Dextran-conjugated tetrathiatriarylmethyl radicals as biocompatible spin probes for EPR spectroscopy and imaging.
ABSTRACT: Tetrathiatriarylmethyl (TAM) radicals represent soluble paramagnetic probes for biomedical electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR)-based spectroscopy and imaging. There is an increasing demand in the development of multifunctional, biocompatible and targeted trityl probes hampered by the difficulties in derivatization of the TAM structure. We proposed a new straightforward synthetic strategy using click chemistry for the covalent conjugation of the TAM radical with a water-soluble biocompatible carrier exemplified here by dextran. A set of dextran-grafted probes varied in the degrees of Finland trityl radical loading and dextran modification by polyethelene glycol has been synthesized. The EPR spectrum of the optimized macromolecular probe exhibits a single narrow line with high sensitivity to oxygen and has advantages over the unbound Finland trityl of being insensitive to interactions with albumin. In vivo EPR imaging of tissue oxygenation performed in breast tumor-bearing mouse using dextran-grafted probe demonstrates its utility for preclinical oximetric applications.
Project description:Tetrathiatriarylmethyl (TAM) radicals are commonly used as oximetry probes for electron paramagnetic resonance imaging applications. In this study, the electronic properties and the thermodynamic preferences for O2 addition to various TAM-type triarylmethyl (trityl) radicals were theoretically investigated. The radicals' stability in the presence of O2 and biological milieu was also experimentally assessed using EPR spectroscopy. Results show that H substitution on the aromatic ring affects the trityl radical's stability (tricarboxylate salt 1-CO2Na > triester 1-CO2Et > diester 2-CO2Et > monoester 3-CO2Et) and may lead to substitution reactions in cellular systems. We propose that this degradation process involves an arylperoxyl radical that can further decompose to alcohol or quinone products. This study demonstrates how computational chemistry can be used as a tool to rationalize radical stability in the redox environment of biological systems and aid in the future design of more biostable trityl radicals.
Project description:Substituted trityl radicals are important spin probes for functional electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy and imaging including oxygen and pH mapping in vivo. Here we report the synthetic procedure for large scale synthesis of deuterated Finland trityl radical with superior EPR spectral properties and higher sensitivity towards oxygen concentrations in solution. Additionally Finland trityl radicals substituted with linkers suitable for attaching peptide, or other synthetic precursors have been synthesized. The effect of deutero-substitution on EPR spectra of homologous derivatives has been evaluated. The compounds are potential candidates for targeted spin probes in EPR imaging.
Project description:Tetrathiatriarylmethyl radicals are ideal spin probes for biological electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy and imaging. The wide application of trityl radicals as biosensors of oxygen or other biological radicals was hampered by the lack of affordable large-scale syntheses. We report the large-scale synthesis of the Finland trityl radical using an improved addition protocol of the aryl lithium monomer to methylchloroformate. A new reaction for the formal one-electron reduction of trityl alcohols to trityl radicals using neat trifluoroacetic acid is reported as well. Initial applications show that the compound is very sensitive to molecular oxygen. It has already provided high-resolution EPR images on large aqueous samples and should be suitable for a broad range of in vivo applications.
