Long noncoding RNA LINC00337 promote gastric cancer proliferation through repressing p21 mediated by EZH2.
ABSTRACT: Gastric cancer is one of the most common human malignancies. Some long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) has been validated to be oncogene in gastric cancer. In this research, we found that LINC00337 was up-regulated in the gastric cancer cells and tissue specimens. Clinically, the ectopic LINC00337 overexpression indicates the poor clinical outcome. The functional experiments illustrated that LINC00337 silencing repressed the proliferation, invasion and tumor growth in vitro and in vivo. The mechanical experiments showed that LINC00337 epigenetically repressed the p21 via EZH2-mediated inhibition. Overall, this finding suggests that LINC00337 acts as the oncogene to promote gastric cancer cells proliferation through epigenetically repressing p21 mediated by EZH2, providing a new insight for gastric cancer.
Project description:Evidence has indicated the important roles of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) in the human cancer biology, providing potential targets for cancer intervention. However, the expression profile and function of lncRNA TP73-AS1 in human epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) remain to be investigated. In the EOC specimens and cell lines, TP73-AS1 was identified to be significantly up-regulated. EOC patients with high TP73-AS1 expression had poor survival rate. The gain and loss of functional assay uncovered that TP73-AS1 promoted the proliferation, invasion and reduced the apoptosis of EOC cells in vitro. And, the knockdown of TP73-AS1 inhibited the tumor growth in vivo. By using chromatin immunoprecipitation and luciferase reporter assay, we identified TP73-AS1 epigenetically repressed p21 via recruiting EZH2. In conclusion, this finding supports that TP73-AS1 promotes the EOC progression via epigenetically repressing p21, serving as a prognosis predictor for EOC patients.
Project description:The function of EZH2 as a transcription repressor is well characterized. However, its role during vertebrate development is still poorly understood, particularly in neurogenesis. Here, we uncover the role of EZH2 in controlling the integrity of the neural tube and allowing proper progenitor proliferation. We demonstrate that knocking down the EZH2 in chick embryo neural tubes unexpectedly disrupts the neuroepithelium (NE) structure, correlating with alteration of the Rho pathway, and reduces neural progenitor proliferation. Moreover, we use transcriptional profiling and functional assays to show that EZH2-mediated repression of p21(WAF1/CIP1) contributes to both processes. Accordingly, overexpression of cytoplasmic p21(WAF1/CIP1) induces NE structural alterations and p21(WAF1/CIP1) suppression rescues proliferation defects and partially compensates for the structural alterations and the Rho activity. Overall, our findings describe a new role of EZH2 in controlling the NE integrity in the neural tube to allow proper progenitor proliferation.
Project description:Dysregulated expression of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) has been reported in many types of cancers, indicating that it has important regulatory roles in human cancer biology. Recently, lncRNA urothelial cancer-associated 1 (UCA1) was shown to be dysregulated in many cancer types, but the detailed mechanisms remain largely unknown. In our study, we found that upregulated UCA1 is associated with poor prognosis in gastric cancer patients. Further experiments revealed that UCA1 knockdown significantly repressed the proliferation and migration both in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) analysis revealed that UCA1 knockdown preferentially affected genes that are linked to cell proliferation, cell cycle, and cell migration. Mechanistically, UCA1 promotes cell proliferation progression through repressing p21 and Sprouty RTK signaling antagonist 1 (SPRY1) expression by binding to EZH2. We found that UCA1 could mediate the trimethylation of H3K27 in promoters of p21 and SPRY1. To our knowledge, this is the first report showing the global gene profile of downstream targets of UCA1 in the progression of gastric cancer. Collectively, our data reveal the important roles of UCA1 in gastric cancer (GC) oncogenesis.
