Identification of selection signatures involved in performance traits in a paternal broiler line.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Natural and artificial selection leads to changes in certain regions of the genome resulting in selection signatures that can reveal genes associated with the selected traits. Selection signatures may be identified using different methodologies, of which some are based on detecting contiguous sequences of homozygous identical-by-descent haplotypes, called runs of homozygosity (ROH), or estimating fixation index (FST) of genomic windows that indicates genetic differentiation. This study aimed to identify selection signatures in a paternal broiler TT line at generations 7th and 16th of selection and to investigate the genes annotated in these regions as well as the biological pathways involved. For such purpose, ROH and FST-based analysis were performed using whole genome sequence of twenty-eight chickens from two different generations. RESULTS:ROH analysis identified homozygous regions of short and moderate size. Analysis of ROH patterns revealed regions commonly shared among animals and changes in ROH abundance and size between the two generations. Results also suggest that whole genome sequencing (WGS) outperforms SNPchip data avoiding overestimation of ROH size and underestimation of ROH number; however, sequencing costs can limited the number of animals analyzed. FST-based analysis revealed genetic differentiation in several genomic windows. Annotation of the consensus regions of ROH and FST windows revealed new and previously identified genes associated with traits of economic interest, such as APOB, IGF1, IGFBP2, POMC, PPARG, and ZNF423. Over-representation analysis of the genes resulted in biological terms of skeletal muscle, matrilin proteins, adipose tissue, hyperglycemia, diabetes, Salmonella infections and tyrosine. CONCLUSIONS:Identification of ROH and FST-based analyses revealed selection signatures in TT line and genes that have important role in traits of economic interest. Changes in the genome of the chickens were observed between the 7th and 16th generations showing that ancient and recent selection in TT line may have acted over genomic regions affecting diseases and performance traits.
Project description:Genomic regions subjected to selection frequently show signatures such as within-population reduced nucleotide diversity and outlier values of differentiation among differentially selected populations. In this study, we analyzed 50K SNP genotype data of 373 animals belonging to 23 sheep breeds of different geographic origins using the Rsb (extended haplotype homozygosity) and FST statistical approaches, to identify loci associated with the fat-tail phenotype. We also checked if these putative selection signatures overlapped with regions of high-homozygosity (ROH). The analyses identified novel signals and confirmed the presence of selection signature in genomic regions that harbor candidate genes known to affect fat deposition. Several genomic regions that frequently appeared in ROH were also identified within each breed, but only two ROH islands overlapped with the putative selection signatures. The results reported herein provide the most complete genome-wide study of selection signatures for fat-tail in African and Eurasian sheep breeds; they also contribute insights into the genetic basis for the fat tail phenotype in sheep, and confirm the great complexity of the mechanisms that underlie quantitative traits, such as the fat-tail.
Project description:BACKGROUND:A growing demand for improved physical skills and mental attitude in modern sport horses has led to strong selection for performance in many warmblood studbooks. The aim of this study was to detect genomic regions with low diversity, and therefore potentially under selection, in Swedish Warmblood horses (SWB) by analysing high-density SNP data. To investigate if such signatures could be the result of selection for equestrian sport performance, we compared our SWB SNP data with those from Exmoor ponies, a horse breed not selected for sport performance traits. RESULTS:The genomic scan for homozygous regions identified long runs of homozygosity (ROH) shared by more than 85% of the genotyped SWB individuals. Such ROH were located on ECA4, ECA6, ECA7, ECA10 and ECA17. Long ROH were instead distributed evenly across the genome of Exmoor ponies in 77% of the chromosomes. Two population differentiation tests (FST and XP-EHH) revealed signatures of selection on ECA1, ECA4, and ECA6 in SWB horses. CONCLUSIONS:Genes related to behaviour, physical abilities and fertility, appear to be targets of selection in the SWB breed. This study provides a genome-wide map of selection signatures in SWB horses, and ground for further functional studies to unravel the biological mechanisms behind complex traits in horses.
