An Interaction Network of the Human SEPT9 Established by Quantitative Mass Spectrometry.
ABSTRACT: Septins regulate the organization of the actin cytoskeleton, vesicle transport and fusion, chromosome alignment and segregation, and cytokinesis in mammalian cells. SEPT9 is part of the core septin hetero-octamer in human cells which is composed of SEPT2, SEPT6, SEPT7, and SEPT9. SEPT9 has been linked to a variety of intracellular functions as well as to diseases and diverse types of cancer. A targeted high-throughput approach to systematically identify the interaction partners of SEPT9 has not yet been performed. We applied a quantitative proteomics approach to establish an interactome of SEPT9 in human fibroblast cells. Among the newly identified interaction partners were members of the myosin family and LIM domain containing proteins. Fluorescence microscopy of SEPT9 and its interaction partners provides additional evidence that SEPT9 might participate in vesicle transport from and to the plasma membrane as well as in the attachment of actin stress fibers to cellular adhesions.
Project description:Experimentally deciphering and understanding the interaction network of a particular protein provides often evidence for so far unknown functions. For the septins, a class of cytoskeletal proteins, targeted high-throughput approaches that aim at systematically deciphering interaction partners have not yet been performed. Septins regulate the organization of the acin cytoskeleton, vesicle transport and fusion, chromosome alignment- and segregation, and cytokinesis. SEPT9 is part of the core septin hetero-octamer in human cells which is composed of SEPT2, SEPT6, SEPT7, and SEPT9. SEPT9 has been linked to a variety of intracellular functions as well as to diseases and diverse types of cancer. We applied a quantitative proteomics approach to establish an interactome of SEPT9 in human fibroblast cells. We identified among others so far unknown interaction partners from the myosin familiy and could provide evidence that SEPT9 participates in vesicle transport from and to the plasma membrane as well as in the attachment of actin stress fibers to cellular adhesions.
Project description:Septins are conserved GTP-binding cytoskeletal proteins that polymerize into filaments by end-to-end joining of hetero-oligomeric complexes. In human cells, both hexamers and octamers exist, and crystallography studies predicted the order of the hexamers to be SEPT7-SEPT6-SEPT2-SEPT2-SEPT6-SEPT7, while octamers are thought to have the same core, but with SEPT9 at the ends. However, based on this septin organization, octamers and hexamers would not be expected to copolymerize due to incompatible ends. Here we isolated hexamers and octamers of specific composition from human cells and show that hexamers and octamers polymerize individually and, surprisingly, with each other. Binding of the Borg homology domain 3 (BD3) domain of Borg3 results in distinctive clustering of each filament type. Moreover, we show that the organization of hexameric and octameric complexes is inverted compared with its original prediction. This revised septin organization is congruent with the organization and behavior of yeast septins suggesting that their properties are more conserved than was previously thought.
Project description:The septins are filament-forming proteins found in diverse eukaryotes from fungi to vertebrates, with roles in cytokinesis, shaping of membranes and modifying cytoskeletal organization. These GTPases assemble into rod-shaped soluble hetero-hexamers and hetero-octamers in mammals, which polymerize into filaments and higher order structures. While the cell biology and pathobiology of septins are advancing rapidly, mechanistic study of the mammalian septins is limited by a lack of recombinant hetero-octamer materials. We describe here the production and characterization of a recombinant mammalian septin hetero-octamer of defined stoichiometry, the SEPT2/SEPT6/SEPT7/SEPT3 complex. Using a fluorescent protein fusion to the complex, we observed filaments assembled from this complex. In addition, we used this novel tool to resolve recent questions regarding the organization of the soluble septin complex. Biochemical characterization of a SEPT3 truncation that disrupts SEPT3-SEPT3 interactions is consistent with SEPT3 occupying a central position in the complex while the SEPT2 subunits are at the ends of the rod-shaped octameric complexes. Consistent with SEPT2 being on the complex ends, we find that our purified SEPT2/SEPT6/SEPT7/SEPT3 hetero-octamer copolymerizes into mixed filaments with separately purified SEPT2/SEPT6/SEPT7 hetero-hexamer. We expect this new recombinant production approach to lay essential groundwork for future studies into mammalian septin mechanism and function.
Project description:Septins are cytoskeletal proteins that assemble into hetero-oligomeric complexes and sense micron-scale membrane curvature. During infection with Shigella flexneri, an invasive enteropathogen, septins restrict actin tail formation by entrapping bacteria in cage-like structures. Here, we reconstitute septin cages in vitro using purified recombinant septin complexes (SEPT2-SEPT6-SEPT7), and study how these recognize bacterial cells and assemble on their surface. We show that septin complexes recognize the pole of growing Shigella cells. An amphipathic helix domain in human SEPT6 enables septins to sense positively curved membranes and entrap bacterial cells. Shigella strains lacking lipopolysaccharide components are more efficiently entrapped in septin cages. Finally, cryo-electron tomography of in vitro cages reveals how septins assemble as filaments on the bacterial cell surface.
Project description:Septins are GTP-binding proteins that form heteromeric filaments for proper cell growth and migration. Among the septins, septin7 (SEPT7) is an important component of all septin filaments. Here we show that protein kinase A (PKA) phosphorylates SEPT7 at Thr197, thus disrupting septin filament dynamics and ciliogenesis. The Thr197 residue of SEPT7, a PKA phosphorylating site, was conserved among different species. Treatment with cAMP or overexpression of PKA catalytic subunit (PKACA2) induced SEPT7 phosphorylation, followed by disruption of septin filament formation. Constitutive phosphorylation of SEPT7 at Thr197 reduced SEPT7?SEPT7 interaction, but did not affect SEPT7?SEPT6?SEPT2 or SEPT4 interaction. Moreover, we noted that SEPT7 interacted with PKACA2 via its GTP-binding domain. Furthermore, PKA-mediated SEPT7 phosphorylation disrupted primary cilia formation. Thus, our data uncover the novel biological function of SEPT7 phosphorylation in septin filament polymerization and primary cilia formation.