Project description:Mounting evidence indicates that long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) could play a pivotal role in cancer biology. However, the role and molecular mechanism and global genes that were mediated by lncRNA AFAP1-AS1 in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) remain largely unknown.Expression of AFAP1-AS1 was analyzed in 92 NSCLC tissues and cell lines by Quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). The effect of AFAP1-AS1 on proliferation was evaluated by function assays both in in vitro and in vivo. RNA-seq assays were performed after knockdown AFAP1-AS1. RNA immunoprecipitation (RIP) was performed to confirm the interaction between AFAP1-AS1 and EZH2. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) was used to study the promoter region of p21.AFAP1-AS1 expression was increased in NSCLC tissues and was correlated with clinical outcomes of NSCLC. Further experiments revealed that inhibition of its expression in NSCLC cells resulted in diminished cell growth in vitro and in vivo. RNA-seq revealed that knockdown of AFAP1-AS1 could induce the expression of p21. Mechanistic investigations found that AFAP1-AS1 could interact with EZH2 and recruit EZH2 to the promoter regions of p21, thus epigenetically repressing p21 expression.Together, these results suggest that lncRNA AFAP1-AS1 may serve as a candidate prognostic biomarker and target for new therapies in human NSCLC.
Project description:MYC proto-oncogene family including c-myc and n-myc (MYCN) are critical for normal cell development and tumorigenesis. Overexpression of c-myc causes acute erythroleukemia in vivo. However, the role of MYCN in acute erythroleukemia remains poorly understood. In this study, we found that the patients with erythroleukemia showed higher expression of MYCN than normal controls. In vitro experiments, knockdown of MYCN resulted in decreased cell proliferation, elevated autonomously cell apoptosis and increased P21-mediated cell senescence. On the contrary, overexpression of MYCN obviously promoted cell proliferation, and induced erythroid differentiation block and apoptosis resistance to cytotoxic agent. Further gene microarray and functional analysis revealed that EZH2 is a target of MYCN. Knockdown of MYCN inhibited the expression of EZH2, and then activated p21 expression through removal of H3K27me3 at the p21 promoter. Overexpression of ezh2 could antagonize the p21 activation caused by MYCN knockdown. In addition, Aurora inhibitor MLN8237 inhibited the proliferation of erythroleukemia cells through repression of MYCN/EZH2 axis, whereas it minimally affected the normal hematopoietic cells. In conclusion, MYCN contributes to the malignant characteristics of erythroleukemia through EZH2-meidated epigenetic repression of p21. MYCN may serve as a therapy target for the patients with acute erythroleukemia.
Project description:A growing number of studies indicated that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) determine some cellular processes in cancer, such as proliferation, metastasis and differentiation. Urothelial carcinoma associated 1 (UCA1), an lncRNA, had been reported for its overexpression and oncogenic effect on various human cancers. In this study, we found that UCA1 was significantly overexpressed in gallbladder cancer (GBC) and positively correlated with tumor size, lymph node metastasis, TNM stage and short survival time. Moreover, UCA1 promoted GBC cell proliferation and metastasis in vitro and tumor growth in vivo. Mechanically, we identified that UCA1 promoted GBC progression through recruiting enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) to the promoter of p21 and E-cadherin, and epigenetically suppressing their transcript.
Project description:Long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) is emerging as an critical regulator in multiple cancers, including pancreatic cancer (PC). Recently, lncRNA SNHG15 was found to be up-regulated in gastric cancer and hepatocellular carcinoma, exerting oncogenic effects. Nevertheless, the biological function and regulatory mechanism of SNHG15 remain unclear in pancreatic cancer (PC). In this study, we reported that SNHG15 expression was also upregulated in PC tissues, and its overexpression was remarkably associated with tumor size, tumor node metastasis (TNM) stage and lymph node metastasis in patients with PC. SNHG15 knockdown inhibited proliferative capacities and suppressed apoptotic rate of PC cells in vitro, and impaired in-vivo tumorigenicity. Additionally, RNA immunoprecipitation (RIP) assays showed that SNHG15 epigenetically repressed the P15 and Kruppel-like factor 2 (KLF2) expression via binding to enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2), and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays (CHIP) assays demonstrated that EZH2 was capable of binding to promoter regions of P15 and KLF2 to induce histone H3 lysine 27 trimethylation (H3K27me3). Furthermore, rescue experiments indicated that SNHG15 oncogenic function partially involved P15 and KLF2 repression. Consistently, an inverse correlation between the expression of SNHG15 and traget genes were found in PC tissues. Our results reported that SNHG15 could act as an oncogene in PC, revealing its potential value as a biomarker for early detection and individualized therapy.
