The extracellular endo-?-1,4-xylanase with multidomain from the extreme thermophile Caldicellulosiruptor lactoaceticus is specific for insoluble xylan degradation.
ABSTRACT: Background:The extremely thermophilic bacterium Caldicellulosiruptor lactoaceticus can degrade and metabolize untreated lignocellulosic biomass containing xylan. The mechanism of the bacterium for degradation of insoluble xylan in untreated biomass has not been revealed. Results:In the present study, the only annotated extracellular endo-?-1,4-xylanase (Xyn10B) with multidomain structures in C. lactoaceticus genome was biochemically characterized. Xyn10B contains three N-terminal consecutive family 22 carbohydrate-binding modules (CBMs), one GH10 catalytic domain (CD), two family 9 CBMs and two S-layer homology (SLH) modules in the C-terminal. CBM22a shares 27.1% and 27.2% sequence homology with CBM22b and CBM22c, respectively. The sequence homology between two CBM9 s and two SLHs is 26.8% and 25.6%, respectively. To elucidate the effect of multiple domains on the enzymatic properties of Xyn10B, the truncated variants of which (Xyn10B-TM1: CBM22a-CBM22b-CBM22c-CD10; Xyn10B-TM2: CBM22c-CD10; Xyn10B-TM3: CBM22c-CD10-CBM9a; and Xyn10B-TM4: CD10-CBM9a) were separately reconstructed, recombinantly expressed and biochemically characterized. Enzymatic properties studies showed that the optimal temperature for all four Xyn10B truncations was 65 °C. Compared to Xyn10B-TM3 and Xyn10B-TM4, Xyn10B-TM1 and Xyn10B-TM2 had higher hydrolytic activity, thermostability and affinity on insoluble substrates. It is noteworthy that Xyn10B-TM1 and Xyn10B-TM2 have higher enzymatic activity on insoluble xylan than the soluble counterparts, whereas Xyn10B-TM3 and Xyn10B-TM4 showed opposite characteristics. The kinetic parameters analysis of Xyn10B-TM1 on xylan showed V max was 5740, 1300, 1033, and 3925 U/?mol on insoluble oat spelt xylan (OSX), soluble beechwood xylan (BWX), soluble sugar cane xylan (SCX), and soluble corncob xylan (CCX), respectively. The results indicated that CBM22s especially CBM22c promoted the hydrolytic activity, thermostability and affinity on insoluble substrates of the Xyn10B truncations. The functions of CBM22, CBM9, CD and SLH are different, while contribute synergetically to the thermostability, protein structure integrity, substrate binding, and high hydrolytic activity on insoluble xylan of untreated lignocellulosic biomass. The domains of CBM22, CBM9, CD and SLH have different characteristics, which synergistically promote the thermostability, protein structure integrity, affinity on insoluble substrates and enzymatic activity properties of Xyn10B. Conclusions:The extracellular endo-?-1,4-xylanase with multidomain structures of CBM, CD and SLH promote the biodegradation of insoluble xylan in untreated lignocellulosic biomass by thermophilic C. lactoaceticus.
Project description:Caldicellulosiruptor kronotskyensis grows on lignocellulosic biomass by the catalysis of intrinsic glycoside hydrolase, and has potential application for consolidated bioprocessing. In current study, two predicted extra- (Xyn10A) and intracellular (Xyn10B) xylanase from C. kronotskyensis were comparatively characterized. Xyn10A and Xyn10B share GH10 catalytic domain with similarity of 41%, while the former contains two tandem N-terminus CBM22s. Xyn10A showed higher hydrolytic capability than Xyn10B on both beechwood xylan (BWX) and oat spelt xylan (OSX). Truncation mutation experiments revealed the importance of CBMs for hydrolytic activity, substrate binding and thermostability of Xyn10A.While the quantity of CBM was not directly related to bind and thermostability. Although CBM was considered to be crucial for substrate binding, Xyn10B and Xyn10A as well as truncations performed similar binding affinity to insoluble substrate OSX. Analysis of point mutation revealed similar key residues, Glu493, Glu601 and Trp658 for Xyn10A and Glu139, Glu247 and Trp305 for Xyn10B. Both Xyn10A and Xyn10B exhibited hydrolytic activity on the mechanical pretreated corncob. After pre-digested by Xyn10A or Xyn10B, the micropores inthe the mechanical pretreated corncob were observed, which enhanced the accessibility for cellulase. Compared with corncob hydrolyzed with cellulase alone, enhanced hydrolytic performance of was observed after pre-digestion by Xyn10A or Xyn10B.
