Ndufs2, a Core Subunit of Mitochondrial Complex I, Is Essential for Acute Oxygen-Sensing and Hypoxic Pulmonary Vasoconstriction.
ABSTRACT: RATIONALE:Hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV) optimizes systemic oxygen delivery by matching ventilation to perfusion. HPV is intrinsic to pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs). Hypoxia dilates systemic arteries, including renal arteries. Hypoxia is sensed by changes in mitochondrial-derived reactive oxygen species, notably hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) ([H2O2]mito). Decreases in [H2O2]mito elevate pulmonary vascular tone by increasing intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]i) through reduction-oxidation regulation of ion channels. Although HPV is mimicked by the Complex I inhibitor, rotenone, the molecular identity of the O2 sensor is unknown. OBJECTIVE:To determine the role of Ndufs2 (NADH [nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide] dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] iron-sulfur protein 2), Complex I's rotenone binding site, in pulmonary vascular oxygen-sensing. METHODS AND RESULTS:Mitochondria-conditioned media from pulmonary and renal mitochondria isolated from normoxic and chronically hypoxic rats were infused into an isolated lung bioassay. Mitochondria-conditioned media from normoxic lungs contained more H2O2 than mitochondria-conditioned media from chronic hypoxic lungs or kidneys and uniquely attenuated HPV via a catalase-dependent mechanism. In PASMC, acute hypoxia decreased H2O2 within 112±7 seconds, followed, within 205±34 seconds, by increased intracellular calcium concentration, [Ca2+]i. Hypoxia had no effects on [Ca2+]i in renal artery SMC. Hypoxia decreases both cytosolic and mitochondrial H2O2 in PASMC while increasing cytosolic H2O2 in renal artery SMC. Ndufs2 expression was greater in PASMC versus renal artery SMC. Lung Ndufs2 cysteine residues became reduced during acute hypoxia and both hypoxia and reducing agents caused functional inhibition of Complex I. In PASMC, siNdufs2 (cells/tissue treated with Ndufs2 siRNA) decreased normoxic H2O2, prevented hypoxic increases in [Ca2+]i, and mimicked aspects of chronic hypoxia, including decreasing Complex I activity, elevating the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH/NAD+) ratio and decreasing expression of the O2-sensitive ion channel, Kv1.5. Knocking down another Fe-S center within Complex I (Ndufs1, NADH [nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide] dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] iron-sulfur protein 1) or other mitochondrial subunits proposed as putative oxygen sensors (Complex III's Rieske Fe-S center and COX4i2 [cytochrome c oxidase subunit 4 isoform 2] in Complex IV) had no effect on hypoxic increases in [Ca2+]i. In vivo, siNdufs2 significantly decreased hypoxia- and rotenone-induced constriction while enhancing phenylephrine-induced constriction. CONCLUSIONS:Ndufs2 is essential for oxygen-sensing and HPV.
Project description:Hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV) redistributes blood flow from poorly ventilated to better aerated areas in the lung, thereby optimizing ventilation-perfusion ratio (V/Q). Pulmonary artery smooth muscle cell (PASMC) contraction in response to hypoxia is triggered by Ca2+ influx via transient receptor potential canonical 6 (TRPC6) cation channels that have translocated to caveolae in the plasma membrane. Since phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) was suggested to regulate TRPC6 in endothelial cells, we aimed to define its role in the hypoxic response of PASMCs and as a putative mediator of HPV.In isolated perfused mouse lungs, smooth muscle specific PTEN deficiency attenuated pulmonary vasoconstriction in response to hypoxia but not to angiotensin II (Ang II). Analogously, siRNA-mediated knock down of PTEN in human PASMC inhibited the hypoxia-induced increase in cytosolic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i). Co-immunoprecipitation and proximity ligation assays revealed increased interaction of PTEN with TRPC6 in human PASMC and murine lungs in response to hypoxia. In hypoxic PASMC, both PTEN and TRPC6 translocated to caveolae, and this response was blocked by pharmacological inhibition of Rho-associated protein kinase (ROCK) which in parallel prevented PTEN-TRPC6 interaction, hypoxia-induced [Ca2+]i increase, and HPV in PASMC and murine lungs, respectively.Our data indicate a novel interplay between ROCK and [Ca2+]i signalling in HPV via PTEN, in that ROCK mediates interaction of PTEN and TRPC6 which then conjointly translocate to caveolae allowing for Ca2+ influx into and subsequent contraction of PASMC.
