Exploring Vibration Transmission Rule of an Artificial Spider Web for Potential Application in Invulnerability of Wireless Sensor Network.
ABSTRACT: Significant similarities exist between a spider web and wireless sensor network in terms of topology. Combining the unique advantages of the spider web in nature, such as invulnerability and robustness, with communication technology of a wireless sensor network presents high research value and broad development prospects. In this paper, a sort of a spiral artificial spider web based on 3D printing and its associated vibration testing device is proposed, which is used to study the transmission rule of vibration information of the spider web under given excitation conditions. It provides useful inspiration for establishment of an invulnerable communication rule of wireless sensor network. In order to investigate vibration transmission characteristics of the artificial spider web, vibration images are recorded and analyzed by a high-speed photography system, and vibration intensity is characterized by use of peak-to-peak value. Furthermore, vibration performance of the artificial spider web is studied under conditions of integrity and destruction, respectively. Our test observation reveals the vibration transmission rule of the unique structure of the spider web, providing a novel analysis method for improving invulnerability of the wireless sensor network.
Project description:Vibration monitoring is one of crucial functions of structural health monitoring (SHM) systems. Traditional structural vibration monitoring usually relies on specialized sensors, data transmission and acquisition equipment, which are expensive and may not be easily available in urgently needed situations like post-disaster structural evaluation. Therefore, developing an affordable and efficient structural vibration monitoring technique becomes an important topic in SHM research. In this paper, the authors developed an android system APP that can easily convert multiple android smartphones into a wireless structural vibration monitoring system. To make the designed system reliable and easy to use, the server/client architecture is adopted. One smartphone is designated as the serve of the system to remotely control all other smartphones, which function as sensors to measure structural vibration. An efficient method is proposed herein to establish the smartphone-based structural vibration monitoring network, allowing the server smartphone to quickly and easily connect multiple sensor smartphones to form the wireless network for structural vibration monitoring. Additionally, a synchronization method is also proposed to synchronize different smartphones for simultaneously measuring structural vibration. To verify the time synchronization accuracy of the developed system, an experiment is designed and conducted. Moreover, a new analysis method of the time synchronization accuracy is also proposed, which verifies that the designed smartphone-based monitoring can achieve the millisecond-level time synchronization accuracy. Finally, a shaking table experiment is conducted on a three-story bench-scale structural model, the results of which demonstrate that the designed smartphone-based wireless structural vibration monitoring system can quite accurately identify the modal parameters of the tested structure.
Project description:Wireless Sensor Network monitor and control the physical world via large number of small, low-priced sensor nodes. Existing method on Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) presented sensed data communication through continuous data collection resulting in higher delay and energy consumption. To conquer the routing issue and reduce energy drain rate, Bayes Node Energy and Polynomial Distribution (BNEPD) technique is introduced with energy aware routing in the wireless sensor network. The Bayes Node Energy Distribution initially distributes the sensor nodes that detect an object of similar event (i.e., temperature, pressure, flow) into specific regions with the application of Bayes rule. The object detection of similar events is accomplished based on the bayes probabilities and is sent to the sink node resulting in minimizing the energy consumption. Next, the Polynomial Regression Function is applied to the target object of similar events considered for different sensors are combined. They are based on the minimum and maximum value of object events and are transferred to the sink node. Finally, the Poly Distribute algorithm effectively distributes the sensor nodes. The energy efficient routing path for each sensor nodes are created by data aggregation at the sink based on polynomial regression function which reduces the energy drain rate with minimum communication overhead. Experimental performance is evaluated using Dodgers Loop Sensor Data Set from UCI repository. Simulation results show that the proposed distribution algorithm significantly reduce the node energy drain rate and ensure fairness among different users reducing the communication overhead.