Project description:Paenibacillus sp. W-61 is capable of utilizing water-insoluble xylan for carbon and energy sources and has three xylanase genes, xyn1, xyn3, and xyn5. Xyn1, Xyn3, and Xyn5 are extracellular enzymes of the glycoside hydrolase (GH) families 11, 30, and 10, respectively. Xyn5 contains several domains including those of carbohydrate-binding modules (CBMs) similar to a surface-layer homologous (SLH) protein. This study focused on the role of Xyn5, localized on the cell surface, in water-insoluble xylan utilization. Electron microscopy using immunogold staining revealed Xyn5 clusters over the entire cell surface. Xyn5 was bound to cell wall fractions through its SLH domain. A Deltaxyn5 mutant grew poorly and produced minimal amounts of Xyn1 and Xyn3 on water-insoluble xylan. A Xyn5 mutant lacking the SLH domain (Xyn5DeltaSLH) grew poorly, secreting Xyn5DeltaSLH into the medium and producing minimal Xyn1 and Xyn3 on water-insoluble xylan. A mutant with an intact xyn5 produced Xyn5 on the cell surface, grew normally, and actively synthesized Xyn1 and Xyn3 on water-insoluble xylan. Quantitative reverse transcription-PCR showed that xylobiose, generated from water-insoluble xylan decomposition by Xyn5, is the most active inducer for xyn1 and xyn3. Luciferase assays using a Xyn5-luciferase fusion protein suggested that xylotriose is the best inducer for xyn5. The cell surface Xyn5 appears to play two essential roles in water-insoluble xylan utilization: (i) generation of the xylo-oligosaccharide inducers of all the xyn genes from water-insoluble xylan and (ii) attachment of the cells to the substrate so that the generated inducers can be immediately taken up by cells to activate expression of the xyn system.
Project description:The hydrolysis of polysaccharides containing mannan requires endo-1,4-beta-mannanase and 1,4-beta-mannosidase activities. In the current report, the biochemical properties of two endo-beta-1,4-mannanases (Man5A and Man5B) from Caldanaerobius polysaccharolyticus were studied. Man5A is composed of an N-terminal signal peptide (SP), a catalytic domain, two carbohydrate-binding modules (CBMs), and three surface layer homology (SLH) repeats, whereas Man5B lacks the SP, CBMs, and SLH repeats. To gain insights into how the two glycoside hydrolase family 5 (GH5) enzymes may aid the bacterium in energy acquisition and also the potential application of the two enzymes in the biofuel industry, two derivatives of Man5A (Man5A-TM1 [TM1 stands for truncational mutant 1], which lacks the SP and SLH repeats, and Man5A-TM2, which lacks the SP, CBMs, and SLH repeats) and the wild-type Man5B were biochemically analyzed. The Man5A derivatives displayed endo-1,4-beta-mannanase and endo-1,4-beta-glucanase activities and hydrolyzed oligosaccharides with a degree of polymerization (DP) of 4 or higher. Man5B exhibited endo-1,4-beta-mannanase activity and little endo-1,4-beta-glucanase activity; however, this enzyme also exhibited 1,4-beta-mannosidase and cellodextrinase activities. Man5A-TM1, compared to either Man5A-TM2 or Man5B, had higher catalytic activity with soluble and insoluble polysaccharides, indicating that the CBMs enhance catalysis of Man5A. Furthermore, Man5A-TM1 acted synergistically with Man5B in the hydrolysis of beta-mannan and carboxymethyl cellulose. The versatility of the two enzymes, therefore, makes them a resource for depolymerization of mannan-containing polysaccharides in the biofuel industry. Furthermore, on the basis of the biochemical and genomic data, a molecular mechanism for utilization of mannan-containing nutrients by C. polysaccharolyticus is proposed.