Project description:Septins are cytoskeletal proteins that assemble into nonpolar filaments. They are critical in diverse cellular functions, acting as scaffolds for protein recruitment and as diffusion barriers for subcellular compartmentalization. Human septins are encoded by 13 different genes and are classified into four groups based on sequence homology (SEPT2, SEPT3, SEPT6, and SEPT7 groups). In yeast, septins were among the first proteins reported to be modified by SUMOylation, a ubiquitin-like posttranslational modification. However, whether human septins could be modified by small ubiquitin-like modifiers (SUMOs) and what roles this modification may have in septin function remains unknown. In this study, we first show that septins from all four human septin groups can be covalently modified by SUMOs. We show in particular that endogenous SEPT7 is constitutively SUMOylated during the cell cycle. We then map SUMOylation sites to the C-terminal domain of septins belonging to the SEPT6 and SEPT7 groups and to the N-terminal domain of septins from the SEPT3 group. We finally demonstrate that expression of non-SUMOylatable septin variants from the SEPT6 and SEPT7 groups leads to aberrant septin bundle formation and defects in cytokinesis after furrow ingression. Altogether, our results demonstrate a pivotal role for SUMOylation in septin filament bundling and cell division.
Project description:Septins are conserved GTP-binding proteins that assemble into lateral diffusion barriers and molecular scaffolds. Vertebrate genomes contain 9-17 septin genes that encode both ubiquitous and tissue-specific septins. Expressed septins may assemble in various combinations through both heterotypic and homotypic G-domain interactions. However, little is known regarding assembly states of mammalian septins and mechanisms directing ordered assembly of individual septins into heteromeric units, which is the focus of this study. Our analysis of the septin system in cells lacking or overexpressing selected septins reveals interdependencies coinciding with previously described homology subgroups. Hydrodynamic and single-particle data show that individual septins exist solely in the context of stable six- to eight-subunit core heteromers, all of which contain SEPT2 and SEPT6 subgroup members and SEPT7, while heteromers comprising more than six subunits also contain SEPT9. The combined data suggest a generic model for how the temporal order of septin assembly is homology subgroup-directed, which in turn determines the subunit arrangement of native heteromers. Because mammalian cells normally express multiple members and/or isoforms of some septin subgroups, our data also suggest that only a minor fraction of native heteromers are arranged as perfect palindromes.
Project description:Septins are cytoskeletal GTPases present in nonpolar heteromeric complexes that assemble in a palindromic fashion from two to eight subunits. Mammalian septins function in several fundamental cellular processes at the membrane-cytoskeleton interface including dendritic branching in neurons. Sequence homology divides the 13 mammalian septin genes into four homology groups. Experimental findings suggest that septin function is redundant among septins from one homology group. This is best understood for the isoforms of the SEPT2 group, which form a homodimer at the center of septin complexes. <i>In vitro</i>, all SEPT2-group septins form recombinant hexameric complexes with two copies of SEPT6 and SEPT7. However, it remains unclear to what extent homologs septins can substitute for each other in specific cellular processes. Here, we use the experimental paradigm of dendritic branching in hippocampal rat neurons to ask, to what extent septins of the SEPT2-group are functionally redundant. Dendritic branching is significantly reduced when SEPT5 is downregulated. In neurons expressing SEPT5-shRNA, simultaneously expressed SEPT2-GFP, and SEPT4-GFP colocalize with SEPT7 at dendritic spine necks and rescue dendritic branching. In contrast, SEPT1-GFP is diffusely distributed in the cytoplasm in SEPT5 downregulated neurons and cannot rescue dendritic branching. Our findings provide a basis for the study of septin-specific functions in cells.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Septins are conserved GTPases that form filaments and are required in many organisms for several processes including cytokinesis. We previously identified SEPT9 associated with phagosomes containing latex beads coated with the Listeria surface protein InlB.<h4>Methodology/principal findings</h4>Here, we investigated septin function during entry of invasive bacteria in non-phagocytic mammalian cells. We found that SEPT9, and its interacting partners SEPT2 and SEPT11, are recruited as collars next to actin at the site of entry of Listeria and Shigella. SEPT2-depletion by siRNA decreased bacterial invasion, suggesting that septins have roles during particle entry. Incubating cells with InlB-coated beads confirmed an essential role for SEPT2. Moreover, SEPT2-depletion impaired InlB-mediated stimulation of Met-dependent signaling as shown by FRET.<h4>Conclusions/significance</h4>Together these findings highlight novel roles for SEPT2, and distinguish the roles of septin and actin in bacterial entry.
Project description:Septins are a large, evolutionarily conserved family of GTPases that form hetero-oligomers and interact with the actin-based cytoskeleton and microtubules. They are involved in scaffolding functions, and form diffusion barriers in budding yeast, the sperm flagellum and the base of primary cilia of kidney epithelial cells. We investigated the role of septins in the primary cilium of retinal pigmented epithelial (RPE) cells, and found that SEPT2 forms a 1:1:1 complex with SEPT7 and SEPT9 and that the three members of this complex colocalize along the length of the axoneme. Similar to observations in kidney epithelial cells, depletion of cilium-localized septins by siRNA-based approaches inhibited ciliogenesis. MAP4, which is a binding partner of SEPT2 and controls the accessibility of septins to microtubules, was also localized to the axoneme where it appeared to negatively regulate ciliary length. Taken together, our data provide new insights into the functions and regulation of septins and MAP4 in the organization of the primary cilium and microtubule-based activities in cells.