Gyratory seizures as a presentation of temporal encephalocele.
ABSTRACT: Gyratory seizures (GS) are rare and have been reported in focal (frontal and temporal) as well as generalized epilepsies. The exact neuroanatomical substrate of gyration during a seizure is not clearly understood, but is thought to be due to the involvement of the basal ganglia. The direction of gyration occurring without head version is thought to have ipsilateral cerebral origins, while gyrational seizures preceded by forced head version are suggestive of seizure onset contralateral to the direction of gyration or the presence or absence of forced head version is thought to have important implications for lateralization of seizure origins from the direction of gyration. This case describes gyratory seizures in a young boy with a temporal encephalocele. Report of MRI brain initially indicated no abnormalities, but careful review revealed a left temporal encephalocele. PET scan showed left temporal hypometabolism. The patient underwent a left anterior temporal resection with amygdalohippocampectomy (ATL + AH) and is seizure-free for 18 months. Temporal encephalocele is the most commonly iatrogenic but may also be spontaneous, post-traumatic, or in relation to chronic otitis media. This case suggests that gyratory seizures may be a unique presentation of temporal encephalocele and this possibility warrants investigation in patients with medically refractory epilepsy.
Project description:Introduction: Studies quantifying cortical metrics in brain tumor patients who present with seizures are limited. The current investigation assesses morphometric/volumetric differences across a wide range of anatomical regions, including temporal and extra-temporal, in patients with gliomas and intracranial metastases (IMs) presenting with seizures that could serve as a biomarker in the identification of seizure expression and serve as a neuronal target for mitigation. Methods: In a retrospective design, the MR sequences of ninety-two tumor patients [55% gliomas; 45% IM] and 34 controls were subjected to sophisticated morphometric and volumetric assessments using BrainSuite and MATLAB modules. We examined 103 regions of interests (ROIs) across eight distinct cortical categories of interests (COI) [gray matter, white matter; total volume, CSF; cortical areas: inner, mid, pial; cortical thickness]. The primary endpoint was quantifying and identifying ROIs with significant differences in z-scores based upon the presence of seizures. Feature selection employing neighborhood component analysis (NCA) determined the ROI within each COI having the highest significance/weight in the differentiation of seizure vs. non-seizure patients harboring brain tumor. Results: Overall, the mean age of the cohort was 58.0 ± 12.8 years, and 45% were women. The prevalence of seizures in tumor patients was 28%. Forty-two ROIs across the eight pre-defined COIs had significant differences in z-scores between tumor patients presenting with and without seizures. The NCA feature selection noted the volume of pars-orbitalis and right middle temporal gyrus to have the highest weight in differentiating tumor patients based on seizures for three distinct COIs [GM, total volume, and CSF volume] and white matter, respectively. Left-sided transverse temporal gyrus, left precuneus, left transverse temporal, and left supramarginal gyrus were associated with having the highest weight in the differentiation of seizure vs. non-seizure in tumor patients for morphometrics relating to cortical areas in the pial, inner and mid regions and cortical thickness, respectively. Conclusion: Our study elucidates potential biomarkers for seizure targeting in patients with gliomas and IMs based upon morphometric and volumetric assessments. Amongst the widespread brain regions examined in our cohort, pars orbitalis, supramarginal and temporal gyrus (middle, transverse), and the pre-cuneus contribute a maximal potential for differentiation of seizure patients from non-seizure.
Project description:An understanding of the in vivo spatial emergence of abnormal brain activity during spontaneous seizure onset is critical to future early seizure detection and closed-loop seizure prevention therapies. In this study, we use Granger causality (GC) to determine the strength and direction of relationships between local field potentials (LFPs) recorded from bilateral microelectrode arrays in an intermittent spontaneous seizure model of chronic temporal lobe epilepsy before, during, and after Racine grade partial onset generalized seizures. Our results indicate distinct patterns of directional GC relationships within the hippocampus, specifically from the CA1 subfield to the dentate gyrus, prior to and during seizure onset. Our results suggest sequential and hierarchical temporal relationships between the CA1 and dentate gyrus within and across hippocampal hemispheres during seizure. Additionally, our analysis suggests a reversal in the direction of GC relationships during seizure, from an abnormal pattern to more anatomically expected pattern. This reversal correlates well with the observed behavioral transition from tonic to clonic seizure in time-locked video. These findings highlight the utility of GC to reveal dynamic directional temporal relationships between multichannel LFP recordings from multiple brain regions during unprovoked spontaneous seizures.