Project description:Caldicellulosiruptor lactoaceticus 6A, an anaerobic and extremely thermophilic bacterium, uses natural xylan as carbon source. The encoded genes of C. lactoaceticus 6A for glycoside hydrolase (GH) provide a platform for xylan degradation. The GH family 10 xylanase (Xyn10A) and GH67 ?-glucuronidase (Agu67A) from C. lactoaceticus 6A were heterologously expressed, purified and characterized. Both Xyn10A and Agu67A are predicted as intracellular enzymes as no signal peptides identified. Xyn10A and Agu67A had molecular weight of 47.0 kDa and 80.0 kDa respectively as determined by SDS-PAGE, while both appeared as homodimer when analyzed by gel filtration. Xyn10A displayed the highest activity at 80 °C and pH 6.5, as 75 °C and pH 6.5 for Agu67A. Xyn10A had good stability at 75 °C, 80 °C, and pH 4.5-8.5, respectively, and was sensitive to various metal ions and reagents. Xyn10A possessed hydrolytic activity towards xylo-oligosaccharides (XOs) and beechwood xylan. At optimum conditions, the specific activity of Xyn10A was 44.6 IU/mg with beechwood xylan as substrate, and liberated branched XOs, xylobiose, and xylose. Agu67A was active on branched XOs with methyl-glucuronic acids (MeGlcA) sub-chains, and primarily generated XOs equivalents and MeGlcA. The specific activity of Agu67A was 1.3 IU/mg with aldobiouronic acid as substrate. The synergistic action of Xyn10A and Agu67A was observed with MeGlcA branched XOs and xylan as substrates, both backbone and branched chain of substrates were degraded, and liberated xylose, xylobiose, and MeGlcA. The synergism of Xyn10A and Agu67A provided not only a thermophilic method for natural xylan degradation, but also insight into the mechanisms for xylan utilization of C. lactoaceticus.
Project description:Paenibacillus curdlanolyticus B-6 produces an extracellular multienzyme complex containing a hypothetical scaffolding-like protein and several xylanases and cellulases. The largest (280-kDa) component protein, called S1, has cellulose-binding ability and xylanase activity, thus was considered to function like the scaffolding proteins found in cellulosomes. S1 consists of 863 amino acid residues with predicted molecular mass 91,029 Da and includes two N-terminal surface layer homology (SLH) domains, but most of its sequence shows no homology with proteins of known function. Native S1 (nS1) was highly glycosylated. Purified nS1 and recombinant Xyn11A (rXyn11A) as a major xylanase subunit could assemble in a complex, but recombinant S1 (rS1) could not interact with rXyn11A, indicating that S1 glycosylation is necessary for assembly of the multienzyme complex. nS1 and rS1 showed weak, typical endo-xylanase activity, even though they have no homology with known glycosyl hydrolase family enzymes. S1 and its SLH domains bound tightly to the peptide-glycan layer of P. curdlanolyticus B-6, microcrystalline cellulose, and insoluble xylan, indicating that the SLHs of S1 bind to carbohydrate polymers and the cell surface. When nS1 and rXyn11A were co-incubated with birchwood xylan, the degradation ability was synergistically increased compared with that for each protein; however synergy was not observed for rS1 and rXynA. These results indicate that S1 may have a scaffolding protein-like function by interaction with enzyme subunits and polysaccharides through its glycosylated sites and SLH domains.