Project description:Both natural and artificial selection are among the main driving forces shaping genetic variation across the genome of livestock species. Selection typically leaves signatures in the genome, which are often characterized by high genetic differentiation across breeds and/or a strong reduction in genetic diversity in regions associated with traits under intense selection pressure. In this study, we evaluated selection signatures and genomic inbreeding coefficients, FROH, based on runs of homozygosity (ROH), in six Ugandan goat breeds: Boer (n = 13), and the indigenous breeds Karamojong (n = 15), Kigezi (n = 29), Mubende (n = 29), Small East African (n = 29), and Sebei (n = 29). After genotyping quality control, 45,294 autosomal single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) remained for further analyses. A total of 394 and 6 breed-specific putative selection signatures were identified across all breeds, based on marker-specific fixation index (FST-values) and haplotype differentiation (hapFLK), respectively. These regions were enriched with genes involved in signaling pathways associated directly or indirectly with environmental adaptation, such as immune response (e.g., IL10RB and IL23A), growth and fatty acid composition (e.g., FGF9 and IGF1), and thermo-tolerance (e.g., MTOR and MAPK3). The study revealed little overlap between breeds in genomic regions under selection and generally did not display the typical classic selection signatures as expected due to the complex nature of the traits. In the Boer breed, candidate genes associated with production traits, such as body size and growth (e.g., GJB2 and GJA3) were also identified. Furthermore, analysis of ROH in indigenous goat breeds showed very low levels of genomic inbreeding (with the mean FROH per breed ranging from 0.8% to 2.4%), as compared to higher inbreeding in Boer (mean FROH = 13.8%). Short ROH were more frequent than long ROH, except in Karamojong, providing insight in the developmental history of these goat breeds. This study provides insights into the effects of long-term selection in Boer and indigenous Ugandan goat breeds, which are relevant for implementation of breeding programs and conservation of genetic resources, as well as their sustainable use and management.
Project description:Meat and egg-type chickens have been selected for several generations for different traits. Artificial and natural selection for different phenotypes can change frequency of genetic variants, leaving particular genomic footprints throghtout the genome. Thus, the aims of this study were to sequence 28 chickens from two Brazilian lines (meat and white egg-type) and use this information to characterize genome-wide genetic variations, identify putative regions under selection using Fst method, and find putative pathways under selection.A total of 13.93 million SNPs and 1.36 million INDELs were identified, with more variants detected from the broiler (meat-type) line. Although most were located in non-coding regions, we identified 7255 intolerant non-synonymous SNPs, 512 stopgain/loss SNPs, 1381 frameshift and 1094 non-frameshift INDELs that may alter protein functions. Genes harboring intolerant non-synonymous SNPs affected metabolic pathways related mainly to reproduction and endocrine systems in the white-egg layer line, and lipid metabolism and metabolic diseases in the broiler line. Fst analysis in sliding windows, using SNPs and INDELs separately, identified over 300 putative regions of selection overlapping with more than 250 genes. For the first time in chicken, INDEL variants were considered for selection signature analysis, showing high level of correlation in results between SNP and INDEL data. The putative regions of selection signatures revealed interesting candidate genes and pathways related to important phenotypic traits in chicken, such as lipid metabolism, growth, reproduction, and cardiac development.In this study, Fst method was applied to identify high confidence putative regions under selection, providing novel insights into selection footprints that can help elucidate the functional mechanisms underlying different phenotypic traits relevant to meat and egg-type chicken lines. In addition, we generated a large catalog of line-specific and common genetic variants from a Brazilian broiler and a white egg layer line that can be used for genomic studies involving association analysis with phenotypes of economic interest to the poultry industry.
Project description:Identifying signatures of selection can provide valuable insight about the genes or genomic regions that are or have been under selective pressure, which can lead to a better understanding of genotype-phenotype relationships. A common strategy for selection signature detection is to compare samples from several populations and search for genomic regions with outstanding genetic differentiation. Wright's fixation index, FST, is a useful index for evaluation of genetic differentiation between populations. The aim of this study was to detect selective signatures between different chicken groups based on SNP-wise FST calculation. A total of 96 individuals of three commercial layer breeds and 14 non-commercial fancy breeds were genotyped with three different 600K SNP-chips. After filtering a total of 1 million SNPs were available for FST calculation. Averages of FST values were calculated for overlapping windows. Comparisons of these were then conducted between commercial egg layers and non-commercial fancy breeds, as well as between white egg layers and brown egg layers. Comparing non-commercial and commercial breeds resulted in the detection of 630 selective signatures, while 656 selective signatures were detected in the comparison between the commercial egg-layer breeds. Annotation of selection signature regions revealed various genes corresponding to productions traits, for which layer breeds were selected. Among them were NCOA1, SREBF2 and RALGAPA1 associated with reproductive traits, broodiness and egg production. Furthermore, several of the detected genes were associated with growth and carcass traits, including POMC, PRKAB2, SPP1, IGF2, CAPN1, TGFb2 and IGFBP2. Our approach demonstrates that including different populations with a specific breeding history can provide a unique opportunity for a better understanding of farm animal selection.