Project description:Ictal asystole is a rare, serious, and often treatable cause of syncope. There are currently limited data to guide management. Characterization of ictal syncope predictors may aid in the selection of high-risk patients for treatments such as pacemakers.We searched our epilepsy monitoring unit database from October 2003 to July 2013 for all patients with ictal asystole events. Clinical, electroencephalogram, and ECG data for each of their seizures were examined for their relationships with ictal syncope events. In 10 patients with ictal asystole, we observed 76 clinical seizures with 26 ictal asystole episodes, 15 of which led to syncope. No seizure with asystole duration?6 s led to syncope, whereas 94% (15/16) of seizures with asystole duration>6 s led to syncope (P=0.02). During ictal asystole events, 4 patients had left temporal seizure onset, 4 patients had right temporal seizure onset, and 2 patients had both. Syncope was more common with left temporal (40%) than with right temporal seizures (10%; P=0.002). Treatment options included antiepileptic drug changes, epilepsy surgery, and pacemaker implantation. Eight patients received pacemakers. During follow-up of 72±95 months, all patients remained syncope free.Ictal asystole>6 s is strongly associated with ictal syncope. Ictal syncope is more common in left than in right temporal seizures. A permanent pacemaker should be considered in patients with ictal syncope if they are not considered good candidates for epilepsy surgery.
Project description:Patients afflicted with low-grade glioma (LGG) frequently suffer from seizures. The mechanisms of seizure initiation in these patients remain poorly understood. Tumor location has been correlated with seizure initiation. However, these correlative studies relied on dichotomized data analysis based on arbitrary lobe assignments. As a result, the lesion-symptom correlation may be incorrectly interpreted. Here, we present the first study that used a voxel-wise quantitative lesion analysis to investigate the spatial correlation between tumor location and seizure susceptibility.We collected the medical records and magnetic resonance images of 410 LGG patients. The dataset was divided into a discovery set and a validation set. A voxel-based lesion-symptom correlative analysis was performed to determine whether tumor location was associated with seizure risk and could be related to the specific type of seizure.For all seizure types, increased seizure risks were identified for LGGs that involved the left premotor area. The LGGs that involved the posterior portion of the left inferior and middle frontal gyrus were associated with increased risk of simple partial seizures. LGGs that involved the right temporal-insular region were associated with an increased risk of complex partial seizures. LGGs that involved the left premotor area were more likely to be associated with seizures that generalize. These correlations were consistently observed in both the discovery and the validation datasets.Our quantitative neuroimaging analyses support the concept that the anatomic location of an LGG is a contributing factor in tumor-related seizure.
Project description:The causal role of midline thalamus in the initiation and early organization of mesial temporal lobe seizures is studied. Three patients undergoing stereoelectroencephalography were enrolled for the placement of an additional depth electrode targeting the midline thalamus. The midline thalamus was recruited in all three patients at varying points of seizure initiation (0-13 sec) and propagation (9-60 sec). Stimulation of either thalamus or hippocampus induced similar habitual seizures. Seizure-induced in the hippocampus rapidly recruited the thalamus. Evoked potentials demonstrated stronger connectivity from the hippocampus to the thalamus than in the opposite direction. The midline thalamus can be within the seizure initiation and symptomatogenic circuits.
Project description:The objective of this case report is to better characterize the clinical features and potential pathophysiological mechanisms of exercise-induced seizures.We report a case series of ten patients from a tertiary epilepsy center, where a clear history was obtained of physical exercise as a reproducible trigger for seizures.The precipitating type of exercise was quite specific for each patient, and various forms of exercise are described including running, swimming, playing netball, dancing, cycling, weight lifting, and martial arts. The level of physical exertion also correlated with the likelihood of seizure occurrence. All ten patients had temporal lobe abnormalities, with nine of the ten patients having isolated temporal lobe epilepsies, as supported by seizure semiology, EEG recordings, and both structural and functional imaging. Nine of the ten patients had seizures that were lateralized to the left (dominant) hemisphere. Five patients underwent surgical resection, with no successful long-term postoperative outcomes.Exercise may be an underrecognized form of reflex epilepsy, which tended to be refractory to both medical and surgical interventions in our patients. Almost all patients in our cohort had seizures localizing to the left temporal lobe. We discuss potential mechanisms by which exercise may precipitate seizures, and its relevance regarding our understanding of temporal lobe epilepsy and lateralization of seizures. Recognition of, as well as advice regarding avoidance of, known triggers forms an important part of management of these patients.
Project description:To describe the anatomo-electro-clinical findings of patients with nocturnal hypermotor seizures (NHS) preceded by auditory symptoms, to evaluate the localizing value of auditory aura.Our database of 165 patients with nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy (NFLE) diagnosis confirmed by videopolysomnography (VPSG) was reviewed, selecting those who reported an auditory aura as the initial ictal symptom in at least two NHS during their lifetime.Eleven patients were selected (seven males, four females). According to the anatomo-electro-clinical data, three groups were identified. Group 1 [defined epileptogenic zone (EZ)]: three subjects were studied with stereo-EEG. The EZ lay in the left superior temporal gyrus in two cases, whereas in the third case seizures arose from a dysplastic lesion located in the left temporal lobe. One of these three patients underwent left Heschl's gyrus resection, and is currently seizure-free. Group 2 (presumed EZ): three cases in which a presumed EZ was identified; in the left temporal lobe in two cases and in the left temporal lobe extending to the insula in one subject. Group 3 (uncertain EZ): five cases had anatomo-electro-clinical correlations discordant.This work suggests that auditory aura may be a helpful anamnestic feature suggesting an extra-frontal seizure origin. This finding could guide secondary investigations to improve diagnostic definition and selection of candidates for surgical treatment.