Project description:Pseudomonas cellulosa is a highly efficient xylan-degrading bacterium. Genes encoding five xylanases, and several accessory enzymes, which remove the various side chains that decorate the xylan backbone, have been isolated from the pseudomonad and characterized. The xylanase genes consist of xyn10A, xyn10B, xyn10C, xyn10D, and xyn11A, which encode Xyn10A, Xyn10B, Xyn10C, Xyn10D, and Xyn11A, respectively. In this study a sixth xylanase gene, xyn11B, was isolated which encodes a 357-residue modular enzyme, designated Xyn11B, comprising a glycoside hydrolase family 11 catalytic domain appended to a C-terminal X-14 module, a homologue of which binds to xylan. Localization studies showed that the two xylanases with glycoside hydrolase family (GH) 11 catalytic modules, Xyn11A and Xyn11B, are secreted into the culture medium, whereas Xyn10C is membrane bound. xyn10C, xyn10D, xyn11A, and xyn11B were all abundantly expressed when the bacterium was cultured on xylan or beta-glucan but not on medium containing mannan, whereas glucose repressed transcription of these genes. Although all of the xylanase genes were induced by the same polysaccharides, temporal regulation of xyn11A and xyn11B was apparent on xylan-containing media. Transcription of xyn11A occurred earlier than transcription of xyn11B, which is consistent with the predicted mode of action of the encoded enzymes. Xyn11A, but not Xyn11B, exhibits xylan esterase activity, and the removal of acetate side chains is required for xylanases to hydrolyze the xylan backbone. A transposon mutant of P. cellulosa in which xyn11A and xyn11B were inactive displayed greatly reduced extracellular but normal cell-associated xylanase activity, and its growth rate on medium containing xylan was indistinguishable from wild-type P. cellulosa. Based on the data presented here, we propose a model for xylan degradation by P. cellulosa in which the GH11 enzymes convert decorated xylans into substituted xylooligosaccharides, which are then hydrolyzed to their constituent sugars by the combined action of cell-associated GH10 xylanases and side chain-cleaving enzymes.
Project description:In Escherichia coli, the periplasmic protein disulfide isomerase, DsbC, is maintained reduced by transfer of electrons from cytoplasmic thioredoxin-1 (Trx1) via the cytoplasmic membrane protein, DsbD. The transmembrane domain of DsbD (DsbDbeta), which comprises eight transmembrane segments (TMs), contains two redox-active cysteines (Cys-163 and Cys-285), each of which is water-exposed to both sides of the membrane. Cys-163 in TM1 and Cys-285 in TM4 can interact with cytoplasmic Trx1 and a periplasmic Trx-like domain of DsbD, respectively. When Cys-163 and Cys-285 are disulfide-bonded, the C-terminal halves of TM1 and TM4 are water-exposed, whereas the N-terminal halves of these TMs are not. To assess possible conformational changes of DsbDbeta when its two cysteines are reduced, we have determined the accessibility of portions of TM1 and TM4. We substituted cysteines for amino acids in these TM segments and determined alkylation accessibility. We find that the alkylation accessibility of single Cys replacements in TM1 and TM4 is the same in oxidized and reduced DsbDbeta, indicating a relatively static conformation of DsbDbeta between the two redox states. We also find that the accessibility of amino acids of TM2 and TM3 when Cys-163 and Cys-285 are oxidized or reduced shows no change. Together, these results support a relatively static structure of DsbDbeta in the switch between the oxidized and the reduced state but raise the possibility of conformational changes when interacting with Trx proteins. In addition, we also find water-exposed residues in the cytoplasmic proximal portion of TM3, allowing a more detailed characterization of the cavity in DsbDbeta.