Project description:Regional alveolar hypoxia causes local vasoconstriction in the lung, shifting blood flow from hypoxic to normoxic areas, thereby maintaining gas exchange. This mechanism is known as hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV). Disturbances in HPV can cause life-threatening hypoxemia whereas chronic hypoxia triggers lung vascular remodeling and pulmonary hypertension. The signaling cascade of this vitally important mechanism is still unresolved. Using transient receptor potential channel 6 (TRPC6)-deficient mice, we show that this channel is a key regulator of acute HPV as this regulatory mechanism was absent in TRPC6(-/-) mice whereas the pulmonary vasoconstrictor response to the thromboxane mimetic U46619 was unchanged. Accordingly, induction of regional hypoventilation resulted in severe arterial hypoxemia in TRPC6(-/-) but not in WT mice. This effect was mirrored by a lack of hypoxia-induced cation influx and currents in smooth-muscle cells from precapillary pulmonary arteries (PASMC) of TRPC6(-/-) mice. In both WT and TRPC6(-/-) PASMC hypoxia caused diacylglycerol (DAG) accumulation. DAG seems to exert its action via TRPC6, as DAG kinase inhibition provoked a cation influx only in WT but not in TRPC6(-/-) PASMC. Notably, chronic hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension was independent of TRPC6 activity. We conclude that TRPC6 plays a unique and indispensable role in acute hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction. Manipulation of TRPC6 function may thus offer a therapeutic strategy for the control of pulmonary hemodynamics and gas exchange.
Project description:Mitochondria play an important role in sensing both acute and chronic hypoxia in the pulmonary vasculature, but their primary oxygen-sensing mechanism and contribution to stabilization of the hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) remains elusive. Alteration of the mitochondrial electron flux and increased superoxide release from complex III has been proposed as an essential trigger for hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV). We used mice expressing a tunicate alternative oxidase, AOX, which maintains electron flux when respiratory complexes III and/or IV are inhibited. Respiratory restoration by AOX prevented acute HPV and hypoxic responses of pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMC), acute hypoxia-induced redox changes of NADH and cytochrome c, and superoxide production. In contrast, AOX did not affect the development of chronic hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension and HIF-1? stabilization. These results indicate that distal inhibition of the mitochondrial electron transport chain in PASMC is an essential initial step for acute but not chronic oxygen sensing.
Project description:Hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV) is a homeostatic mechanism that is intrinsic to the pulmonary vasculature. Intrapulmonary arteries constrict in response to alveolar hypoxia, diverting blood to better-oxygenated lung segments, thereby optimizing ventilation/perfusion matching and systemic oxygen delivery. In response to alveolar hypoxia, a mitochondrial sensor dynamically changes reactive oxygen species and redox couples in pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMC). This inhibits potassium channels, depolarizes PASMC, activates voltage-gated calcium channels, and increases cytosolic calcium, causing vasoconstriction. Sustained hypoxia activates rho kinase, reinforcing vasoconstriction, and hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1?, leading to adverse pulmonary vascular remodeling and pulmonary hypertension (PH). In the nonventilated fetal lung, HPV diverts blood to the systemic vasculature. After birth, HPV commonly occurs as a localized homeostatic response to focal pneumonia or atelectasis, which optimizes systemic Po2 without altering pulmonary artery pressure (PAP). In single-lung anesthesia, HPV reduces blood flow to the nonventilated lung, thereby facilitating thoracic surgery. At altitude, global hypoxia causes diffuse HPV, increases PAP, and initiates PH. Exaggerated or heterogeneous HPV contributes to high-altitude pulmonary edema. Conversely, impaired HPV, whether due to disease (eg, COPD, sepsis) or vasodilator drugs, promotes systemic hypoxemia. Genetic and epigenetic abnormalities of this oxygen-sensing pathway can trigger normoxic activation of HIF-1? and can promote abnormal metabolism and cell proliferation. The resulting pseudohypoxic state underlies the Warburg metabolic shift and contributes to the neoplasia-like phenotype of PH. HPV and oxygen sensing are important in human health and disease.
