Functional link between mitochondria and Rnr3, the minor catalytic subunit of yeast ribonucleotide reductase.
ABSTRACT: Ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) is an essential holoenzyme required for de novo synthesis of dNTPs. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome encodes for two catalytic subunits, Rnr1 and Rnr3. While Rnr1 is required for DNA replication and DNA damage repair, the function(s) of Rnr3 is unknown. Here, we show that carbon source, an essential nutrient, impacts Rnr1 and Rnr3 abundance: Non-fermentable carbon sources or limiting concentrations of glucose down regulate Rnr1 and induce Rnr3 expression. Oppositely, abundant glucose induces Rnr1 expression and down regulates Rnr3. The carbon source dependent regulation of Rnr3 is mediated by Mec1, the budding yeast ATM/ATR checkpoint response kinase. Unexpectedly, this regulation is independent of all currently known components of the Mec1 DNA damage response network, including Rad53, Dun1, and Tel1, implicating a novel Mec1 signalling axis. rnr3? leads to growth defects under respiratory conditions and rescues temperature sensitivity conferred by the absence of Tom6, a component of the mitochondrial TOM (translocase of outer membrane) complex responsible for mitochondrial protein import. Together, these results unveil involvement of Rnr3 in mitochondrial functions and Mec1 in mediating the carbon source dependent regulation of Rnr3.
Project description:The Saccharomyces cerevisiae Dun1 protein kinase is a downstream target of the conserved Mec1-Rad53 checkpoint pathway. Dun1 regulates dNTP pools during an unperturbed cell cycle and after DNA damage by modulating the activity of ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) by multiple mechanisms, including phosphorylation of RNR inhibitors Sml1 and Dif1. Dun1 also activates DNA-damage-inducible genes by inhibiting the Crt1 transcriptional repressor. Among the genes repressed by Crt1 are three out of four RNR genes: RNR2, RNR3, and RNR4. The fourth RNR gene, RNR1, is also DNA damage-inducible, but is not controlled by Crt1. It has been shown that the deletion of DUN1 is synthetic lethal with the deletion of IXR1, encoding an HMG-box-containing DNA binding protein, but the reason for this lethality is not known. Here we demonstrate that the dun1 ixr1 synthetic lethality is caused by an inadequate RNR activity. The deletion of IXR1 results in decreased dNTP levels due to a reduced RNR1 expression. The ixr1 single mutants compensate for the reduced Rnr1 levels by the Mec1-Rad53-Dun1-Crt1-dependent elevation of Rnr3 and Rnr4 levels and downregulation of Sml1 levels, explaining why DUN1 is indispensible in ixr1 mutants. The dun1 ixr1 synthetic lethality is rescued by an artificial elevation of the dNTP pools. We show that Ixr1 is phosphorylated at several residues and that Ser366, a residue important for the interaction of HMG boxes with DNA, is required for Ixr1 phosphorylation. Ixr1 interacts with DNA at multiple loci, including the RNR1 promoter. Ixr1 levels are decreased in Rad53-deficient cells, which are known to have excessive histone levels. A reduction of the histone gene dosage in the rad53 mutant restores Ixr1 levels. Our results demonstrate that Ixr1, but not Dun1, is required for the proper RNR1 expression both during an unperturbed cell cycle and after DNA damage.
Project description:The DNA damage checkpoint, consisting of an evolutionarily conserved protein kinase cascade, controls the DNA damage response in eukaryotes. Knowledge of the in vivo substrates of the checkpoint kinases is essential toward understanding their functions. Here we used quantitative mass spectrometry to identify 53 new and 34 previously known targets of Mec1/Tel1, Rad53, and Dun1 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Analysis of replication protein A (RPA)-associated proteins reveals extensive physical interactions between RPA-associated proteins and Mec1/Tel1-specific substrates. Among them, multiple subunits of the chromatin remodeling complexes including ISW1, ISW2, INO80, SWR1, RSC, and SWI/SNF are identified and they undergo DNA damage-induced phosphorylation by Mec1 and Tel1. Taken together, this study greatly expands the existing knowledge of the targets of DNA damage checkpoint kinases and provides insights into the role of RPA-associated chromatins in mediating Mec1 and Tel1 substrate phosphorylation in vivo.
