Associations between the dietary patterns of pregnant Malaysian women and ethnicity, education, and early pregnancy waist circumference: A prospective cohort study.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES:Little is known about the dietary patterns (DPs) of women during pregnancy. The present study aimed to identify the DPs of pregnant Malaysian women and their associations with socio-demographic, obstetric, and anthropometric characteristics. SUBJECTS AND METHODS:This prospective cohort study included 737 participants enrolled in Seremban Cohort Study between 2013 and 2015. Food consumption was assessed using a validated 126-food item semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (SFFQ) at four time-points, namely, pre-pregnancy and at each trimester (first, second, and third). Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to identify DPs. RESULTS:Three DPs were identified at each time point and designated DP 1-3 (pre-pregnancy), DP 4-6 (first trimester), DP 7-9 (second trimester) and DP 10-12 (third trimester). DP 1, 4, and 7 appeared to be more prudent diets, characterized by higher intakes of nuts, seeds & legumes, green leafy vegetables, other vegetables, eggs, fruits, and milk & dairy products. DP 2, 5, 8, and 11 had greater loadings of condiments & spices, sugar, spreads & creamer, though DP 2 had additional sweet foods, DP 5 and 8 had additional oils & fats, and DP 11 had additional tea & coffee, respectively. DP 3 and 6 were characterized by high protein (poultry, meat, processed, dairy, eggs, and fish), sugars (mainly as beverages and sweet foods), and energy (bread, cereal & cereal products, rice, noodles & pasta) intakes. DP 9 had additional fruits. However, DP 12 had greater loadings of energy foods (bread, cereal & cereal products, rice, noodles & pasta), sugars (mainly as beverages, and sweet foods), and good protein sources (eggs, nuts, seeds & legumes). Malays were more likely to have lower adherence (LA) for DP 1 and 10 than non-Malays. DP 2, 8, and 11 were more prevalent among Malays than non-Malays. Women with a higher education were more likely to have LA for DP 10, and women with a greater waist circumference at first prenatal visit were more likely to show LA for DP 11. CONCLUSIONS:DPs observed in the present study were substantially different from those reported in Western populations. Information concerning associations between ethnicity, waist circumference and education with specific DPs before and throughout pregnancy could facilitate efforts to promote healthy dietary behavior and the overall health and well-being of pregnant women.
Project description:Generally, dietary patterns (DP)s have been linked to the risk of diabetes mellitus, however, only few studies examined the associations between DPs in early pregnancy and the risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). This study aims to determine the association between DPs before and during pregnancy and risk of GDM in Malaysian pregnant women. DPs were derived using principal component analysis of consumed 126 food and beverage items assessed using a validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire collecting data retrospectively for pre-pregnancy, but prospectively for the first and second trimester. Three different DPs were identified at each time point and labelled as DP 1-3 (pre-pregnancy), DP 4-6 (first trimester), and DP 7-9 (second trimester). About 10.6% (n = 48) of pregnant women were diagnosed with GDM in our cohort. Women with high adherence (HA) to DP 2 (adjusted OR: 0.45, 95% CI: 0.20-0.91) and DP 5 (adjusted OR: 0.28, 95% CI: 0.11-0.68) showed a significantly reduced risk of GDM compared to women with low adherence (LA). Other DPs were not significantly associated with GDM risk. Compared to women with GDM, non-GDM women showed HA scores for all DPs throughout pregnancy. Overall, a relative low percentage of women with GDM was found in this cohort. The risk was lower in women with HA to a relatively unhealthy dietary pattern, i.e. DP 2 and DP 5. The lower body mass index (BMI) status and energy intake of women showing a HA to DP 2 in the first trimester may underlie the observed association with a lower GDM risk. Additionally, genetic variance might explain the less susceptibility to GDM despite HA to unhealthy DPs among non-GDM women.