Project description:Hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV) requires Ca(2+) influx through store-operated Ca(2+) channels (SOCC) in pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMC) and is greater in distal than proximal pulmonary arteries (PA). SOCC may be composed of canonical transient receptor potential (TRPC) proteins and activated by stromal interacting molecule 1 (STIM1). To assess the possibility that HPV is greater in distal PA because store-operated Ca(2+) entry (SOCE) is greater in distal PASMC, we measured intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) and SOCE in primary cultures of PASMC using fluorescent microscopy and the Ca(2+)-sensitive dye fura 2. Both hypoxia (4% O(2)) and KCl (60 mM) increased [Ca(2+)](i). Responses to hypoxia, but not KCl, were greater in distal cells. We measured SOCE in PASMC perfused with Ca(2+)-free solutions containing cyclopiazonic acid to deplete Ca(2+) stores in sarcoplasmic reticulum and nifedipine to prevent Ca(2+) entry through L-type voltage-operated Ca(2+) channels. Under these conditions, the increase in [Ca(2+)](i) caused by restoration of extracellular Ca(2+) and the decrease in fura 2 fluorescence caused by Mn(2+) were greater in distal PASMC, indicating greater SOCE. Moreover, the increase in SOCE caused by hypoxia was also greater in distal cells. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis of PASMC and freshly isolated deendothelialized PA tissue demonstrated expression of STIM1 and five of seven known TRPC isoforms (TRPC1 > TRPC6 > TRPC4 >> TRPC3 approximately TRPC5). For both protein, as measured by Western blotting, and mRNA, expression of STIM1, TRPC1, TRPC6, and TRPC4 was greater in distal than proximal PASMC and PA. These results provide further support for the importance of SOCE in HPV and suggest that HPV is greater in distal than proximal PA because greater numbers and activation of SOCC in distal PASMC generate bigger increases in [Ca(2+)](i).
Project description:The role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) signaling in the O(2) sensing mechanism underlying acute hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV) has been controversial. Although mitochondria are important sources of ROS, studies using chemical inhibitors have yielded conflicting results, whereas cellular models using genetic suppression have precluded in vivo confirmation. Hence, genetic animal models are required to test mechanistic hypotheses.We tested whether mitochondrial Complex III is required for the ROS signaling and vasoconstriction responses to acute hypoxia in pulmonary arteries (PA).A mouse permitting Cre-mediated conditional deletion of the Rieske iron-sulfur protein (RISP) of Complex III was generated. Adenoviral Cre recombinase was used to delete RISP from isolated PA vessels or smooth muscle cells (PASMC).In PASMC, RISP depletion abolished hypoxia-induced increases in ROS signaling in the mitochondrial intermembrane space and cytosol, and it abrogated hypoxia-induced increases in [Ca(2+)](i). In isolated PA vessels, RISP depletion abolished hypoxia-induced ROS signaling in the cytosol. Breeding the RISP mice with transgenic mice expressing tamoxifen-activated Cre in smooth muscle permitted the depletion of RISP in PASMC in vivo. Precision-cut lung slices from those mice revealed that RISP depletion abolished hypoxia-induced increases in [Ca(2+)](i) of the PA. In vivo RISP depletion in smooth muscle attenuated the acute hypoxia-induced increase in right ventricular systolic pressure in anesthetized mice.Acute hypoxia induces superoxide release from Complex III of smooth muscle cells. These oxidant signals diffuse into the cytosol and trigger increases in [Ca(2+)](i) that cause acute hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction.
Project description:Expression of nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain protein 2 (NOD2) is upregulated in pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) during hypoxia. To investigate the involvement of NOD2 in the pulmonary vascular response to hypoxia, we subjected wild-type and NOD2-deficient mice to chronic normobaric hypoxic conditions. Compared to wild-type mice, NOD2-deficient mice developed severe pulmonary hypertension with exaggerated elevation of right ventricular systolic pressure, profound right ventricular hypertrophy and striking vascular remodeling after exposure to hypoxia. Pulmonary vascular remodeling in NOD2-deficient mice was characterized by increased PASMC proliferation. Furthermore, hypoxia-inducible factor-1? expression and Akt phosphorylation were upregulated in PASMCs from NOD2-deficient mice exposed to hypoxia. Our findings revealed that the absence of NOD2 exacerbated hypoxia-induced PASMC proliferation, pulmonary hypertension and vascular remodeling, but had no effect on PASMC migration or contractility.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:Sustained pulmonary vasoconstriction and excessive pulmonary vascular remodelling are two major causes of elevated pulmonary vascular resistance in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether chloroquine induced relaxation in the pulmonary artery (PA) and attenuates hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension (HPH). EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH:Isometric tension was measured in rat PA rings pre-constricted with phenylephrine or high K+ solution. PA pressure was measured in mouse isolated, perfused and ventilated lungs. Fura-2 fluorescence microscopy was used to measure cytosolic free Ca2+ concentration levels in PA smooth muscle cells (PASMCs). Patch-clamp experiments were performed to assess the activity of voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels (VDCCs) in PASMC. Rats exposed to hypoxia (10% O2 ) for 3 weeks were used as the model of HPH or Sugen5416/hypoxia (SuHx) for in vivo experiments. KEY RESULTS:Chloroquine attenuated agonist-induced and high K+ -induced contraction in isolated rat PA. Pretreatment with l-NAME or indomethacin and functional removal of endothelium failed to inhibit chloroquine-induced PA relaxation. In PASMC, extracellular application of chloroquine attenuated store-operated Ca2+ entry and ATP-induced Ca2+ entry. Furthermore, chloroquine also inhibited whole-cell Ba2+ currents through VDCC in PASMC. In vivo experiments demonstrated that chloroquine treatment ameliorated the HPH and SuHx models. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS:Chloroquine is a potent pulmonary vasodilator that may directly or indirectly block VDCC, store-operated Ca2+ channels and receptor-operated Ca2+ channels in PASMC. The therapeutic potential of chloroquine in pulmonary hypertension is probably due to the combination of its vasodilator, anti-proliferative and anti-autophagic effects.
