community clinics and health centers' efforts to improve the quality of care might be modified by clinics' workplace climates. Several surveys to measure workplace climate exist, but their relationships to each other and to distinguishable dimensions of workplace climate are unknown.To assess the psychometric properties of a survey instrument combining items from several existing surveys of workplace climate and to generate a shorter instrument for future use.We fielded a 106-item survey, which included items from 9 existing instruments, to all clinicians and staff members (n=781) working in 30 California community clinics and health centers, receiving 628 responses (80% response rate). We performed exploratory factor analysis of survey responses, followed by confirmatory factor analysis of 200 reserved survey responses. We generated a new, shorter survey instrument of items with strong factor loadings.Six factors, including 44 survey items, emerged from the exploratory analysis. Two factors (Clinic Workload and Teamwork) were independent from the others. The remaining 4 factors (staff relationships, quality improvement orientation, managerial readiness for change, and staff readiness for change) were highly correlated, indicating that these represented dimensions of a higher-order factor we called "Clinic Functionality." This 2-level, 6-factor model fit the data well in the exploratory and confirmatory samples. For all but 1 factor, fewer than 20 survey responses were needed to achieve clinic-level reliability >0.7.Survey instruments designed to measure workplace climate have substantial overlap. The relatively parsimonious item set we identified might help target and tailor clinics' quality improvement efforts.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The patient-centered medical home (PCMH) is a widely adopted primary care model. However, it is unclear whether changes in provider and staff perceptions of clinic PCMH capability are associated with changes in provider and staff morale, job satisfaction, and burnout in safety net clinics. OBJECTIVE:To determine how provider and staff PCMH ratings changed under a multi-year PCMH transformation initiative and assess whether changes in provider and staff PCMH ratings were associated with changes in morale, job satisfaction, and burnout. DESIGN:Comparison of baseline (2010) and post-intervention (2013-2014) surveys. SETTING:Sixty clinics in five states. PARTICIPANTS:Five hundred thirty-six (78.2%) providers and staff at baseline and 589 (78.3%) post-intervention. INTERVENTION:Collaborative learning sessions and on-site coaching to implement PCMH over 4 years. MEASUREMENTS:Provider and staff PCMH ratings on 0 (worst) to 100 (best) scales; percent of providers and staff reporting good or better morale, job satisfaction, and freedom from burnout. RESULTS:Almost half of safety net clinics improved PCMH capabilities from the perspective of providers (28 out of 59, 47%) and staff (25 out of 59, 42%). Over the same period, clinics saw a decrease in the percentage of providers reporting high job satisfaction (-?12.3% points, p?=?.009) and freedom from burnout (-?10.4% points, p?=?.006). Worsened satisfaction was concentrated among clinics that had decreased PCMH rating, with those clinics seeing far fewer providers report high job satisfaction (-?38.1% points, p?<?0.001). LIMITATIONS:Control clinics were not used. Individual-level longitudinal survey administration was not feasible. CONCLUSION:If clinics pursue PCMH transformation and providers do not perceive improvement, they may risk significantly worsened job satisfaction. Clinics should be aware of this potential risk of PCMH transformation and ensure that providers are aware of PCMH improvements.
Project description:The Health Care Empowerment Model offers direction for the investigation of patient-controlled engagement and involvement in health care. At the core of the model is the construct of Health Care Empowerment (HCE), for which there exist no validated measures. A set of 27 candidate self-report survey items was constructed to capture five hypothesized inter-related facets of HCE (informed, engaged, committed, collaborative, and tolerant of uncertainty). The full item set was administered to 644 HIV-infected persons enrolled in three ongoing research studies. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses resulted in a two factor solution comprising four items each on two subscales: (1) HCE: Informed, Committed, Collaborative, and Engaged HCE ICCE) and (2) HCE Tolerance of Uncertainty (HCE TU). Subscale scores were evaluated for relationships with relevant constructs measured in the three studies, including depression, provider relationships, medication adherence, and HIV-1 viral load. Findings suggest the utility of this 8-item Health Care Empowerment Inventory (HCEI) in efforts to measure, understand, and track changes in the ways in which individuals engage in health care.
