Electiveness of agro-pulping process in the sustainable production of black liquor-based activated carbons.
ABSTRACT: During the production of paper pulp, the waste water loaded with organic materials from pulping process is discharged. Therefore, water treatment should be performed before disposing of such effluent. The use of such effluent for production of activated carbon will be effective in omitting the wastewater treatment and in obtaining the product required in many industries. In this respect, this paper deals with evaluating the performance of activated carbons (ACs) produced from black liquors (BLs) as by-products from three pulping processes of rice straw (RS) and sugar-cane bagasse (SCB), namely: alkaline, sulfite and neutral sulfite, which are coded SP, SSP and NSP, respectively. Elemental analysis and thermal analysis (TGA and DTGA) are carried out on the BLs, while the surface area (S BET), micro-/mesoporous distribution, adsorption capacity of methylene blue (MB) and iodine (I2-value), as well as Fourier transform infrared spectra (FT-IR) and scanning electron micrograph (SEM) are studied on synthesizing ACs. The optimal pulping approach for achieving BL-based AC, with the following characteristics: specific surface area (S BET) ∼ 921 and 545 m2 g-1, MB adsorption capacity 238 and 370 mg g-1, and I2-value 928 and 1255 mg g-1 of BL-based ACs, are from neutral sulfite pulping of SCB (B-NSP) and RS (RS-NSP), respectively. These finding data are ascribed to the carbon content of BL, as well as greatest total volume (VT 0.786 and 0.701 cm3 g-1) together with decreasing the volume of micropores/total (38 and 48%) of BL-NSP-ACs. It is interesting to note that the AC provided from RS-NSP has greater adsorption capacity for I2 and MB than the AC produced from RS-pulp fibres.
Project description:To recommend the beneficial effect of the pulping process on enhancing agro-wastes as precursors for the production of high-performance activated carbons (ACs), different pulping methods (alkali, sulfite and neutral sulfite) were applied on two available Egyptian agriculture by-products (rice straw and sugar cane bagasse), using the one-step pyrolysis method and H3PO4 activating agent. The adsorption performance of the different prepared ACs was evaluated in terms of Iodine Numbers and their sorption properties for removing the methylene blue (MB) from aqueous solutions. The corresponding sorption processes were also analysed using Lagergren first order, pseudo-second order and intraparticle diffusion models. Data revealed that the applied pulping conditions were effective for removing the non-cellulosic constituents of agro-residues. This was demonstrated by the hydrogen/carbon and oxygen/carbon ratios, thermal stability and IR-measurements of the final pulps. These data were effective on the particular sorption properties of RS and SCB-based ACs. Interestingly, the pulping process is a profound modification of the SCB-based fibres, on which it induced a clear increase of the specific surface areas of the corresponding ACs even though they had an impact on the sorption of MB and iodine. These values are superior to the reported data on agro-based ACs with H3PO4 activators. Pulping processes therefore play a dual role in the sorption properties of ACs. The first important role is the impact on the specific surface areas and the second impact is a profound modification of the surface chemistry of the ACs. Therefore, SCB-based ACs can be seen as an economical breakthrough product, and an alternative to the high-cost commercial ACs for the purification of industrial wastewaters.
Project description:Infections due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (MRSAB) seriously threaten public health due to poor outcomes and high mortality. The objective of this study is to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of the current evidence on adjuvant ?-lactam (BL) therapy combined with vancomycin (VAN) or daptomycin (DAP) for MRSAB. PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library were systematically searched for publications reporting clinical outcomes of BLs+VAN or BLs+DAP for adult patients with MRSAB through 5 April 2020. Meta-analysis techniques were applied using random effects modeling. Three randomized controlled trials and 12 retrospective cohort studies were identified, totaling 2,594 patients. Combination treatment significantly reduced the risk of clinical failure (risk ratio [RR] = 0.80; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.66 to 0.96; P?=?0.02; I2 = 39%), bacteremia recurrence (RR?=?0.66; 95% CI, 0.50 to 0.86; P?=?0.002; I2 = 0%), and persistent bacteremia (RR?=?0.65; 95% CI, 0.55 to 0.76; P?<?0.00001; I2 = 0%) and shortened the duration of bacteremia (standardized mean difference [SMD] = -0.37; 95% CI, -0.48 to -0.25; P?<?0.00001; I2 = 0%). There was no significant difference in the risk of crude mortality, nephrotoxicity, or thrombocytopenia between groups. Notably, combination treatment might nonsignificantly increase the risk of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) (RR?=?2.13; 95% CI, 0.98 to 4.63; P?=?0.06; I2 = 0%). Subgroup analysis suggested that DAP+BLs could reduce crude mortality (RR?=?0.53; 95% CI, 0.28 to 0.98; P?=?0.04; I2 = 0%). The meta-analysis suggested that although combination therapy with BLs could improve some microbial outcomes, it could not reduce crude mortality but might increase the risk of CDI and should be applied very cautiously. Regarding mortality reduction, the combination of DAP+cephalosporins appears more promising.