Project description:Dietary patterns (DPs) have been described as an important factor that may influence polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) concentrations and body mass index (BMI) during pregnancy. We aim to evaluate the association between pre-pregnancy DPs and serum PUFA percentages throughout pregnancy considering early pregnancy BMI as a possible effect modifier. A prospective cohort of 154 pregnant women was followed (5th-13th, 20th-26th, and 30th-36th gestational weeks). Serum PUFA concentrations (total n-3 and total n-6, eicosapentaenoic + docosahexaenoic acids) were measured in each trimester and expressed as percentages. The n-6/n-3 ratio was calculated. Longitudinal linear mixed-effects models including interaction terms between DPs and early pregnancy BMI were employed. Serum PUFA percentages declined, whereas the n-6/n-3 ratio, monounsaturated, and saturated percentages increased throughout pregnancy for all BMI categories. Three pre-pregnancy DPs were identified by principal component analysis (common Brazilian, healthy, and processed). Overweight women with higher adherence to the common-Brazilian and to the healthy DPs presented reduced n-3 PUFA percentage and increased n-6 percentages and n-6/n-3 ratio compared to under or normal weight women. Obese women with higher adherence to the processed DP presented a more pronounced decrease of total n-3 percentage compared to under or normal weight women. Early pregnancy BMI modified the effect of pre-pregnancy DPs on PUFA profile throughout gestation. Higher adherence to the healthy pattern was associated with increased n-3 percentage, except for overweight women. Only for processed DP was the behaviour of PUFA the same for all BMI categories, showing a worse evolution profile, that is, increased n-6 and reduced n-3 fractions.
Project description:Attitudes can be predictors of certain health-related behaviours. The attitudes of young females towards health and taste have not been yet fully examined and their associations with dietary behaviours remain unclear. The aim of the study was to investigate if attitudes are associated with dietary patterns in a representative sample of Polish girls. The study population consisted of 1107 girls, aged 13-21 and living in Poland. Attitudes were assessed using the Health and Taste Attitudes Scale (HTAS) and categorised as negative, neutral or positive. Dietary data was obtained using a Food Frequency Questionnaire. Dietary patterns (DPs), derived previously with a Principal Component Analysis (PCA), were 'Traditional Polish', 'Fruit and vegetables', 'Fast food and sweets' and 'Dairy and fats'. The associations between attitudes and DPs were assessed using Spearman's correlation coefficients and logistic regression. The reference group were girls with neutral attitudes. Odds ratios (ORs) were adjusted for age, socioeconomic status (SES), and body mass index (BMI). The correlations between attitudes and DPs ranged from -0.28 for attitudes towards health and 'Fast food and sweets' and 'Traditional Polish' DPs to 0.33 for attitudes towards health and the 'Fruit and vegetables' DP (p < 0.05). In the logistic regression analysis, the strongest associations within health-related HTAS subscales were observed between negative attitudes towards natural products and the 'Fast food and sweets' DP (OR: 10.93; 95% CI: 3.32-36.01) and between positive attitudes towards health and the 'Fruit and vegetables' DP (OR: 5.10; 3.11-8.37). The strongest associations within taste-related HTAS subscales were observed between positive attitudes towards craving for sweet foods and the 'Traditional Polish' DP (OR: 1.93; 1.43-2.61) and between positive attitudes towards using food as a reward and the 'Dairy and fats' DP (OR: 2.08; 1.22-3.55) as well as the 'Fast food and sweets' DP (OR: 2.07; 1.14-3.74). Positive attitudes towards health were associated with a pro-healthy dietary pattern characterised by the consumption of fruit and vegetables, while negative attitudes towards natural products as well as a strong craving for sweets and using food as a reward were associated with less healthy dietary patterns. To improve the dietary habits of girls and young women, positive attitudes towards health should be strengthened and supported by emphasizing the sensory values of pro-healthy foods.