Project description:Lidamycin (LDM) is a novel member of the enediyne antibiotics identified in China with potent antitumor activity. However, it remains unclear whether LDM has potential molecular targets that may affect its antitumor activity. Enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) functions as a histone lysine methyltransferase and mediates trimethylation on histone 3 lysine 27 (H3K27me3). High EZH2 level is found to be positively correlated with the aggressiveness, metastasis and poor prognosis of cancer. Here, we aim to study the role of EZH2 in LDM-induced senescence, as well as in the cytotoxicity of LDM in human colon cancer cells. LDM is found to be relatively more potent in inhibiting the colon cancer cells harboring high EZH2 level and induces irreversible cellular senescence at IC50 dose range, as evidenced by senescence-associated ?-galactosidase staining, cell cycle arrest and molecular changes of senescence regulators including p21 in HCT116 and SW620 cells. More importantly, LDM is found to markedly inhibit EZH2 expression at both protein and mRNA levels upon the induction of p21 and cellular senescence. LDM also selectively inhibits EZH2 expression as compared with other histone lysine methyltransferases. Knockdown of p21 with siRNAs abolishes LDM-induced senescence, whereas EZH2 knockdown markedly increases p21 expression and causes senescent phenotype. Enrichment of both EZH2 and H3K27me3 levels in the p21 promoter region is reduced by LDM. Moreover, EZH2 overexpression reduces cellular senescence, p21 expression and DNA damage response upon LDM exposure. LDM also demonstrates potent antitumor efficacy in xenografted animal models. Collectively, our work provides first demonstration that EZH2 may mediate, at least partially, the senescence-inducing effects of LDM by regulating p21 expression and DNA damage effect. Thus, EZH2 may serve as a potential target and biomarker to indicate the clinical efficacy of the potent enediyne antitumor drug.
Project description:Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have received increased attention as a new class of functional regulators involved in human carcinogenesis. HOXA cluster antisense RNA 2 (HOXA-AS2) is a 1048-bp lncRNA located between the HOXA3 and HOXA4 genes in the HOXA cluster that regulates gene expression at a transcription level. HOXA-AS2 is previously found to be overexpressed in gastric cancer (GC) and promotes GC cells proliferation. However, its potential role and molecular mechanism in colorectal cancer (CRC) are not known. Here, we identified that HOXA-AS2 is significantly upregulated in CRC tissue. In addition, increased HOXA-AS2 expression is associated with a larger tumor size and an advanced pathological stage in CRC patients. HOXA-AS2 knockdown significantly suppressed proliferation by blocking the G1/S transition and caused apoptosis of CRC cells in vitro and in vivo. The mechanistic investigations showed that HOXA-AS2 could interact with EZH2 (enhancer of zeste homolog 2), LSD1 (lysine specific demethylase 1) and recruit them to p21 (CDKN1A), KLF2 promoter regions to repress their transcription. Furthermore, the rescue experiments demonstrated that HOXA-AS2 oncogenic function is partly through regulating p21. In conclusion, our data suggest that HOXA-AS2 may function as an oncogene by modulating the multiple genes expression involved in CRC proliferation, and also provides a potential target for CRC therapy.
Project description:Chromodomain helicase DNA binding protein 5 (CHD5) acts as a tumor suppressor in many cancers. In the present study, we demonstrated that reduced levels of CHD5 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) tissues were significantly associated with metastasis and poor prognosis. Gain-of-function assays revealed that CHD5 suppressed motility and invasion of HCC cells. Subsequent investigations showed that CHD5 was epigenetically silenced by polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2)-mediated the trimethylation of histone H3 at lysine 27 (H3K27me3) in HCC cells. Furthermore, overexpression of CHD5 repressed enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) and activated PRC2 target genes, such as p16 and p21. Chromatin immunoprecipitation and luciferase reporter assays also showed that CHD5 and EZH2 bind to each other's promoters and inhibit transcription. These findings uncovered, for the first time, a mutual suppression regulation between CHD5 and EZH2, which may provide new insights into their potential therapeutic significance for HCC.