Project description:Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is present in all cases of endemic Burkitt lymphoma (BL) but in few European/North American sporadic BLs. Gene expression arrays of sporadic tumors have defined a consensus BL profile within which tumors are classifiable as "molecular BL" (mBL). Where endemic BLs fall relative to this profile remains unclear, since they not only carry EBV but also display one of two different forms of virus latency. Here, we use early-passage BL cell lines from different tumors, and BL subclones from a single tumor, to compare EBV-negative cells with EBV-positive cells displaying either classical latency I EBV infection (where EBNA1 is the only EBV antigen expressed from the wild-type EBV genome) or Wp-restricted latency (where an EBNA2 gene-deleted virus genome broadens antigen expression to include the EBNA3A, -3B, and -3C proteins and BHRF1). Expression arrays show that both types of endemic BL fall within the mBL classification. However, while EBV-negative and latency I BLs show overlapping profiles, Wp-restricted BLs form a distinct subgroup, characterized by a detectable downregulation of the germinal center (GC)-associated marker Bcl6 and upregulation of genes marking early plasmacytoid differentiation, notably IRF4 and BLIMP1. Importantly, these same changes can be induced in EBV-negative or latency I BL cells by infection with an EBNA2-knockout virus. Thus, we infer that the distinct gene profile of Wp-restricted BLs does not reflect differences in the identity of the tumor progenitor cell per se but differences imposed on a common progenitor by broadened EBV gene expression.
Project description:In recent years, a large number of pharmacologically active compounds containing a butenolide functional group have been isolated from secondary metabolites of marine microorganisms. Butyrolactone I was found to be produced by Aspergillus terreus isolated from several marine-derived samples. The hypoglycemic activity of butyrolactone I has aroused our great interest. In this study, we synthesized six racemic butenolide derivatives (namely BL-1-BL-6) by modifying the C-4 side chain of butyrolactone I. Among them, BL-3 and BL-5 improved the insulin resistance of HepG2 cells and did not affect the proliferation of RIN-m5f cell line, which indicated the efficacy and safety of BL-3 and BL-5. Furthermore, BL-3, BL-4, BL-5, and BL-6 displayed a significant protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) inhibitory effect, while the enantiomers of BL-3 displayed different 50% percentage inhibition concentration (IC50) values against PTP1B. The results of molecular docking simulation of the BLs and PTP1B explained the differences of biological consequences observed between the enantiomers of BL-3, which supported BLs as PTP1B inhibitors, and also indicated that the chirality of C-4 might influence the inhibitory effect of the BLs. Our findings provide a novel strategy for the development of butyrolactone derivatives as potential PTP1B inhibitors for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Project description:Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is the most common high-grade B-cell lymphoma found in Korea; it manifests with a variety of cellular morphologies and a high proliferation index. It is difficult to differentiate between DLBCL and Burkitt lymphoma (BL) based on immunohistochemistry, histology, and Epstein-Barr virus infection status owing to the overlap in findings. In this study, we performed comparative morphometric analysis to understand the proportional difference in Ki-67 staining between DLBCL and BL. We analyzed Ki-67-stained slides of 103 DLBCLs and 29 BLs that were pathologically confirmed using a three-tier classification system (negative, 1+, 2+, and 3+) to compare Ki-67 expression between BL and activated B-cell and germinal center B-cell subtypes of DLBCL and DLBCL with high proliferation indices (>90% of 2+ and 3+ cells). Patients with DLBCL were older than those with BL (62.1 versus 51.0 years). The number and proportion of negative cells (passenger and true negative cells) were significantly lower in BLs than those in DLBCLs (337.4, 5.9% versus 690.3, 12.4%). The number and proportion of 3+ cells were significantly higher in BLs than those in DLBCLs (5213.6, 96.3% versus 3132.4, 62.0%). BLs and DLBCLs with a high proliferation index showed similar results as those between BLs and overall DLBCLs. We were able to differentiate BLs and DLBCLs with 98.1% sensitivity and 100.0% specificity using an optimal cut-off of 97.9% of 2+/3+ Ki-67-positive cells. Thus, the Ki-67 labeling index may be a good differential biomarker for DLBCLs and BLs.