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Limited research exists on how dietary pattern (DP) influences pregnant women's health-related quality of life (HRQOL). This study aimed to identify DPs in a cohort of 92,448 pregnant Japanese women using fixed data from the Japan Environment and Children's Study (JECS) to investigate the associations of DP with HRQOL. METHODS:During the first trimester, DPs were assessed using the Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ), and HRQOL was assessed using the 8-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-8). DPs such as Western, Japanese and Unbalanced DP were identified through principal component analysis (PCA). Multivariable logistic model analysis was used to assess the associations between DP and HRQOL as good or poor. RESULTS:We found a significant association between poor mental HRQOL in the univariate analysis for the Western DP (p = 0.014). However, this association was not significant in the multivariate analysis adjusted for basic confounders (p = 0.078). Western DP was not highly associated with poor physical HRQOL (from low-medium to high levels of intake; adjusted odds ratio [OR] 0.87-0.88, all p?0.001, when comparing highest to lowest intake levels). A high intake of the Japanese DP was significantly associated with poor mental HRQOL and physical HRQOL (adjusted OR 1.20, p<0.0001 and adjusted OR 1.12, p = 0.005, respectively). A medium-high intake of the Unbalanced DP was not highly associated with poor physical HRQOL (adjusted OR 0.93, p = 0.048) but with poor mental HRQOL (adjusted OR 1.29, p<0.0001). CONCLUSION:This is the first known prospective study to establish an association between DP and HRQOL in pregnant women. We hope that our findings will help in the field of nutritional science.
Project description:Little is known about the relationships between pregnancy cravings, maternal diet, and development of abnormal glucose tolerance.We examined relationships of pregnancy cravings with dietary intake and risk of developing isolated hyperglycemia (IH), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), or gestational diabetes (GDM) later in pregnancy.Among 2,022 mothers in Project Viva, a prospective birth cohort recruited from medical practices in eastern Massachusetts between 1999 and 2002, we assessed type of pregnancy craving based on self-report at mean gestation of 10.9 weeks.The outcomes were cross-sectional dietary intake from a food frequency questionnaire and incident IH, IGT, or GDM determined by glucose tolerance screening at 26 to 28 weeks.We used linear regression to analyze the cross-sectional relationships between pregnancy cravings and dietary intake and multinomial logistic regression to analyze the prospective relationships among pregnancy cravings and development of IH, IGT, or GDM.During the first trimester, 443 (22%) women craved sweets, 225 (11%) craved salty foods, 261 (13%) craved savory foods, and 100 (4.9%) craved starchy foods. Sweet cravings were associated with increased intake of sucrose (1.9 g/day; 95% CI 0.1 to 3.7), total fat (1.5 g/day; 95% CI 0.1 to 2.9), and saturated fat (0.8 g/day; 95% CI 0.2 to 1.4); salty cravings were associated with increased fiber (0.7 servings/day; 95% CI -0.1 to 1.6); savory cravings were associated with increased n-3 fatty acids (0.10 g/day; 95% CI 0.02 to 0.17); and starchy cravings were associated with increased carbohydrates (8.0 g/day; 95% CI 0.3 to 15.7) and decreased total fat (-2.6 g/day; 95% CI -5.2 to -0.1). Salty cravings were associated with lower risk of GDM (adjusted odds ratio 0.34, 95% CI 0.12-0.97).New cravings in the first trimester of pregnancy were associated with dietary intake. Craving salty foods may predict reduced risk of developing GDM, whereas craving sweet food does not appear to alter one's risk.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Despite perennial sunshine, vitamin D deficiency is prevalent among Malaysians especially pregnant women. This study determines the vitamin D status and its associated factors among third trimester pregnant women attending government health clinics in Selangor and Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. METHODS:Information on socio-demographic characteristics, obstetrical history, and sun exposure were obtained through face-to-face interviews. Vitamin D intake was assessed using a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration was measured and classified as deficient (< 30 nmol/L), insufficient (30-50 nmol/L), and sufficient (? 50 nmol/L). RESULTS:Of the 535 pregnant women recruited, 42.6% were vitamin D deficient. They consumed an average of 8.7 ± 6.7 ?g of vitamin D daily. A total of 80.4% of the vitamin D were obtained from the food sources, while 19.6% were from dietary supplements. Fish and fish products showed the highest contribution to vitamin D intake (35.8%). The multivariable generalized linear mixed models, with clinic as a random effect, indicates that higher intake of vitamin D is associated with lower odds of vitamin D deficiency among pregnant women (OR = 0.96; 95% CI = 0.93-0.99). The odds of having vitamin D deficiency was reduced by 87% in non-Malays (OR = 0.14; 95% CI = 0.05-0.41) compared to Malays. No associations were found between age, educational level, monthly household income, work status, gravidity, parity, pre-pregnancy body mass index, total hours of sun exposure, total percentage of body surface area, and sun exposure index per day with vitamin D deficiency. CONCLUSION:Vitamin D deficiency is prevalent among Malaysian pregnant women. Considering the possible adverse obstetric and fetal outcomes of vitamin D deficiency during pregnancy, future nutrition education should emphasise on vitamin D-fortified foods consumption among pregnant women by taking into consideration ethnic differences.
