Age-related hearing loss accelerates cerebrospinal fluid tau levels and brain atrophy: a longitudinal study.
ABSTRACT: Age-related hearing loss (ARHL) has been considered as a promising modifiable risk factor for cognitive impairment and dementia. Nonetheless, it is still unclear whether age-related hearing loss associates with neurodegenerative biomarkers of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Participants with ARHL were selected from the established Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) database. In multivariable models, the cross-sectional and longitudinal associations of ARHL with CSF ?-amyloid (A?) and tau measurements, brain A? load, and cortical structural measures were explored. ARHL was associated with higher CSF levels of tau (p < 0.001) or ptau181 (p < 0.05) at baseline as well as faster elevation rates of these two types of biomarkers (p < 0.05). Although the baseline volume/thickness of hippocampus (p < 0.05) and entorhinal cortex (p < 0.0005) were higher in individuals with ARHL, these two regions (p < 0.01 for hippocampus, p < 0.05 for entorhinal cortex) displayed significantly accelerated atrophy in individuals with ARHL. No association of ARHL with CSF or brain A? levels was found. Subgroup analyses indicated that the above effects of ARHL were more significant in non-demented stage. Age-related hearing loss was associated with elevated cerebrospinal fluid tau levels and atrophy of entorhinal cortex.
Project description:<h4>Background and purpose</h4>Among cognitively healthy older individuals, the relationship among the 2 hallmark proteins of AD (Aβ and τ APOE ε4) and neurodegeneration is not well-understood. Here, we investigated the relationship between Aβ, p-τ, and APOE ε4 on longitudinal brain atrophy in preclinical AD.<h4>Materials and methods</h4>We examined 107 cognitively healthy older adults who underwent longitudinal MR imaging and baseline lumbar puncture. Within the same linear mixed-effects model, we concurrently investigated main and interactive effects between the APOE ε4 genotype and CSF Aβ(1-42), CSF p-τ and CSF Aβ(1-42), and the APOE ε4 genotype and CSF p-τ on entorhinal cortex atrophy rate. We also examined the relationship of APOE ε4, CSF p-τ, and CSF Aβ(1-42) on the atrophy rate of other AD-vulnerable neuroanatomic regions.<h4>Results</h4>The full model with main and interactive effects demonstrated a significant interaction only between CSF p-τ and CSF Aβ(1-42) on entorhinal cortex atrophy rate, indicating elevated atrophy with time in individuals with increased CSF p-τ and decreased CSF Aβ(1-42). The APOE ε4 genotype was significantly and specifically associated with CSF Aβ(1-42). However, the interaction between the APOE ε4 genotype and either CSF Aβ(1-42) or CSF p-τ on entorhinal cortex atrophy rate was not significant. We found similar results in other AD-vulnerable regions.<h4>Conclusions</h4>On the basis of our findings and building on prior experimental evidence, we propose a model of the pathogenic cascade underlying preclinical AD in which APOE ε4 primarily influences the pathology of Alzheimer disease via Aβ-related mechanisms, and in turn, Aβ-associated neurodegeneration occurs only in the presence of p-τ.
Project description:Converging evidence indicates that clusterin, a chaperone glycoprotein, influences Alzheimer disease neurodegeneration. However, the precise role of clusterin in Alzheimer disease pathogenesis is still not well understood.To elucidate the relationship between clusterin, amyloid-? (A?), phosphorylated tau (p-tau), and the rate of brain atrophy over time among nondemented older individuals.This longitudinal cohort included cognitively normal older participants and individuals with mild cognitive impairment assessed with baseline lumbar puncture and longitudinal structural magnetic resonance imaging. We examined 241 nondemented older individuals from research centers across the United States and Canada (91 participants with a Clinical Dementia Rating score of 0 and 150 individuals with a Clinical Dementia Rating score of 0.5).Using linear mixed-effects models, we investigated interactions between cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) clusterin, CSF A?1-42, and CSF p-tau at threonine 181 (p-tau181p) on the atrophy rate of the entorhinal cortex and hippocampus.Across all participants, we found a significant interaction between CSF clusterin and CSF A?1-42 on the entorhinal cortex atrophy rate but not on the hippocampal atrophy rate. Cerebrospinal fluid clusterin was associated with the entorhinal cortex atrophy rate among CSF A?1-42-positive individuals but not among CSF A?1-42-negative individuals. In secondary analyses, we found significant interactions between CSF A?1-42 and CSF clusterin, as well as CSF A?1-42 and CSF p-tau181p, on the entorhinal cortex atrophy rate. We found similar results in subgroup analyses within the mild cognitive impairment and cognitively normal cohorts.In nondemented older individuals, A?-associated volume loss occurs in the presence of elevated clusterin. The effect of clusterin on A?-associated brain atrophy is not confounded or explained by p-tau. These findings implicate a potentially important role for clusterin in the earliest stages of the Alzheimer disease neurodegenerative process and suggest independent effects of clusterin and p-tau on A?-associated volume loss.
