The Effect of Globus Pallidus Interna Deep Brain Stimulation on a Dystonia Patient with the GNAL Mutation Compared to Patients with DYT1 and DYT6.
ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE:The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of globus pallidus interna deep brain stimulation (GPi-DBS) for treating dystonia due to the GNAL mutation. METHODS:We provide the first report of a dystonia patient with a genetically confirmed GNAL mutation in the Korean population and reviewed the literature on patients with the GNAL mutation who underwent GPi-DBS. We compared the effectiveness of DBS in patients with the GNAL mutation compared to that in patients with DYT1 and DYT6 in a previous study. RESULTS:Patients with the GNAL mutation and those with DYT1 had higher early responder rates (GNAL, 5/5, 100%; DYT1, 7/7, 100%) than did patients with DYT6 (p = 0.047). The responder rates at late follow-up did not differ statistically among the three groups (p = 0.278). The decrease in the dystonia motor scale score in the GNAL group was 46.9% at early follow-up and 63.4% at late follow-up. CONCLUSION:GPi-DBS would be an effective treatment option for dystonia patients with the GNAL mutation who are resistant to medication or botulinum toxin treatment.
Project description:Dystonia is a movement disorder characterized by repetitive twisting muscle contractions and postures. Its molecular pathophysiology is poorly understood, in part owing to limited knowledge of the genetic basis of the disorder. Only three genes for primary torsion dystonia (PTD), TOR1A (DYT1), THAP1 (DYT6) and CIZ1 (ref. 5), have been identified. Using exome sequencing in two families with PTD, we identified a new causative gene, GNAL, with a nonsense mutation encoding p.Ser293* resulting in a premature stop codon in one family and a missense mutation encoding p.Val137Met in the other. Screening of GNAL in 39 families with PTD identified 6 additional new mutations in this gene. Impaired function of several of the mutants was shown by bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET) assays.
Project description:Isolated inherited dystonia-formerly referred to as primary dystonia-is characterized by abnormal motor functioning of a grossly normal appearing brain. The disease manifests as abnormal involuntary twisting movements. The absence of overt neuropathological lesions, while intriguing, has made it particularly difficult to unravel the pathogenesis of isolated inherited dystonia. The explosion of genetic techology enabling the identification of the causative gene mutations is transforming our understanding of dystonia pathogenesis, as the molecular, cellular and circuit level consequences of these mutations are identified in experimental systems. Here, I review the clinical genetics and cell biology of three forms of inherited dystonia for which the causative mutation is known: DYT1 (TOR1A), DYT6 (THAP1), DYT25 (GNAL).
Project description:To compare the phenotype of primary-appearing dystonia due to variant ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T) with that of other dystonia ascertained for genetics research.Movement disorder specialists examined 20 Canadian Mennonite adult probands with primary-appearing dystonia, as well as relatives in 4 families with parent-child transmission of dystonia. We screened for the exon 43 c.6200 C>A (p. A2067D) ATM mutation and mutations in DYT1 and DYT6. Clinical features of the individuals with dystonia who were harboring ATM mutations were compared with those of individuals without mutations.Genetic analysis revealed a homozygous founder mutation in ATM in 13 members from 3 of the families, and no one harbored DYT6 or DYT1 mutations. Dystonia in ATM families mimicked other forms of early-onset primary torsion dystonia, especially DYT6, with prominent cervical, cranial, and brachial involvement. Mean age at onset was markedly younger in the patients with variant A-T (n = 12) than in patients with other dystonia (n = 23), (12 years vs 40 years, p < 0.05). The patients with A-T were remarkable for the absence of notable cerebellar atrophy on MRI, lack of frank ataxia on examination, and absence of ocular telangiectasias at original presentation, as well as the presence of prominent myoclonus-dystonia in 2 patients. Many also developed malignancies.Ataxia and telangiectasias may not be prominent features of patients with variant A-T treated for dystonia in adulthood, and variant A-T may mimic primary torsion dystonia and myoclonus-dystonia.
Project description:Mutations in the GNAL gene have recently been shown to cause primary torsion dystonia. The GNAL-encoded protein (G?olf) is important for dopamine D1 receptor function and odorant signal transduction. We sequenced all 12 exons of GNAL in 461 patients from Germany, Serbia, and Japan, including 318 patients with dystonia (190 with cervical dystonia), 51 with hyposmia and Parkinson disease, and 92 with tardive dyskinesia or acute dystonic reactions.We identified the following two novel heterozygous putative mutations in GNAL: p.Gly213Ser in a German patient and p.Ala353Thr in a Japanese patient. These variants were predicted to be pathogenic in silico, were absent in ethnically matched control individuals, and impaired G?olf coupling to D1 receptors in a bioluminescence energy transfer (BRET) assay. Two additional variants appeared to be benign because they behaved like wild-type samples in the BRET assay (p.Ala311Thr) or were detected in ethnically matched controls (p.Thr92Ala). Both patients with likely pathogenic mutations had craniocervical dystonia with onset in the fifth decade of life. No pathogenic mutations were detected in the patients with hyposmia and Parkinson disease, tardive dyskinesias, or acute dystonic reactions.Mutations in GNAL can cause craniocervical dystonia in different ethnicities. The BRET assay may be a useful tool to support the pathogenicity of identified variants in the GNAL gene.