Project description:Burkitt lymphoma (BL) is an aggressive, MYC-driven lymphoma comprising 3 distinct clinical subtypes: sporadic BLs that occur worldwide, endemic BLs that occur predominantly in sub-Saharan Africa, and immunodeficiency-associated BLs that occur primarily in the setting of HIV. In this study, we comprehensively delineated the genomic basis of BL through whole-genome sequencing (WGS) of 101 tumors representing all 3 subtypes of BL to identify 72 driver genes. These data were additionally informed by CRISPR screens in BL cell lines to functionally annotate the role of oncogenic drivers. Nearly every driver gene was found to have both coding and non-coding mutations, highlighting the importance of WGS for identifying driver events. Our data implicate coding and non-coding mutations in IGLL5, BACH2, SIN3A, and DNMT1. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection was associated with higher mutation load, with type 1 EBV showing a higher mutational burden than type 2 EBV. Although sporadic and immunodeficiency-associated BLs had similar genetic profiles, endemic BLs manifested more frequent mutations in BCL7A and BCL6 and fewer genetic alterations in DNMT1, SNTB2, and CTCF. Silencing mutations in ID3 were a common feature of all 3 subtypes of BL. In vitro, mass spectrometry-based proteomics demonstrated that the ID3 protein binds primarily to TCF3 and TCF4. In vivo knockout of ID3 potentiated the effects of MYC, leading to rapid tumorigenesis and tumor phenotypes consistent with those observed in the human disease.
Project description:In this study, the electrodeposition (ED) of ultrathin, compact TiO2 blocking layers (BLs) on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) glass for perovskite solar cells (PSCs) is evaluated. This bottom-up method allows for controlling the morphology and thickness of TiO2 films by simply manipulating deposition conditions. Compared with BLs produced using the spin-coating (SC) method, BLs produced using ED exhibit satisfactory surface coverage, even with a film thickness of 29?nm. Evidence from cyclic voltammetry shows that an ED BL suppresses interfacial recombination more profoundly than an SC BL does, consequently improving the photovoltaic properties of the PSC significantly. A PSC equipped with an ED TiO2 BL having a 13.6% power conversion efficiency is demonstrated.
Project description:?-lactamases (BLs) represent the most frequent cause of antimicrobial resistance in Gram-negative bacteria. Despite the continuous efforts in the development of BL inhibitors (BLIs), new BLs able to hydrolyze the last developed antibiotics rapidly emerge. Moreover, the insurgence rate of effective mutations is far higher than the release of BLIs able to counteract them. This results in a shortage of antibiotics that is menacing the effective treating of infectious diseases. The situation is made even worse by the co-expression in bacteria of BLs with different mechanisms and hydrolysis spectra, and by the lack of inhibitors able to hit them all. Differently from other targets, BL flexibility has not been deeply exploited for drug design, possibly because of the small protein size, for their apparent rigidity and their high fold conservation. In this mini-review, we discuss the evidence for BL binding site dynamics being crucial for catalytic efficiency, mutation effect, and for the design of new inhibitors. Then, we report on identified allosteric sites in BLs and on possible allosteric inhibitors, as a strategy to overcome the frequent occurrence of mutations in BLs and the difficulty of competing efficaciously with substrates. Nevertheless, allosteric inhibitors could work synergistically with traditional inhibitors, increasing the chances of restoring bacterial susceptibility towards available antibiotics.