Project description:The relationship between neurodegeneration and the 2 hallmark proteins of Alzheimer's disease, amyloid-? (A?) and tau, is still unclear. Here, we examined 286 nondemented participants (107 cognitively normal older adults and 179 memory impaired individuals) who underwent longitudinal magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and lumbar puncture. Using mixed effects models, we investigated the relationship between longitudinal entorhinal cortex atrophy rate, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) p-tau(181p) and CSF A?(1-42) . We found a significant relationship between elevated entorhinal cortex atrophy rate and decreased CSF A?(1-42) only with elevated CSF p-tau(181p) . Our findings indicate that A?-associated volume loss occurs only in the presence of phospho-tau in humans at risk for dementia.
Project description:In Alzheimer's disease, postmortem studies have shown that the first cortical site where neurofibrillary tangles appear is the transentorhinal region, a subregion within the medial temporal lobe that largely overlaps with area 35, and the entorhinal cortex. Here we used tau-PET imaging to investigate the sequence of tau pathology progression within the human medial temporal lobe and across regions in the posterior-medial system. Our objective was to study how medial temporal tau is related to functional connectivity, regional atrophy, and memory performance. We included 215 β-amyloid negative cognitively unimpaired, 81 β-amyloid positive cognitively unimpaired and 87 β-amyloid positive individuals with mild cognitive impairment, who each underwent F-RO948 tau and F-flutemetamol amyloid PET imaging, structural T1-MRI and memory assessments as part of the Swedish BioFINDER-2 study. First, event-based modelling revealed that the entorhinal cortex and area 35 show the earliest signs of tau accumulation followed by the anterior and posterior hippocampus, area 36 and the parahippocampal cortex. In later stages, tau accumulation became abnormal in neocortical temporal and finally parietal brain regions. Second, in cognitively unimpaired individuals, increased tau load was related to local atrophy in the entorhinal cortex, area 35 and the anterior hippocampus and tau load in several anterior medial temporal lobe subregions was associated with distant atrophy of the posterior hippocampus. Tau load, but not atrophy, in these regions was associated with lower memory performance. Further, tau-related reductions in functional connectivity in critical networks between the medial temporal lobe and regions in the posterior-medial system were associated with this early memory impairment. Finally, in patients with mild cognitive impairment, the association of tau load in the hippocampus with memory performance was partially mediated by posterior hippocampal atrophy. In summary, our findings highlight the progression of tau pathology across medial temporal lobe subregions and its disease-stage specific association with memory performance. While tau pathology might affect memory performance in cognitively unimpaired individuals via reduced functional connectivity in critical medial temporal lobe-cortical networks, memory impairment in mild cognitively impaired patients is associated with posterior hippocampal atrophy.
Project description:<h4>Importance</h4>The amyloid/tau/neurodegeneration (A/T/N) framework uses cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of total tau (tTau) as a marker of neurodegeneration and CSF levels of phosphorylated tau 181 (pTau181) as a marker of tau tangles. However, it is unclear whether CSF levels of tTau and pTau181 have similar or different trajectories over the course of Alzheimer disease.<h4>Objectives</h4>To examine the rates of change in CSF levels of tTau and pTau181 across the Alzheimer disease course and how the rates of change are associated with brain atrophy as measured by magnetic resonance imaging.<h4>Design, setting, and participants</h4>This cohort study was set in tertiary research clinics. Each participant was a member of a pedigree with a known mutation for dominantly inherited Alzheimer disease. Participants were divided into 3 groups on the basis of the presence of a mutation and their Clinical Dementia Rating score. Data analysis was performed in June 2019.<h4>Main outcomes and measures</h4>Rates of change of CSF tTau and pTau181 levels and their association with the rate of change of brain volume.