Project description:Pediatric primary care providers play a critical role in managing obesity yet often lack the resources and support systems to provide effective care to children with obesity. The objective of this study was to identify system-level barriers to managing obesity and resources desired to better managing obesity from the perspective of pediatric primary care providers. A 64-item survey was electronically administered to 159 primary care providers from 26 practices within a large pediatric primary care network. Bivariate analyses were performed to compare survey responses based on provider and practice characteristics. Also factor analysis was conducted to determine key constructs that effect pediatric interventions for obesity. Survey response rate was 69% ( n = 109), with the majority of respondents being female (77%), physicians (67%), and without prior training in obesity management (74%). Time constraints during well visits (86%) and lack of ancillary staff (82%) were the most frequently reported barriers to obesity management. Information on community resources (99%), an on-site dietitian (96%), and patient educational materials (94%) were most frequently identified as potentially helpful for management of obesity in the primary care setting. Providers who desired more ancillary staff were significantly more likely to practice in clinics with a higher percentage of obese, Medicaid, and Hispanic patients. Integrating ancillary lifestyle expert support into primary care practices and connecting primary care practices to community organizations may be a successful strategy for assisting primary care providers with managing childhood obesity, especially among vulnerable populations.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Threat perceptions in the emergency department (ED; e.g., patients' subjective feelings of helplessness or lack of control) during evaluation for an acute coronary syndrome (ACS) are associated with the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and PTSD has been associated with medication nonadherence, cardiac event recurrence, and mortality. This study reports the development and validation of a seven-item measure of ED threat perceptions in English- and Spanish-speaking patients evaluated for ACS. METHODS:Participants were drawn from an observational cohort study of 1,000 patients evaluated for ACS between 2013 and 2016 in a large New York City hospital. Participants reported on threat perceptions in the ED and during inpatient stay (using 12 items previously identified as predictive of PTSD) and reported on cardiac-induced PTSD 1 month postdischarge. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were used to establish the factor structure and test measurement invariance. Validity and reliability were examined, as was the association of ED threat perceptions with cardiac-induced PTSD. RESULTS:Factor analyses identified a seven-item measure of ED threat perceptions (e.g., "I feel helpless," "I am worried that I am going to die") for both English- and Spanish-speaking patients. ED threat perceptions demonstrated convergent validity, correlating with ED stress and ED crowdedness (r = 0.29 and r = 0.14), good internal consistency (? = 0.82), and stability (r = 0.61). Threat perceptions were associated with cardiac-induced acute stress at inpatient and PTSD symptoms at 1 month (r = 0.43 and r = 0.39). CONCLUSIONS:This brief tool assessing ED threat perceptions has clinical utility for providers to identify patients at risk for developing cardiac-induced PTSD and is critical to inform research on whether threat may be modified in-ED to reduce PTSD incidence.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Person-centred care (PCC) has become a global movement in healthcare. Despite this, the level of PCC is not routinely assessed in clinical practice. This protocol describes the adaptation and validation of the Person-Centred Practice Inventory-Staff (PCPI-S) tool that will be used to assess person-centred practices of primary healthcare providers in Malaysia. METHODS AND ANALYSIS:To ensure conceptual and item equivalence, the original version of the PCPI-S will be reviewed and adapted for cultural context by an expert committee. The instrument will subsequently be translated into Malay language using the forward-backward translation method by two independent bilingual speaking individuals. This will be pretested in four primary care clinics and refined accordingly. The instrument will be assessed for its psychometric properties, such as test-retest reliability, construct and internal validity, using exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION:Study findings will be disseminated to healthcare professionals and academicians in the field through publication in peer-reviewed journals and conference presentations, as well as at managerial clinic sites for practice improvement. The study was approved by the Medical Research and Ethics Committee (MREC), Ministry of Health Malaysia (KKM/NIHSEC/ P18-766 (14) and Monash University Human Research Ethics Committee (2018-14363-19627).
Project description:We developed the Quality of Contraceptive Counseling (QCC) Scale to improve measurement of client experiences with providers in the era of rights-based service delivery. We generated scale items drawing on the previously published QCC Framework and qualitative research on women's preferences for counseling in Mexico, and refined them through cognitive interviews (n = 29) in two Mexican states. The item pool was reduced from 35 to 22 items after pilot testing using exit interviews in San Luis Potosí (n = 257). Exploratory Factor Analysis revealed three underlying dimensions (Information Exchange, Interpersonal Relationship, Disrespect and Abuse); this dimensionality was reproduced in Mexico City (n = 242) using Confirmatory Factor Analysis. Item Response Theory analyses confirmed acceptable item properties in both states, and correlation analyses established convergent, predictive, and divergent validity. The QCC Scale and subscales fill a gap in measurement tools for ensuring high quality of care and fulfillment of human rights in contraceptive services, and should be evaluated and adapted in other contexts.