Project description:Superoxide (O(2)(•-)) plays crucial roles in normal physiology and disease; however, its measurement remains challenging because of the limited sensitivity and/or specificity of prior detection methods. We demonstrate that a tetrathiatriarylmethyl (TAM) radical with a single aromatic hydrogen (CT02-H) can serve as a highly sensitive and specific O(2)(•-) probe. CT02-H is an analogue of the fully substituted TAM radical CT-03 (Finland trityl) with an electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) doublet signal due to its aromatic hydrogen. Owing to the neutral nature and negligible steric hindrance of the hydrogen, O(2)(•-) preferentially reacts with CT02-H at this site with production of the diamagnetic quinone methide via oxidative dehydrogenation. Upon reaction with O(2)(•-), CT02-H loses its EPR signal and this EPR signal decay can be used to quantitatively measure O(2)(•-). This is accompanied by a change in color from green to purple, with the quinone methide product exhibiting a unique UV-Vis absorbance (?=15,900 M(-1) cm(-1)) at 540 nm, providing an additional O(2)(•-) detection method. More than five-fold higher reactivity of CT02-H for O(2)(•-) relative to CT-03 was demonstrated, with a second-order rate constant of 1.7×10(4) M(-1) s(-1) compared to 3.1×10(3) M(-1) s(-1) for CT-03. CT02-H exhibited high specificity for O(2)(•-) as evidenced by its inertness to other oxidoreductants. The O(2)(•-) generation rates detected by CT02-H from xanthine/xanthine oxidase were consistent with those measured by cytochrome c reduction but detection sensitivity was 10- to 100-fold higher. EPR detection of CT02-H enabled measurement of very low O(2)(•-) flux with a detection limit of 0.34 nM/min over 120 min. HPLC in tandem with electrochemical detection was used to quantitatively detect the stable quinone methide product and is a highly sensitive and specific method for measurement of O(2)(•-), with a sensitivity limit of ~2×10(-13) mol (10 nM with 20-?l injection volume). Based on the O(2)-dependent linewidth broadening of its EPR spectrum, CT02-H also enables simultaneous measurement of O(2) concentration and O(2)(•-) generation and was shown to provide sensitive detection of extracellular O(2)(•-) generation in endothelial cells stimulated either by menadione or with anoxia/reoxygenation. Thus, CT02-H is a unique probe that provides very high sensitivity and specificity for measurement of O(2)(•-) by either EPR or HPLC methods.
Project description:Triarylmethyl radicals (TAMs) are used as persistent paramagnetic probes for electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopic and imaging applications and as hyperpolarizing and contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and proton-electron double-resonance imaging (PEDRI). Recently we proposed the concept of dual-function pH and oxygen TAM probes based on the incorporation of ionizable groups into the TAM structure ( J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2007 , 129 , 7240 - 7241 ). In this paper we report the synthesis of a deuterated derivative of phosphonated trityl radical, pTAM. The presence of phosphono substitutes in the structure of TAM provides pH sensitivity of its EPR spectrum in the physiological range from 6 to 8, the phosphorus hyperfine splitting acting as a convenient and highly sensitive pH marker (spectral sensitivity, 3?a(P)/?pH ? 0.5 G/pH unit; accuracy of pH measurements, ±0.05). In addition, substitution of 36 methyl protons with deuterons significantly decreased the individual line width of pTAM down to 40 mG and, as consequence, provided high sensitivity of the line-width broadening to pO(2) (?H/?pO(2) ? 0.4 mG/mmHg; accuracy of pO(2) measurements, ?1 mmHg). The independent character of pH and [O(2)] effects on the EPR spectra of pTAM provides dual functionality to this probe, allowing extraction of both parameters from a single EPR spectrum.
Project description:Measurement of thiol concentrations is of great importance for characterizing their critical role in normal metabolism and disease. Low-frequency electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy and imaging, coupled with the use of exogenous paramagnetic probes, have been indispensable techniques for the in vivo measurement of various physiological parameters owing to the specificity, noninvasiveness and good depth of magnetic field penetration in animal tissues. However, in vivo detection of thiol levels by EPR spectroscopy and imaging is limited due to the need for improved probes. We report the first synthesis of trityl radical-conjugated disulfide biradicals (TSSN and TSST) as paramagnetic thiol probes. The use of trityl radicals in the construction of these biradicals greatly facilitates thiol measurement by EPR spectroscopy since trityls have extraordinary stability in living tissues with a single narrow EPR line that enables high sensitivity and resolution for in vivo EPR spectroscopy and imaging. Both biradicals exhibit broad characteristic EPR spectra at room temperature because of their intramolecular spin-spin interaction. Reaction of these biradicals with thiol compounds such as glutathione (GSH) and cysteine results in the formation of trityl monoradicals which exhibit high spectral sensitivity to oxygen. The moderately slow reaction between the biradicals and GSH (k(2) ? 0.3 M(-1) s(-1) for TSSN and 0.2 M(-1) s(-1) for TSST) allows for in vivo measurement of GSH concentration without altering the redox environment in biological systems. The GSH concentration in rat liver was determined to be 3.49 ± 0.14 mM by TSSN and 3.67 ± 0.24 mM by TSST, consistent with the value (3.71 ± 0.09 mM) determined by the Ellman's reagent. Thus, these trityl-based thiol probes exhibit unique properties enabling measurement of thiols in biological systems and should be of great value for monitoring redox metabolism.