<h4>Results</h4>Data from 465 participants (283 mutation carriers and 182 noncarriers) were analyzed. The mean (SD) age of the cohort was 37.8 (11.3) years, and 262 (56.3%) were women. The mean (SD) follow-up duration was 2.7 (1.5) years. Two or more longitudinal CSF and magnetic resonance imaging assessments were available for 160 and 247 participants, respectively. Sixty-five percent of mutation carriers (183) did not have symptoms at baseline (Clinical Dementia Rating score, 0). For mutation carriers, the annual rates of change for CSF tTau and pTau181 became significantly different from 0 approximately 10 years before the estimated year of onset (mean [SE] rates of change, 5.5 [2.8] for tTau [P?=?.05] and 0.7 [0.3] for pTau 181 [P?=?.04]) and 15 years before onset (mean [SE] rates of change, 5.4 [3.9] for tTau [P?=?.17] and 1.1 [0.5] for pTau181 [P?=?.03]), respectively. The rate of change of pTau181 was positive and increased at the early stages of the disease, showing a positive rate of change starting at 15 estimated years before onset until 5 estimated years before onset (mean [SE], 0.4 [0.3]), followed by a positive but decreasing rate of change at year 0 (mean [SE], 0.1 [0.3]) and then negative rates of change at 5 years (mean [SE], -0.3 [0.4]) and 10 years (mean [SE], -0.6 [0.6]) after symptom onset. In individuals without symptoms (Clinical Dementia Rating score, 0), the rates of change of CSF tTau and pTau181 were negatively associated with brain atrophy (high rates of change in CSF measures were associated with low rates of change in brain volume in asymptomatic stages). After symptom onset (Clinical Dementia Rating score, >0), an increased rate of brain atrophy was not associated with rates of change of levels of both CSF tTau and pTau181.<h4>Conclusions and relevance</h4>These findings suggest that CSF tTau and pTau181 may have different associations with brain atrophy across the disease time course. These results have implications for understanding the dynamics of disease pathobiology and interpreting neuronal injury biomarker concentrations in response to Alzheimer disease progression and disease-modifying therapies.
Project description:Mild behavioral impairment (MBI) is suggested as risk marker for neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). Recently, pathologic tau deposition in the brain has been shown closely related to clinical manifestations, such as cognitive deficits. Yet, associations between tau pathology and MBI have rarely been investigated. It is further debated if MBI precedes cognitive deficits in AD. Here, we explored potential mechanisms by which MBI is related to AD, this by studying associations between MBI and tau in preclinical AD. In all, 50 amyloid-?-positive cognitively unimpaired subjects (part of the BioFINDER-2 study) underwent MBI-checklist (MBI-C) to assess MBI, and the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale - Cognitive subscale (ADAS-Cog) delayed word recall (ADAS-DR) to assess episodic memory. Early tau pathology was determined using tau-PET ([<sup>18</sup>F]RO948 retention in entorhinal cortex/hippocampus) and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) P-tau<sub>181</sub>. Regression models were used to test for associations. We found that higher tau-PET signal in the entorhinal cortex/hippocampus and CSF P-tau<sub>181</sub> levels were associated with higher MBI-C scores (??=?0.010, SE?=?0.003, p?=?0.003 and ??=?1.263, SE?=?0.446, p?=?0.007, respectively). When MBI-C and ADAS-DR were entered together in the regression models, tau-PET (??=?0.009, p?=?0.009) and CSF P-tau<sub>181</sub> (??=?0.408, p?=?0.006) were predicted by MBI-C, but not ADAS-DR. We conclude that in preclinical AD, MBI is associated with tau independently from memory deficits. This denotes MBI as an important early clinical manifestation related to tau pathology in AD.
Project description:Postmortem brain studies of older drivers killed in car accidents indicate that many had Alzheimer disease (AD) neuropathologic changes. We examined whether AD biomarkers are related to driving performance among cognitively normal older adults. Individuals with normal cognition, aged 65+ years, and driving at least once per week, were recruited. Participants (N=129) took part in clinical assessments, a driving test, and positron emission tomography imaging with Pittsburgh compound B (PIB) and/or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) collection. General linear models tested whether the number of driving errors differed as a function of each of the biomarker variables (mean cortical binding potential for PIB, and CSF A?42, tau, ptau181, tau/A?42, ptau181/A?42). Higher ratios of CSF tau/A?42, ptau181/A?42, and PIB mean cortical binding potential, were associated with more driving errors (P<0.05). Preclinical AD may have subtle cognitive and functional effects, which alone may go unnoticed. However, when combined, these changes may impact complex behaviors such as driving.