Project description:The control of dNTP concentrations is critical to the fidelity of DNA synthesis and repair. One level of regulation is through subcellular localization of ribonucleotide reductase. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the small subunit Rnr2-Rnr4 is nuclear, whereas the large subunit Rnr1 is cytoplasmic. In response to S phase or DNA damage, Rnr2-Rnr4 enters the cytoplasm to bind Rnr1, forming an active complex. We previously reported that Wtm1 anchors Rnr2-Rnr4 in the nucleus. Here, we identify DIF1, which regulates localization of Rnr2-Rnr4. Dif1 binds directly to the Rnr2-Rnr4 complex through a conserved Hug domain to drive nuclear import. Dif1 is both cell-cycle and DNA-damage regulated, the latter of which occurs via the Mec1-Dun1 pathway. In response to DNA damage, Dun1 directly phosphorylates Dif1, which both inactivates and degrades Dif1 and allows Rnr2-Rnr4 to become cytoplasmic. We propose that Rnr2-Rnr4 nuclear localization is achieved by a dynamic combination of Wtm1-mediated nuclear retention to limit export and regulated nuclear import through Dif1.
Project description:Regulation of ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) is important for cell survival and genome integrity in the face of genotoxic stress. The Mec1/Rad53/Dun1 DNA damage response kinase cascade exhibits multifaceted controls over RNR activity including the regulation of the RNR inhibitor, Sml1. After DNA damage, Sml1 is degraded leading to the up-regulation of dNTP pools by RNR. Here, we probe the requirements for Sml1 degradation and identify several sites required for in vivo phosphorylation and degradation of Sml1 in response to DNA damage. Further, in a strain containing a mutation in Rnr1, rnr1-W688G, mutation of these sites in Sml1 causes lethality. Degradation of Sml1 is dependent on the 26S proteasome. We also show that degradation of phosphorylated Sml1 is dependent on the E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme, Rad6, the E3 ubiquitin ligase, Ubr2, and the E2/E3-interacting protein, Mub1, which form a complex previously only implicated in the ubiquitylation of Rpn4.
Project description:DNA damage activates checkpoint kinases that induce several downstream events, including widespread changes in transcription. However, the specific connections between the checkpoint kinases and downstream transcription factors (TFs) are not well understood. Here, we integrate kinase mutant expression profiles, transcriptional regulatory interactions, and phosphoproteomics to map kinases and downstream TFs to transcriptional regulatory networks. Specifically, we investigate the role of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae checkpoint kinases (Mec1, Tel1, Chk1, Rad53, and Dun1) in the transcriptional response to DNA damage caused by methyl methanesulfonate. The result is a global kinase-TF regulatory network in which Mec1 and Tel1 signal through Rad53 to synergistically regulate the expression of more than 600 genes. This network involves at least nine TFs, many of which have Rad53-dependent phosphorylation sites, as regulators of checkpoint-kinase-dependent genes. We also identify a major DNA damage-induced transcriptional network that regulates stress response genes independently of the checkpoint kinases.
Project description:The CRT10 gene was identified through screening of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae deletion library for hydroxyurea (HU) resistance. CRT10 encodes a putative 957 amino acid, 110 kDa protein with a leucine repeat and a WD40 repeat near the N-terminus. Deletion of CRT10 resulted in an enhanced resistance to HU reminiscent of the inactivation of two other ribonucleotide reductase (Rnr) suppressors, CRT1 and SML1, which regulate Rnr activity at transcriptional and translational levels, respectively. Epistatic analysis indicates that CRT10 belongs to the CRT1 pathway but not the SML1 pathway. Indeed, deletion of CRT10 enhanced the survival of the mec1 null mutant and increased basal level and DNA damage-induced expression of RNR2 and RNR3, suggesting that Crt10 regulates RNR genes at the transcriptional level. Furthermore, the dun1 mutation is epistatic to crt10 with respect to both HU sensitivity and RNR gene expression. Interestingly, the expression of CRT10 itself is induced by DNA damaging agents and this induction requires DUN1, suggesting that CRT10 plays a role in cellular response to DNA damage and replication blocks. The CRT10 function appears to be achieved by positive regulation of the CRT1 transcript level, indicating that CRT10 is a component of the regulatory circuit.