Project description:OBJECTIVE: To report 4 cases of hyperfamiliarity for faces (HFF) and review 5 previously reported cases. METHODS: We identified cases of HFF from PubMed search and references in prior reports. RESULTS: Three of our 4 cases had pathologic findings that were most extensive in the left temporal lobe. HFF occurred after a tonic-clonic seizure (cases 1 and 3), during simple partial seizures (case 2), and in the setting of an increase in simple partial seizure frequency but not during seizures (case 4). All 9 cases were adults with 1 or more seizures; symptoms first occurred after seizures in 5 cases and during seizures in 1 case. Ictal symptoms lasted from seconds to minutes and from 2 days to more than 7 years in the other 6 cases. The duration of HFF was not associated with the presence or extent of a structural lesion. While in several cases HFF appears to result from a postictal Todd paralysis, the mechanism underlying persistent cases is uncertain. CONCLUSIONS: This modality (visual)-specific and stimulus (face)-specific syndrome is associated with diverse structural, functional imaging, and neurophysiologic findings. Lesions are more often left-sided and involve the temporal lobe. Epilepsy and seizures were present in all 9 cases, suggesting a pathophysiologic relationship, which likely varies among cases. Although only reported in 9 patients, HFF is probably much more common than it is diagnosed.
Project description:Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is a prevalent neurological disorder resulting in disruptive seizures. In the case of drug resistant epilepsy resective surgery is often considered. This is a procedure hampered by unpredictable success rates, with many patients continuing to have seizures even after surgery. In this study we apply a computational model of epilepsy to patient specific structural connectivity derived from diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) of 22 individuals with left TLE and 39 healthy controls. We validate the model by examining patient-control differences in simulated seizure onset time and network location. We then investigate the potential of the model for surgery prediction by performing in silico surgical resections, removing nodes from patient networks and comparing seizure likelihood post-surgery to pre-surgery simulations. We find that, first, patients tend to transit from non-epileptic to epileptic states more often than controls in the model. Second, regions in the left hemisphere (particularly within temporal and subcortical regions) that are known to be involved in TLE are the most frequent starting points for seizures in patients in the model. In addition, our analysis also implicates regions in the contralateral and frontal locations which may play a role in seizure spreading or surgery resistance. Finally, the model predicts that patient-specific surgery (resection areas chosen on an individual, model-prompted, basis and not following a predefined procedure) may lead to better outcomes than the currently used routine clinical procedure. Taken together this work provides a first step towards patient specific computational modelling of epilepsy surgery in order to inform treatment strategies in individuals.
Project description:Decades of experience with intracranial recordings in patients with epilepsy have demonstrated that seizures can occur in deep cortical regions such as the mesial temporal lobes without showing any obvious signs of seizure activity on scalp electroencephalogram. Predicated on the idea that these seizures are purely focal, currently, the only way to detect these 'scalp-negative seizures' is with intracranial recordings. However, intracranial recordings are only rarely performed in patients with epilepsy, and are almost never performed outside of the context of epilepsy. As such, little is known about scalp-negative seizures and their role in the natural history of epilepsy, their effect on cognitive function, and their association with other neurological diseases. Here, we developed a novel approach to non-invasively identify scalp-negative seizures arising from the mesial temporal lobe based on scalp electroencephalogram network connectivity measures. We identified 25 scalp-negative mesial temporal lobe seizures in 10 patients and obtained control records from an additional 13 patients, all of whom underwent recordings with foramen ovale electrodes and scalp electroencephalogram. Scalp data from these records were used to train a scalp-negative seizure detector, which consisted of a pair of logistic regression classifiers that used scalp electroencephalogram coherence properties as input features. On cross-validation performance, this detector correctly identified scalp-negative seizures in 40% of patients, and correctly identified the side of seizure onset for each seizure detected. In comparison, routine clinical interpretation of these scalp electroencephalograms failed to identify any of the scalp-negative seizures. Among the patients in whom the detector raised seizure alarms, 80% had scalp-negative mesial temporal lobe seizures. The detector had a false alarm rate of only 0.31 per day and a positive predictive value of 75%. Of the 13 control patients, false seizure alarms were raised in only one patient. The fact that our detector specifically recognizes focal mesial temporal lobe seizures based on scalp electroencephalogram coherence features, lends weight to the hypothesis that even focal seizures are a network phenomenon that involve widespread neural connectivity. Our scalp-negative seizure detector has clear clinical utility in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy, and its potential easily translates to other neurological disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease, in which occult mesial temporal lobe seizures are suspected to play a significant role. Importantly, our work establishes a novel approach of using computational approaches to non-invasively detect deep seizure activity, without the need for invasive intracranial recordings.