Project description:Inadequate maternal diet can adversely affect mother and child. Our aim was to assess adherence to the Spanish dietary guidelines and to the Mediterranean diet, to analyze changes in diet during pregnancy and post-partum, and to identify maternal factors associated with food consumption. A total of 793 healthy pregnant women were recruited during the first prenatal visit and followed until the post-partum period. Data from the clinical history, anthropometric measurements, and lifestyle habits were collected. Food consumption was evaluated using a food frequency questionnaire. The results show that in pregnant women the consumption of healthy foods did not meet recommendations, whereas consumption of red and processed meat and sweet food exceeded recommendations. The results also show a medium adherence to the Mediterranean diet that remained unchanged throughout pregnancy. A significant decrease was observed in the consumption of fruits, followed by vegetables and then salted and sweet cereals from pregnancy to post-partum. A better adherence to the Mediterranean diet has been reported by pregnant women that are older, of higher social class, and higher education level, and who do not smoke nor drink (p < 0.005). In conclusion, the diet of pregnant women from Spain departs from recommendations, medium adherence to the Mediterranean diet was maintained throughout the pregnancy and post-partum, and a decreasing consumption of healthy food from the first trimester to the post-partum period was observed. Maternal factors such as age, social class, education, and smoking influence diet quality.
Project description:Context:Genetic and environmental factors contribute to the incidence of metabolic syndrome (MetS). This study aimed to review all findings of studies conducted in framework of the Tehran lipid and glucose study (TLGS) regarding the association of dietary factors with cardio-metabolic risk factors. Evidence Acquisition:All English-language studies were searched using PubMed and Scopus databases from 2000 to 2017. Finally, 105 relevant papers were included in this review. Results:Whole grains, legumes, nuts and healthy dietary patterns (DPs) reduced risk of MetS, while white rice, salty/sweet snacks increased this. The western DP had a significant interaction with APOC3, APOA1 and MC4R polymorphisms in relation to MetS. After 6.5 years of follow-up, odds of reaching menarche ≤ 12 years was significantly higher in girls with higher intakes of milk, calcium, magnesium, and phosphorous. Among children and adolescents, higher adherence to the dietary approaches to stop hypertension (DASH)-style diet decreased the risk of abdominal obesity, whereas increased adherence to the western DP could contribute to general and abdominal obesity. A three-year follow-up of adult participants showed that higher intakes of phytochemical-rich foods were inversely related to development of insulin resistance. Higher adherence to the healthy DPs was associated with the reduced risk of hyperlipidemia and hypertention. Nutrition interventions postponed rise in the prevalence of MetS. The DASH diet resulted in weight reduction compared to control diet. Conclusions:Higher adherence to healthy food choices was associated with reduced odds of MetS, abdominal obesity, dyslipidemia and hypertension. The western DP accentuated the association of polymorphisms with MetS.