Project description:Transcriptional and posttranslational signals are known mechanisms that promote efficient responses to DNA damage. We have identified Saccharomyces cerevisiae tRNA methyltransferase 9 (Trm9) as an enzyme that prevents cell death via translational enhancement of DNA damage response proteins. Trm9 methylates the uridine wobble base of tRNAARG(UCU) and tRNAGLU(UUC). We used computational and molecular approaches to predict that Trm9 enhances the translation of some transcripts overrepresented with specific arginine and glutamic acid codons. We found that translation elongation factor 3 (YEF3) and the ribonucleotide reductase (RNR1 and RNR3) large subunits are overrepresented with specific arginine and glutamic acid codons, and we demonstrated that Trm9 significantly enhances Yef3, Rnr1, and Rnr3 protein levels. Additionally, we identified 425 genes, which included YEF3, RNR1, and RNR3, with a unique codon usage pattern linked to Trm9. We propose that Trm9-specific tRNA modifications enhance codon-specific translation elongation and promote increased levels of key damage response proteins.
Project description:MEC1, the essential yeast homolog of the human ATR/ATM genes, controls the S-phase checkpoint and prevents replication fork collapse at slow zones of DNA replication. The viability of hypomorphic mec1-21 is reduced in the rad52 mutant, defective in homologous recombination, suggesting that replication generates recombinogenic lesions. We previously observed a 6-, 10- and 30-fold higher rate of spontaneous sister chromatid exchange (SCE), heteroallelic recombination and translocations, respectively, in mec1-21 mutants compared to wild-type. Here we report that the hyper-recombination phenotype correlates with lower deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate (dNTP) levels, compared to wild-type. By introducing a dun1 mutation, thus eliminating inducible expression of ribonucleotide reductase in mec1-21, rates of spontaneous SCE increased 15-fold above wild-type. All the hyper-recombination phenotypes were reduced by SML1 deletions, which increase dNTP levels. Measurements of dNTP pools indicated that, compared to wild-type, there was a significant decrease in dNTP levels in mec1-21, dun1 and mec1-21 dun1, while the dNTP levels of mec1-21 sml1, mec1-21 dun1 sml1 and sml1 mutants were approximately 2-fold higher. Interestingly, higher dNTP levels in mec1-21 dun1 sml1 correlate with approximately 2-fold higher rate of spontaneous mutagenesis, compared to mec1-21 dun1. We suggest that higher dNTP levels in specific checkpoint mutants suppress the formation of recombinogenic lesions.
Project description:The S-phase checkpoint plays an essential role in regulation of the ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) activity to maintain the dNTP pools. How eukaryotic cells respond appropriately to different levels of replication threats remains elusive. Here, we have identified that a conserved GSK-3 kinase Mck1 cooperates with Dun1 in regulating this process. Deleting MCK1 sensitizes dun1? to hydroxyurea (HU) reminiscent of mec1? or rad53?. While Mck1 is downstream of Rad53, it does not participate in the post-translational regulation of RNR as Dun1 does. Mck1 phosphorylates and releases the Crt1 repressor from the promoters of DNA damage-inducible genes as RNR2-4 and HUG1. Hug1, an Rnr2 inhibitor normally silenced, is induced as a counterweight to excessive RNR. When cells suffer a more severe threat, Mck1 inhibits HUG1 transcription. Consistently, only a combined deletion of HUG1 and CRT1, confers a dramatic boost of dNTP levels and the survival of mck1?dun1? or mec1? cells assaulted by a lethal dose of HU. These findings reveal the division-of-labor between Mck1 and Dun1 at the S-phase checkpoint pathway to fine-tune dNTP homeostasis.
Project description:In this study, we mutated autophosphorylation sites in Rad53 based on their conservation with previously identified autophosphorylation sites in the mammalian Rad53 ortholog, Chk2. As with wild-type Rad53, the autophosphorylation mutant, rad53-TA, undergoes Mec1/Tel1-dependent interactions with Rad9 and Dun1 in response to genotoxic stress. Whereas rad53-TA in vitro kinase activity is severely impaired, the rad53-TA strains are not completely deficient for cell-cycle checkpoint functions, indicating that the mutant kinase retains a basal level of function. We describe a genetic interaction among Rad53, Dun1, and the 14-3-3 proteins Bmh1 and Bmh2 and present evidence that 14-3-3 proteins directly facilitate Rad53 function in vivo. The data presented account for the previously observed checkpoint defects associated with 14-3-3 mutants in Saccharomyces pombe and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The 14-3-3 functional interaction appears to modulate Rad53 activity, reminiscent of 14-3-3's effect on human Raf1 kinase and distinct from the indirect mode of regulation by 14-3-3 observed for Chk1 or Cdc25.