Project description:Tau pathology in Alzheimer's disease (AD) first develops in the entorhinal cortex (EC), then spreads to the hippocampus, followed by the neocortex. Overall, tau pathology correlates well with neurodegeneration and cell loss, but the spatial and temporal association between tau pathology and overt volume loss (atrophy) associated with structural changes or cell loss is unclear. Using in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with tensor-based morphometry (TBM), we mapped the spatiotemporal pattern of structural changes in a mouse model of AD-like progressive tauopathy. A novel, coregistered in vivo MRI atlas was then applied to identify regions in the medial temporal lobe that had a significant volume reduction. Our study shows that in a mouse model of tauopathy spread, the propagation of tau pathology from the EC to the hippocampus is associated with TBM-related atrophy, but atrophy in the dentate gyrus and subiculum precedes overt cell loss.
Project description:Age-related hearing loss (ARHL) is associated with cognitive dysfunction; however, the detailed underlying mechanisms remain unclear. The aim of this study is to investigate the potential underlying mechanism with a system genetics approach. A transcriptome-wide association study was performed on aged (12-32 months old) BXD mice strains. The hippocampus gene expression was obtained from 56 BXD strains, and the hearing acuity was assessed from 54 BXD strains. Further correlation analysis identified a total of 1,435 hearing-related genes in the hippocampus (<i>p</i> < 0.05). Pathway analysis of these genes indicated that the impaired glutamatergic synapse pathway is involved in ARHL (<i>p</i> = 0.0038). Further gene co-expression analysis showed that the expression level of glutamine synthetase (<i>Gls</i>), which is significantly correlated with ARHL (<i>n</i> = 26, <i>r</i> = -0.46, <i>p</i> = 0.0193), is a crucial regulator in glutamatergic synapse pathway and associated with learning and memory behavior. In this study, we present the first systematic evaluation of hippocampus gene expression pattern associated with ARHL, learning, and memory behavior. Our results provide novel potential molecular mechanisms involved in ARHL and cognitive dysfunction association.
Project description:Importance:Prior evidence suggests that racial differences exist in tau biomarkers in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer disease (AD). Whether this reported disparity is associated with a differential level of neurodegeneration and disease stage or with underlying mechanisms separate from amyloid or tau is unclear. Objectives:To compare cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers in African American and white individuals with normal cognition and MCI, to estimate race-based cutoffs for these biomarkers that maximize diagnostic discrimination between normal cognition and MCI, and to study the association of demographic characteristics, cognitive performance, and common vascular risk factors with these differences. Design, Setting, and Participants:This case-control study conducted from March 1, 2016, through January 31, 2019, included participants in the Brain Stress Hypertension and Aging Research Program cohort undergoing baseline assessment. Participants were 50 years or older and recruited from the Atlanta, Georgia, area. Exposures:Self-reported race and cognitive status categorized using modified Petersen criteria and clinical consensus diagnosis. Main Outcomes and Measures:Levels of ?-amyloid 1-42 (A?1-42), tau, and phosphorylated tau 181 (pTau181), the ratio of tau or pTau181 to A?1-42, and hippocampal volume on magnetic resonance imaging of the brain. Results:Data from 362 study participants were analyzed (mean [SD] age, 65.6 [7.9] years), of whom 152 (42.0%) were African American, 230 (63.5%) were women, and 189 (52.2%) had MCI. After adjustment for demographic characteristics and cognitive performance, lower mean (SE) levels were observed in African American vs white individuals with MCI for tau (52.40 [5.90] vs 78.98 [5.02] pg/mL; P?=?.001) and pTau181 (15.42 [2.06] vs 25.24 [1.75] pg/mL; P?=?.001) and a lower pTau181 to A?1-42 ratio (0.07 [0.02] vs 0.14 [0.01]; P?=?.003). There were no racial differences in the normal cognition group or in hippocampal volumes in the MCI group. Cutoffs for CSF biomarkers were higher for A?1-42 in African American relative to white individuals (208 [95% CI, 126-321] vs 197 [95% CI, 183-245] pg/mL) and lower for tau (51 [95% CI, 31-59] vs 59 [95% CI, 56-92] pg/mL) and pTau181 (12 [95% CI, 12-19] vs 20 [95% CI, 12-27] pg/mL) levels. Cutoffs for the pTau181 to A?1-42 ratio were 0.05 (95% CI, 0.03-0.12) for African American participants and 0.05 (95% CI, 0.05-0.13) for white participants. Conclusions and Relevance:This study found that African American individuals had lower levels of tau-based biomarkers that were not likely explained by the degree of disease stage or neurodegeneration reflected by hippocampal volumes. This study suggests that race is an important factor when interpreting CSF biomarkers, especially in the clinical diagnosis of prodromal AD. It appears that using the pTau181 to A?1-42 ratio may ameliorate these differences.