Project description:Abnormalities in motor sequence learning have been observed in non-manifesting carriers of the DYT1 dystonia mutation. Indeed, motor sequence learning deficits in these subjects have been associated with increased cerebellar activation during task performance. In the current study, we determined whether similar changes are also present in clinically manifesting DYT1 carriers as well as in carriers of other primary dystonia mutations such as DYT6. Additionally, we determined whether sequence learning performance and associated brain activation in these subjects correlate with previously described genotype-related abnormalities of cerebellar pathway integrity and striatal D2 dopamine receptor binding. Nineteen DYT1 carriers (10 non-manifesting DYT1: 51.5±15.1 years; nine manifesting DYT1: 46.1±15.1 years) and 12 healthy control subjects (42.8±15.3 years) were scanned with H2(15)O positron emission tomography while performing controlled sequence learning and reference tasks. Eleven DYT6 carriers (four non-manifesting DYT6: 38.0±22.1; seven manifesting DYT6: 35.3±14.2 years) were evaluated during task performance without concurrent imaging. DYT1 and DYT6 carriers also underwent diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging for the assessment of tract integrity and 11C-raclopride positron emission tomography to measure caudate/putamen D2 receptor binding. These imaging measures were correlated with sequence learning performance and associated activation responses. Sequence learning deficits of similar magnitude were observed in manifesting and non-manifesting DYT1 carriers. In contrast, learning deficits were not detected in DYT6 carriers, irrespective of clinical penetrance. Affected DYT1 carriers exhibited significant increases in sequence learning-related activation in the left lateral cerebellar cortex and in the right premotor and inferior parietal regions. Increases in premotor cortical activation observed in the mutation carriers correlated with reductions in cerebellar pathway integrity measured using magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging and probabilistic tractography. Additionally, the cerebellar tract changes correlated with reductions in dentate nucleus activation recorded during task performance. Sequence learning performance and task-related activation responses did not correlate with striatal D2 receptor binding. In summary, we found that sequence learning deficits and concomitant increases in cerebellar activation are specific features of the DYT1 genotype. The close relationship between reduced cerebellar pathway integrity and increased learning-related activation of the premotor cortex is compatible with the view of DYT1 dystonia as a neurodevelopmental circuit disorder.
Project description:Dystonia is a movement disorder characterized by sustained or intermittent muscle contractions and its pathophysiological mechanisms are still poorly understood. Dominant mutations of the GNAL gene are a cause of isolated dystonia (DYT25) in patients. Some mutations result in a complete loss of function of the encoded protein, G?olf, an adenylyl-cyclase-stimulatory G-protein highly enriched in striatal projection neurons, where it mediates the actions of dopamine and adenosine. We used male and female heterozygous Gnal knock-out mice (Gnal+/-) to study how GNAL haplodeficiency is implicated in dystonia. In basal conditions, no overt dystonic movements or postures or change in locomotor activity were observed. However, Gnal haploinsufficiency altered self-grooming, motor coordination, and apparent motivation in operant conditioning, as well as spine morphology and phospho-CaMKII? in the striatum. After systemic administration of oxotremorine, an unselective cholinergic agonist, Gnal+/- mice developed more abnormal postures and movements than WT mice. These effects were not caused by seizures as indicated by EEG recordings. They were prevented by the M1-preferring muscarinic antagonists, telenzepine, pirenzepine, and trihexyphenidyl, which alleviate dystonic symptoms in patients. The motor defects were worsened by mecamylamine, a selective nicotinic antagonist. These oxotremorine-induced abnormalities in Gnal+/- mice were replicated by oxotremorine infusion into the striatum, but not into the cerebellum, indicating that defects in striatal neurons favor the appearance of dystonia-like movement alterations after oxotremorine. Untreated and oxotremorine-treated Gnal+/- mice provide a model of presymptomic and symptomatic stages of DYT25-associated dystonia, respectively, and clues about the mechanisms underlying dystonia pathogenesis.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Adult-onset dystonia DYT25 is caused by dominant loss-of-function mutations of GNAL, a gene encoding the stimulatory G-protein G?olf, which is critical for activation of the cAMP pathway in the striatal projection neurons. Here, we demonstrate that Gnal-haplodeficient mice have a mild neurological phenotype and display vulnerability to developing dystonic movements after systemic or intrastriatal injection of the cholinergic agonist oxotremorine. Therefore, impairment of the cAMP pathway in association with an increased cholinergic tone creates alterations in striatal neuron functions that can promote the onset of dystonia. Our results also provide evidence that untreated and oxotremorine-treated Gnal-haplodeficient mice are powerful models with which to study presymptomic and symptomatic stages of DYT25-associated dystonia, respectively.