Project description:The use of relatively low numbers of sires in cattle breeding programs, particularly on those for carcass and weight traits in Nellore beef cattle (Bos indicus) in Brazil, has always raised concerns about inbreeding, which affects conservation of genetic resources and sustainability of this breed. Here, we investigated the distribution of autozygosity levels based on runs of homozygosity (ROH) in a sample of 1,278 Nellore cows, genotyped for over 777,000 SNPs. We found ROH segments larger than 10 Mb in over 70% of the samples, representing signatures most likely related to the recent massive use of few sires. However, the average genome coverage by ROH (>1 Mb) was lower than previously reported for other cattle breeds (4.58%). In spite of 99.98% of the SNPs being included within a ROH in at least one individual, only 19.37% of the markers were encompassed by common ROH, suggesting that the ongoing selection for weight, carcass and reproductive traits in this population is too recent to have produced selection signatures in the form of ROH. Three short-range highly prevalent ROH autosomal hotspots (occurring in over 50% of the samples) were observed, indicating candidate regions most likely under selection since before the foundation of Brazilian Nellore cattle. The putative signatures of selection on chromosomes 4, 7, and 12 may be involved in resistance to infectious diseases and fertility, and should be subject of future investigation.
Project description:Massive genotyping of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) has opened opportunities for analyzing the way in which selection shapes genomes. Artificial or natural selection usually leaves genomic signatures associated with selective sweeps around the responsible locus. Strong selective sweeps are most often identified either by lower genetic diversity than the genomic average and/or islands of runs of homozygosity (ROHi). Here, we conducted an analysis of selective sweeps in turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) using two SNP datasets from a Northeastern Atlantic population (36 individuals) and a domestic broodstock (46 individuals). Twenty-six families (? 40 offspring per family) from this broodstock and three SNP datasets applying differing filtering criteria were used to adjust ROH calling parameters. The best-fitted genomic inbreeding estimate (FROH) was obtained by the sum of ROH longer than 1 Mb, called using a 21,615 SNP panel, a sliding window of 37 SNPs and one heterozygous SNP per window allowed. These parameters were used to obtain the ROHi distribution in the domestic and wild populations (49 and 0 ROHi, respectively). Regions with higher and lower genetic diversity within each population were obtained using sliding windows of 37 SNPs. Furthermore, those regions were mapped in the turbot genome against previously reported genetic markers associated with QTL (Quantitative Trait Loci) and outlier loci for domestic or natural selection to identify putative selective sweeps. Out of the 319 and 278 windows surpassing the suggestive pooled heterozygosity thresholds (ZHp) in the wild and domestic population, respectively, 78 and 54 were retained under more restrictive ZHp criteria. A total of 116 suggestive windows (representing 19 genomic regions) were linked to either QTL for production traits, or outliers for divergent or balancing selection. Twenty-four of them (representing 3 genomic regions) were retained under stricter ZHp thresholds. Eleven QTL/outlier markers were exclusively found in suggestive regions of the domestic broodstock, 7 in the wild population and one in both populations; one (broodstock) and two (wild) of those were found in significant regions retained under more restrictive ZHp criteria in the broodstock and the wild population, respectively. Genome mining and functional enrichment within regions associated with selective sweeps disclosed relevant genes and pathways related to aquaculture target traits, including growth and immune-related pathways, metabolism and response to hypoxia, which showcases how this genome atlas of genetic diversity can be a valuable resource to look for candidate genes related to natural or artificial selection in turbot populations.