Project description:Recently, Pulse Coupled Oscillator (PCO)-based travelling waves have attracted substantial attention by researchers in wireless sensor network (WSN) synchronization. Because WSNs are generally artificial occurrences that mimic natural phenomena, the PCO utilizes firefly synchronization of attracting mating partners for modelling the WSN. However, given that sensor nodes are unable to receive messages while transmitting data packets (due to deafness), the PCO model may not be efficient for sensor network modelling. To overcome this limitation, this paper proposed a new scheme called the Travelling Wave Pulse Coupled Oscillator (TWPCO). For this, the study used a self-organizing scheme for energy-efficient WSNs that adopted travelling wave biologically inspired network systems based on phase locking of the PCO model to counteract deafness. From the simulation, it was found that the proposed TWPCO scheme attained a steady state after a number of cycles. It also showed superior performance compared to other mechanisms, with a reduction in the total energy consumption of 25%. The results showed that the performance improved by 13% in terms of data gathering. Based on the results, the proposed scheme avoids the deafness that occurs in the transmit state in WSNs and increases the data collection throughout the transmission states in WSNs.
Project description:Through harvesting energy by wireless charging and delivering data by wireless communication, this study proposes the concept of a wireless sensor enabled by wireless power (WPWS) and reports the fabrication of a prototype for functional tests. One WPWS node consists of wireless power module and sensor module with different chip-type sensors. Its main feature is the dual antenna structure. Following RFID system architecture, a power harvesting antenna was designed to gather power from a standard reader working in the 915 MHz band. Referring to the Modbus protocol, the other wireless communication antenna was integrated on a node to send sensor data in parallel. The dual antenna structure integrates both the advantages of an RFID system and a wireless sensor. Using a standard UHF RFID reader, WPWS can be enabled in a distributed area with a diameter up to 4 m. Working status is similar to that of a passive tag, except that a tag can only be queried statically, while the WPWS can send dynamic data from the sensors. The function is the same as a wireless sensor node. Different WPWSs equipped with temperature and humidity, optical and airflow velocity sensors are tested in this study. All sensors can send back detection data within 8 s. The accuracy is within 8% deviation compared with laboratory equipment. A wireless sensor network enabled by wireless power should be a totally wireless sensor network using WPWS. However, distributed WPWSs only can form a star topology, the simplest topology for constructing a sensor network. Because of shielding effects, it is difficult to apply other complex topologies. Despite this limitation, WPWS still can be used to extend sensor network applications in hazardous environments. Further research is needed to improve WPWS to realize a totally wireless sensor network.
Project description:Energy conservation in wireless sensor networks (WSNs) is a vital consideration when designing wireless networking protocols. In this paper, we propose a Decentralized Fuzzy Clustering Protocol, named DCFP, which minimizes total network energy dissipation to promote maximum network lifetime. The process of constructing the infrastructure for a given WSN is performed only once at the beginning of the protocol at a base station, which remains unchanged throughout the network's lifetime. In this initial construction step, a fuzzy C-means algorithm is adopted to allocate sensor nodes into their most appropriate clusters. Subsequently, the protocol runs its rounds where each round is divided into a CH-Election phase and a Data Transmission phase. In the CH-Election phase, the election of new cluster heads is done locally in each cluster where a new multicriteria objective function is proposed to enhance the quality of elected cluster heads. In the Data Transmission phase, the sensing and data transmission from each sensor node to their respective cluster head is performed and cluster heads in turn aggregate and send the sensed data to the base station. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed protocol improves network lifetime, data delivery, and energy consumption compared to other well-known energy-efficient protocols.
Project description:Existing transmission power grids suffer from high maintenance costs and scalability issues along with a lack of effective and secure system monitoring. To address these problems, we propose to use Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) as a technology to achieve energy efficient, reliable, and low-cost remote monitoring of transmission grids. With WSNs, smart grid enables both utilities and customers to monitor, predict and manage energy usage effectively and react to possible power grid disturbances in a timely manner. However, the increased application of WSNs also introduces new security challenges, especially related to privacy, connectivity, and security management, repeatedly causing unpredicted expenditures. Monitoring the status of the power system, a large amount of sensors generates massive amount of sensitive data. In order to build an effective Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) for a smart grid, we focus on designing a methodology of efficient and secure delivery of the data measured on transmission lines. We perform a set of simulations, in which we examine different routing algorithms, security mechanisms and WSN deployments in order to select the parameters that will not affect the delivery time but fulfill their role and ensure security at the same time. Furthermore, we analyze the optimal placement of direct wireless links, aiming at minimizing time delays, balancing network performance and decreasing deployment costs.