Project description:Women's health during their reproductive years and whilst pregnant has implications for their children's health, both in utero and during childhood. Associations of women's pre-pregnancy dietary patterns (DP) with maternal socio-demographic characteristics and nutrient intake were investigated in ProcriAr cohort study in São Paulo/Brazil, 2012.The DPs of 454 women were investigated by principal component factor analysis, using dietary information from a validated 110-item food frequency questionnaire. Multiple linear regression models identified independent associations between DPs and maternal socio-demographic characteristics and Spearman's correlation determined associations between DPs and nutrients intake.Participants' mean age was 26.1 years (standard deviation?=?6.3), 10.3% had more than 8 years of formal education, 30% were migrants from outside of the Southeast of Brazil, 48% were employed, 13% were smokers, and 51% were overweight/obese. Four DPs were derived: 'Lentils, whole grains and soups,' 'Snacks, sandwiches, sweets and soft drinks,' 'Seasoned vegetables and lean meats,' and 'Sweetened juices, bread and butter, rice and beans'. The 'Lentils, whole grains and soups' score was positively related to maternal age, being non-smoker and born in the South, North or Midwest of Brazil. The 'Snacks, sandwiches, sweets and soft drinks' score was positively related to higher maternal education, and negatively related to age, lack of formal work and being born in the Northeast region. The 'Seasoned vegetables and lean meats' score was positively related to higher maternal education. The 'Sweetened juices, bread and butter, rice and beans' score was positively related to unemployment and to no family history of hypertension, and negatively related to maternal overweight and obesity. Dietary intake of fruits and vegetables, foods that require preparation, nutrients from one-carbon metabolism, protein, iron, calcium and vitamin D were correlated with the 'Seasoned vegetables and lean meats'. Dietary intake of sugar-sweetened and alcoholic beverages, industrialized and takeaway foods, and foods rich in sugar, energy, fat, and synthetic folate were correlated with the 'Snacks, sandwiches, sweets and soft drinks'.Findings from this study add perspectives to be considered in the implementation of health interventions, which could improve women's nutritional status and provide an adequate environment for the developing fetus.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Although dietary intakes and dietary intake patterns (DPs) have been associated with single metabolites, it is unclear whether DPs are also reflected in specific metabolite patterns (MPs). Moreover, the influence of groups of gut bacteria on the relationship between DPs and MPs is underexplored. OBJECTIVES:We aimed to investigate the association of DPs and serum MPs and also the modifying effect of the gut bacteria compositional patterns (BCPs). METHODS:This is a cross-sectional investigation among 225 individuals (median age: 63 y; 53% women) from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study. Dietary intakes were assessed by three 24-h dietary recalls, gut bacteria composition was quantified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing, and the serum metabolome was profiled by an untargeted approach. We identified DPs and BCPs by the treelet transform analysis. We modeled associations between DPs and 8 previously published MPs and the modifying effect of BCPs by fitting generalized linear models using DataSHIELD R. RESULTS:We identified 5 DPs and 7 BCPs. The "bread, margarine, and processed meat" and "fruiting vegetables and vegetable oils" DPs were positively associated with the "amino acids" (? = 0.35; 95% CI: 0.02, 0.69; P = 0.03) and "fatty acids" MPs (? = 0.45; 95% CI: 0.16, 0.74; P = 0.01), respectively. The "tea and miscellaneous" was inversely associated with the "amino acids" (? = -0.28; 95% CI: -0.52, -0.05; P = 0.02) and "amino acid derivatives" MPs (? = -0.21; 95% CI: -0.39, -0.02; P = 0.03). One BCP negatively modified the association between the "bread, margarine, and processed meat" DP and the "amino acids" MP (P-interaction = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS:In older German adults, DPs are reflected in MPs, and the gut bacteria attenuate 1 DP-MP association. These MPs should be explored as biomarkers of these jointly consumed foods while taking into account a potentially modifying role of the gut bacteria.