Project description:To determine whether changes in D(2) receptor availability are present in carriers of genetic mutations for primary dystonia.Manifesting and nonmanifesting carriers of the DYT1 and DYT6 dystonia mutations were scanned with [(11)C] raclopride (RAC) and PET. Measures of D(2) receptor availability in the caudate nucleus and putamen were determined using an automated region-of-interest approach. Values from mutation carriers and healthy controls were compared using analysis of variance to assess the effects of genotype and phenotype. Additionally, voxel-based whole brain searches were conducted to detect group differences in extrastriatal regions.Significant reductions in caudate and putamen D(2) receptor availability were evident in both groups of mutation carriers relative to healthy controls (p < 0.001). The changes were greater in DYT6 relative to DYT1 carriers (-38.0 +/- 3.0% vs -15.0 +/- 3.0%, p < 0.001). By contrast, there was no significant difference between manifesting and nonmanifesting carriers of either genotype. Voxel-based analysis confirmed these findings and additionally revealed reduced RAC binding in the ventrolateral thalamus of both groups of mutation carriers. As in the striatum, the thalamic binding reductions were more pronounced in DYT6 carriers and were not influenced by the presence of clinical manifestations.Reduced D(2) receptor availability in carriers of dystonia genes is compatible with dysfunction or loss of D(2)-bearing neurons, increased synaptic dopamine levels, or both. These changes, which may be present to different degrees in the DYT1 and DYT6 genotypes, are likely to represent susceptibility factors for the development of clinical manifestations in mutation carriers.
Project description:Dystonias are heterogeneous hyperkinetic movement disorders characterized by involuntary muscle contractions which result in twisting and repetitive movements and abnormal postures. Several causative genes have been identified, but their genetic bases still remain elusive. Primary Torsion Dystonias (PTDs), in which dystonia is the only clinical sign, can be inherited in a monogenic fashion, and many genes and loci have been identified for autosomal dominant (DYT1/TOR1A; DYT6/THAP1; DYT4/TUBB4a; DYT7; DYT13; DYT21; DYT23/CIZ1; DYT24/ANO3; DYT25/GNAL) and recessive (DYT2; DYT17) forms. However most sporadic cases, especially those with late-onset, are likely multifactorial, with genetic and environmental factors interplaying to reach a threshold of disease. At present, genetic counseling of dystonia patients remains a difficult task. Recently non-motor clinical findings in dystonias, new highlights in the pathophysiology of the disease, and the availability of high-throughput genome-wide techniques are proving useful tools to better understand the complexity of PTD genetics. We briefly review the genetic basis of the most common forms of hereditary PTDs, and discuss relevant issues related to molecular diagnosis and genetic counseling.
Project description:GNAL was identified as a cause of dystonia in patients from North America, Europe and Asia. In this study, we aimed to investigate the prevalence of GNAL variants in Brazilian patients with dystonia. Ninety-one patients with isolated idiopathic dystonia, negative for THAP1 and TOR1A mutations, were screened for GNAL variants by Sanger sequencing. Functional characterization of the G?olf protein variant was performed using the bioluminescence resonance energy transfer assay. A novel heterozygous nonsynonymous variant (p. F133L) was identified in a patient with cervical and laryngeal dystonia since the third decade of life, with no family history. This variant was not identified in healthy Brazilian controls and was not described in 63,000 exomas of the ExAC database. The F133L mutant exhibited significantly elevated levels of basal BRET and severely diminished amplitude of response elicited by dopamine, that both indicate substantial functional impairment of G?olf in transducing receptor signals, which could be involved in dystonia pathophysiology. GNAL mutations are not a common cause of dystonia in the Brazilian population and have a lower prevalence than THAP1 and TOR1A mutations. We present a novel variant that results in partial G?olf loss of function.
Project description:The clinical phenotype of DYT6 consists mainly of primary craniocervical dystonia. Recently, the THAP1 gene was identified as the cause of DYT6, where a total of 13 mutations have been identified in Amish-Mennonite and European families.We sequenced the THAP1 gene in a series of 362 British, genetically undetermined, primary dystonia patients (78 with focal, 186 with segmental, and 98 with generalized dystonia) and in 28 dystonia-manifesting DYT1 patients and 176 normal control individuals.Nine coding mutations were identified in the THAP1 gene. Two were small deletions, 2 were nonsense, and 5 were missense. Eight mutations were heterozygous, and 1 was homozygous. The main clinical presentation of cases with THAP1 mutations was early-onset (<30 years) dystonia in the craniocervical region or the limbs (8 of 9 patients). There was phenotypic variability with laryngeal or oromandibular dystonia present in 3 cases. Four of 9 THAP1 cases developed generalized dystonia.The number of THAP1 mutations has been significantly expanded, indicating an uncommon but important cause of dystonia. Coding mutations account for 9 of 362 dystonia cases, indicating a mutation frequency of 2.5% of dystonia cases in the population that we have screened. The majority of cases reported here with THAP1 mutations had craniocervical- or limb-onset segmental dystonia, but we also identified 1 homozygous THAP1 mutation, associated initially with writer's dystonia and then developing segmental dystonia. Three of our patients had a nonsense or frameshift THAP1 mutation and the clinical features of laryngeal or oromandibular dystonia. These data suggest that early-onset dystonia that includes the involvement of the larynx or face is frequently associated with THAP1 mutations.