Project description:EBV transforms B cells in vitro and causes human B-cell lymphomas including classical Hodgkin lymphoma (CHL), Burkitt lymphoma (BL) and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). The EBV latency protein, EBNA2, transcriptionally activates the promoters of all latent viral protein-coding genes expressed in type III EBV latency and is essential for EBV's ability to transform B cells in vitro. However, EBNA2 is not expressed in EBV-infected CHLs and BLs in humans. EBV-positive CHLs have type II latency and are largely driven by the EBV LMP1/LMP2A proteins, while EBV-positive BLs, which usually have type I latency are largely driven by c-Myc translocations, and only express the EBNA1 protein and viral non-coding RNAs. Approximately 15% of human BLs contain naturally occurring EBNA2-deleted viruses that support a form of viral latency known as Wp-restricted (expressing the EBNA-LP, EBNA3A/3B/3C, EBNA1 and BHRF1 proteins), but whether Wp-restricted latency and/or EBNA2-deleted EBV can induce lymphomas in humanized mice, or in the absence of c-Myc translocations, is unknown. Here we show that a naturally occurring EBNA2-deleted EBV strain (P3HR1) isolated from a human BL induces EBV-positive B-cell lymphomas in a subset of infected cord blood-humanized (CBH) mice. Furthermore, we find that P3HR1-infected lymphoma cells support two different viral latency types and phenotypes that are mutually exclusive: 1) Large (often multinucleated), CD30-positive, CD45-negative cells reminiscent of the Reed-Sternberg (RS) cells in CHL that express high levels of LMP1 but not EBNA-LP (consistent with type II viral latency); and 2) smaller monomorphic CD30-negative DLBCL-like cells that express EBNA-LP and EBNA3A but not LMP1 (consistent with Wp-restricted latency). These results reveal that EBNA2 is not absolutely required for EBV to form tumors in CBH mice and suggest that P3HR1 virus can be used to model EBV positive lymphomas with both Wp-restricted and type II latency in vivo.
Project description:To estimate the effects of needle and syringe programmes (NSP) and opioid substitution therapy (OST), alone or in combination, for preventing acquisition of hepatitis C virus (HCV) in people who inject drugs (PWID).Systematic review and meta-analysis. Bibliographic databases were searched for studies measuring concurrent exposure to current OST (within the last 6 months) and/or NSP and HCV incidence among PWID. High NSP coverage was defined as regular NSP attendance or ? 100% coverage (receiving sufficient or greater number of needles and syringes per reported injecting frequency). Studies were assessed using the Cochrane risk of bias in non-randomized studies tool. Random-effects models were used in meta-analysis.We identified 28 studies (n = 6279) in North America (13), United Kingdom (five), Europe (four), Australia (five) and China (one). Studies were at moderate (two), serious (17) critical (seven) and non-assessable risk of bias (two). Current OST is associated with 50% [risk ratio (RR) =0.50, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.40-0.63] reduction in HCV acquisition risk, consistent across region and with low heterogeneity (I2 = 0, P = 0.889). Weaker evidence was found for high NSP coverage (RR = 0.79, 95% CI = 0.39-1.61) with high heterogeneity (I2 = 77%, P = 0.002). After stratifying by region, high NSP coverage in Europe was associated with a 56% reduction in HCV acquisition risk (RR = 0.44, 95% CI = 0.24-0.80) with low heterogeneity (I2 = 12.3%, P = 0.337), but not in North America (RR = 1.58, I2 = 89.5%, P = < 0.001). Combined OST/NSP is associated with a 74% reduction in HCV acquisition risk (RR = 0.26, 95% CI = 0.07-0.89, I2 = 80% P = 0.007). According to Grades of Recommendation Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) criteria, the evidence on OST and combined OST/NSP is low quality, while NSP is very low.Opioid substitution therapy reduces risk of hepatitis C acquisition and is strengthened in combination with needle and syringe programmes (NSP). There is weaker evidence for the impact of needle syringe programmes alone, although stronger evidence that high coverage is associated with reduced risk in Europe.