Project description:: Detection of selection footprints provides insight into the evolution process and the underlying mechanisms controlling the phenotypic diversity of traits that have been exposed to selection. Selection focused on certain characters, mapping certain genomic regions often shows a loss of genetic diversity with an increased level of homozygosity. Therefore, the runs of homozygosity (ROHs), homozygosity by descent (HBD), and effective population size (Ne) are effective tools for exploring the genetic diversity, understanding the demographic history, foretelling the signature of directional selection, and improving the breeding strategies to use and conserve genetic resources. We characterized the ROH, HBD, Ne, and signature of selection of six Chinese goat populations using single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) 50K Illumina beadchips. Our results show an inverse relationship between the length and frequency of ROH. A long ROH length, higher level of inbreeding, long HBD segment, and smaller Ne in Guangfeng (GF) goats suggested intensive selection pressure and recent inbreeding in this breed. We identified six reproduction-related genes within the genomic regions with a high ROH frequency, of which two genes overlapped with a putative selection signature. The estimated pair-wise genetic differentiation (FST) among the populations is 9.60% and the inter- and intra-population molecular variations are 9.68% and 89.6%, respectively, indicating low to moderate genetic differentiation. Our selection signatures analysis revealed 54 loci harboring 86 putative candidate genes, with a strong signature of selection. Further analysis showed that several candidate genes, including MARF1, SYCP2, TMEM200C, SF1, ADCY1, and BMP5, are involved in goat fecundity. We identified 11 candidate genes by using cross-population extended haplotype homozygosity (XP-EHH) estimates, of which MARF1 and SF1 are under strong positive selection, as they are differentiated in high and low reproduction groups according to the three approaches used. Gene ontology enrichment analysis revealed that different biological pathways could be involved in the variation of fecundity in female goats. This study provides a new insight into the ROHs patterns for maintenance of within breed diversity and suggests a role of positive selection for genetic variation influencing fecundity in Chinese goat.
Project description:Natural selection is likely a major factor in shaping genomic variation of the African indigenous rural chicken, driving the development of genetic footprints. Selection footprints are expected to be associated with adaptation to locally prevailing environmental stressors, which may include diverse factors as high altitude, disease resistance, poor nutrition, oxidative and heat stresses. To determine the existence of a selection footprint, 268 birds were randomly sampled from three indigenous ecotypes from East Africa (Rwanda and Uganda) and North Africa (Baladi), and two registered Egyptian breeds (Dandarawi and Fayoumi). Samples were genotyped using the chicken Affymetrix 600K Axiom® Array. A total of 494,332 SNPs were utilized in the downstream analysis after implementing quality control measures. The intra-population runs of homozygosity (ROH) that occurred in >50% of individuals of an ecotype or in >75% of a breed were studied. To identify inter-population differentiation due to genetic structure, FST was calculated for North- vs. East-African populations and Baladi and Fayoumi vs. Dandarawi for overlapping windows (500 kb with a step-size of 250 kb). The ROH and FST mapping detected several selective sweeps on different autosomes. Results reflected selection footprints of the environmental stresses, breed behavior, and management. Intra-population ROH of the Egyptian chickens showed selection footprints bearing genes for adaptation to heat, solar radiation, ion transport and immunity. The high-altitude-adapted East-African populations' ROH showed a selection signature with genes for angiogenesis, oxygen-heme binding and transport. The neuroglobin gene (GO:0019825 and GO:0015671) was detected on a Chromosome 5 ROH of Rwanda-Uganda ecotypes. The sodium-dependent noradrenaline transporter, SLC6A2 on a Chromosome 11 ROH in Fayoumi breed may reflect its active behavior. Inter-population FST among Egyptian populations reflected genetic mechanisms for the Fayoumi resistance to Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV), while FST between Egyptian and Rwanda-Uganda populations indicated the Secreted frizzled related protein 2, SFRP2, (GO:0009314) on Chromosome 4, that contributes to melanogenic activity and most likely enhances the Dandarawi chicken adaptation to high-intensity of solar radiation in Southern Egypt. These results enhance our understanding of the natural selection forces role in shaping genomic structure for adaptation to the stressful African conditions.
Project description:The intensive selection programs for milk made possible by mass artificial insemination increased the similarity among the genomes of North American (NA) Holsteins tremendously since the 1960s. This migration of elite alleles has caused certain regions of the genome to have runs of homozygosity (ROH) occasionally spanning millions of continuous base pairs at a specific locus. In this study, genome signatures of artificial selection in NA Holsteins born between 1953 and 2008 were identified by comparing changes in ROH between three distinct groups under different selective pressure for milk production. The ROH regions were also used to estimate the inbreeding coefficients. The comparisons of genomic autozygosity between groups selected or unselected since 1964 for milk production revealed significant differences with respect to overall ROH frequency and distribution. These results indicate selection has increased overall autozygosity across the genome, whereas the autozygosity in an unselected line has not changed significantly across most of the chromosomes. In addition, ROH distribution was more variable across the genomes of selected animals in comparison to a more even ROH distribution for unselected animals. Further analysis of genome-wide autozygosity changes and the association between traits and haplotypes identified more than 40 genomic regions under selection on several chromosomes (Chr) including Chr 2, 7, 16 and 20. Many of these selection signatures corresponded to quantitative trait loci for milk, fat, and protein yield previously found in contemporary Holsteins.