Project description:Two xylanase-encoding genes, named xyn11A and xyn10B, were isolated from a genomic library of Cellulomonas pachnodae by expression in Escherichia coli. The deduced polypeptide, Xyn11A, consists of 335 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 34,383 Da. Different domains could be identified in the Xyn11A protein on the basis of homology searches. Xyn11A contains a catalytic domain belonging to family 11 glycosyl hydrolases and a C-terminal xylan binding domain, which are separated from the catalytic domain by a typical linker sequence. Binding studies with native Xyn11A and a truncated derivative of Xyn11A, lacking the putative binding domain, confirmed the function of the two domains. The second xylanase, designated Xyn10B, consists of 1,183 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 124,136 Da. Xyn10B also appears to be a modular protein, but typical linker sequences that separate the different domains were not identified. It comprises a N-terminal signal peptide followed by a stretch of amino acids that shows homology to thermostabilizing domains. Downstream of the latter domain, a catalytic domain specific for family 10 glycosyl hydrolases was identified. A truncated derivative of Xyn10B bound tightly to Avicel, which was in accordance with the identified cellulose binding domain at the C terminus of Xyn10B on the basis of homology. C. pachnodae, a (hemi)cellulolytic bacterium that was isolated from the hindgut of herbivorous Pachnoda marginata larvae, secretes at least two xylanases in the culture fluid. Although both Xyn11A and Xyn10B had the highest homology to xylanases from Cellulomonas fimi, distinct differences in the molecular organizations of the xylanases from the two Cellulomonas species were identified.
Project description:The pathogenesis of hereditary hyperekplexia is thought to involve abnormalities in the glycinergic neurotransmission system, the most of mutations reported in GLRA1. This gene encodes the glycine receptor ?1 subunit, which has an extracellular domain (ECD) and a transmembrane domain (TMD) with 4 ?-helices (TM1-TM4).We investigated the genetic cause of hyperekplexia in a Chinese family with one affected member. Whole-exome sequencing of the 5 candidate genes was performed on the proband patient, and direct sequencing was performed to validate and confirm the detected mutation in other family members. We also review and analyse all reported GLRA1 mutations. The proband had a compound heterozygous GLRA1 mutation that comprised 2 novel GLRA1 missense mutations, C.569C > T (p.T190 M) from the mother and C.1270G > A (p.D424N) from the father. SIFT, Polyphen-2 and MutationTaster analysis identified the mutations as disease-causing, but the parents had no signs of hyperekplexia. The p.T190 M mutation is located in the ECD, while p.D424N is located in TM4.Our findings contribute to a growing list GLRA1 mutations associated with hyperekplexia and provide new insights into correlations between phenotype and GLRA1 mutations. Some recessive mutations can induce hyperekplexia in combination with other recessive GLRA1 mutations. Mutations in the ECD, TM1, TM1-TM2 loop, TM3, TM3-TM4 loop and TM4 are more often recessive and part of a compound mutation, while those in TM2 and the TM2-TM3 loop are more likely to be dominant hereditary mutations.
Project description:Tryptophan was substituted for residues in all four transmembrane domains of connexin32. Function was assayed using dual cell two-electrode voltage clamp after expression in Xenopus oocytes. Tryptophan substitution was poorly tolerated in all domains, with the greatest impact in TM1 and TM4. For instance, in TM1, 15 substitutions were made, six abolished coupling and five others significantly reduced function. Only TM2 and TM3 included a distinct helical face that lacked sensitivity to tryptophan substitution. Results were visualized on a comparative model of Cx32 hemichannel. In this model, a region midway through the membrane appears highly sensitive to tryptophan substitution and includes residues Arg-32, Ile-33, Met-34, and Val-35. In the modeled channel, pore-facing regions of TM1 and TM2 were highly sensitive to tryptophan substitution, whereas the lipid-facing regions of TM3 and TM4 were variably tolerant. Residues facing a putative intracellular water pocket (the IC pocket) were also highly sensitive to tryptophan substitution. Although future studies will be required to separate trafficking-defective mutants from those that alter channel function, a subset of interactions important for voltage gating was identified. Interactions important for voltage gating occurred mainly in the mid-region of the channel and focused on TM1. To determine whether results could be extrapolated to other connexins, TM1 of Cx43 was scanned revealing similar but not identical sensitivity to TM1 of Cx32.