Project description:Due to limited resources in wireless sensor nodes, energy efficiency is considered as one of the primary constraints in the design of the topology of wireless sensor networks (WSNs). Since data that are collected by wireless sensor nodes exhibit the characteristics of temporal association, data fusion has also become a very important means of reducing network traffic as well as eliminating data redundancy as far as data transmission is concerned. Another reason for data fusion is that, in many applications, only some of the data that are collected can meet the requirements of the sink node. In this paper, we propose a method to calculate the number of cluster heads or data aggregators during data fusion based on the rate-distortion function. In our discussion, we will first establish an energy consumption model and then describe a method for calculating the number of cluster heads from the point of view of reducing energy consumption. We will also show through theoretical analysis and experimentation that the network topology design based on the rate-distortion function is indeed more energy-efficient.
Project description:With the continuing advancements in technologies (such as machine to machine, wireless telecommunications, artificial intelligence, and big data analysis), the Internet of Things (IoT) aims to connect everything for information sharing and intelligent decision-making. Swarm intelligence (SI) provides the possibility of SI behavior through collaboration in individuals that have limited or no intelligence. Its potential parallelism and distribution characteristics can be used to realize global optimization and solve nonlinear complex problems. This paper reviews representative SI algorithms and summarizes their applications in the IoT. The main focus consists in the analysis of SI-enabled applications to wireless sensor network (WSN) and discussion of related research problems in the WSN. Also, we concluded SI-based applications in other IoT fields, such as SI in UAV-aided wireless network. Finally, possible research prospects and future trends are drawn.
Project description:Wireless charging is an important issue in wireless sensor networks, since it can provide an emerging and effective solution in the absence of other power supplies. The state-of-the-art methods employ a mobile car and a predefined moving path to charge the sensor nodes in the network. Previous studies only consider a factor of the network (i.e., residual energy of sensor node) as a constraint to design the wireless charging strategy. However, other factors, such as the travelled distance of the mobile car, can also affect the effectiveness of wireless charging strategy. In this work, we study wireless charging strategy based on the analysis of a combination of two factors, including the residual energy of sensor nodes and the travelled distance of the charging car. Firstly, we theoretically analyze the limited size of the sensor network to match the capability of a charging car. Then, the networked factors are selected as the weights of traveling salesman problem (TSP) to design the moving path of the charging car. Thirdly, the charging time of each sensor node is computed based on the linear programming problem for the charging car. Finally, a charging period for the network is studied. The experimental results show that the proposed approach can significantly maximize the lifetime of the wireless sensor network.
Project description:This paper is dedicated to some aspects of maritime on-board safety improvement. The contribution of this article is a proposal to extend wireless communication on the ship, supported by examples of solutions that have not previously been used on board. Analyzed aspects concern the measurement and control signal transmission in hostile marine environment. A problem to solve is formulated, how to reduce a negative impact of this environment on effectiveness and reliability of maritime on board communication. The proposed ways for solving a problem under consideration cover recommendations concerning some aspects of ship construction and implementation of wireless sensor network. The main topic faced by the paper is concentrated on case study-based ZigBee as well as WiFi networks implementation in the area of the acquisition of data from sensors and measuring transducers connected to the terminal network. The exemplary implementation of ZigBee network, elaborated in Gdynia Maritime University is related, firstly, to the configuration of a simple wireless measurement and control channel, and secondly, to wireless communication channel supported by autonomously working microprocessor measurement and control system. WiFi networks were also tested in the same area of application. Finally, some concluding remarks are formulated.