Project description:The role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in smooth muscle contraction is poorly understood. We hypothesised that G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) activation and hypoxia induce Rho-kinase activity and contraction in rat intra-pulmonary artery (IPA) via stimulation of ROS production and subsequent Src-family kinase (SrcFK) activation. The T-type prostanoid receptor agonist U46619 induced ROS production in pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMC). U46619 also induced c-Src cysteine oxidation, SrcFK auto-phosphorylation, MYPT-1 and MLC20 phosphorylation and contraction in IPA, and all these responses were inhibited by antioxidants (ebselen, Tempol). Contraction and SrcFK/MYPT-1/MLC20 phosphorylations were also inhibited by combined superoxide dismutase and catalase, or by the SrcFK antagonist PP2, while contraction and MYPT-1/MLC20 phosphorylations were inhibited by the Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor (RhoGEF) inhibitor Y16. H2O2 and the superoxide-generating quinoledione LY83583 both induced c-Src oxidation, SrcFK auto-phosphorylation and contraction in IPA. LY83583 and H2O2-induced contractions were inhibited by PP2, while LY83583-induced contraction was also inhibited by antioxidants and Y16. SrcFK auto-phosphorylation and MYPT-1/MLC20 phosphorylation was also induced by hypoxia in IPA and this was blocked by mitochondrial inhibitors rotenone and myxothiazol. In live PASMC, sub-cellular translocation of RhoA and the RhoGEF ARHGEF1 was triggered by both U46619 and LY83583 and this translocation was blocked by antioxidants and PP2. RhoA translocation was also inhibited by an ARHGEF1 siRNA. U46619 enhanced ROS-dependent co-immunoprecipitation of ARHGEF1 with c-Src. Our results demonstrate a link between GPCR-induced cytosolic ROS or hypoxia-induced mitochondrial ROS and SrcFK activity, Rho-kinase activity and contraction. ROS and SrcFK activate RhoA via ARHGEF1.
Project description:Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) cause Ca2+ release from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) via ryanodine receptors (RyRs) in pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs), playing an essential role in hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV). Here we tested a novel hypothesis that hypoxia-induced RyR-mediated Ca2+ release may, in turn, promote mitochondrial ROS generation contributing to hypoxic cellular responses in PASMCs. Our data reveal that application of caffeine to elevate intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) by activating RyRs results in a significant increase in ROS production in cytosol and mitochondria of PASMCs. Norepinephrine to increase [Ca2+]i due to the opening of inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate receptors (IP3Rs) produces similar effects. Exogenous Ca2+ significantly increases mitochondrial-derived ROS generation as well. Ru360 also inhibits the hypoxic ROS production. The RyR antagonist tetracaine or RyR2 gene knockout (KO) suppresses hypoxia-induced responses as well. Inhibition of mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake with Ru360 eliminates N- and Ca2+-induced responses. RISP KD abolishes the hypoxia-induced ROS production in mitochondria of PASMCs. Rieske iron-sulfur protein (RISP) gene knockdown (KD) blocks caffeine- or NE-induced ROS production. Taken together, these findings have further demonstrated that ER Ca2+ release causes mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake and RISP-mediated ROS production; this novel local ER/mitochondrion communication-elicited, Ca2+-mediated, RISP-dependent ROS production may play a significant role in hypoxic cellular responses in PASMCs.