Project description:Stable tetrathiatriarylmethyl radicals have significantly contributed to the recent progress in biomedical electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) due to their unmatched stability in biological media and long relaxation times. However, the lipophilic core of the most commonly used structure (Finland trityl) is responsible for its interaction with plasma biomacromolecules, such as albumin, and self-aggregation at high concentrations and/or low pH. While Finland trityl is generally considered inert toward many reactive radical species, we report that sulfite anion radical efficiently substitutes the three carboxyl moieties of Finland trityl with a high rate constant of 3.53 × 10<sup>8</sup> M<sup>-1</sup> s<sup>-1</sup>, leading to a trisulfonated Finland trityl radical. This newly synthesized highly hydrophilic trityl radical shows an ultranarrow linewidth (Δ<i>B</i><sub>pp</sub> = 24 mG), a lower affinity for albumin than Finland trityl, and a high aqueous solubility even at acidic pH. Therefore, this new tetrathiatriarylmethyl radical can be considered as a superior spin probe in comparison to the widely used Finland trityl. One of its potential applications was demonstrated by <i>in vivo</i> mapping oxygen in a mouse model of breast cancer. Moreover, we showed that one of the three sulfo groups can be easily substituted with S-, N-, and P-nucleophiles, opening access to various monofunctionalized sulfonated trityl radicals.
Project description:Pulse techniques in electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) allow for a reduction in measurement times and increase in sensitivity but require the synthesis of paramagnetic probes with long relaxation times. Here it is shown that the recently synthesized phosphonated trityl radical possesses long relaxation times that are sensitive to probe the microenvironment, such as oxygenation and acidity of an aqueous solution. In principle, application of Fourier transform EPR (FT-EPR) spectroscopy makes it possible to acquire the entire EPR spectrum of the trityl probe and assess these microenvironmental parameters within a few microseconds. The performed analysis of the FT-EPR spectra takes into consideration oxygen-, proton-, buffer-, and concentration-induced contributions to the spectral shape, therefore enabling quantitative and discriminative assessment of pH, pO2, and concentrations of the probe and inorganic phosphate.
Project description:Triarylmethyl radicals (trityls, TAMs) represent a relatively new class of spin labels. The long relaxation of trityls at room temperature in liquid solutions makes them a promising alternative for traditional nitroxides. In this work we have synthesized a series of TAMs including perdeuterated Finland trityl (D36 form), mono-, di-, and triester derivatives of Finland-D36 trityl, the deuterated form of OX63, the dodeca-n-butyl homologue of Finland trityl, and triamide derivatives of Finland trityl with primary and secondary amines attached. We have studied room-temperature relaxation properties of these TAMs in liquids using pulsed electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) at two microwave frequency bands. We have found the clear dependence of phase memory time (Tm ? T2) on the magnetic field: room-temperature Tm values are ?1.5-2.5 times smaller at the Q-band (34 GHz, 1.2 T) than at the X-band (9 GHz, 0.3 T). This trend is ascribed to the contribution from g-anisotropy that is negligible at lower magnetic fields but comes into play at the Q-band. In agreement with this, the difference between T1 and Tm becomes more pronounced at the Q-band than at the X-band due to increased contributions from incomplete motional averaging of g-anisotropy. Linear dependence of (1/Tm - 1/T1) on viscosity implies that g-anisotropy is modulated by rotational motion of the trityl radical. On the basis of the analysis of previous data and results of the present work, we conclude that, in the general situation where the spin label is at least partly mobile, the X-band is most suitable for application of trityls for room-temperature pulsed EPR distance measurements.
Project description:Triarylmethyl (TAM) radicals are probes well suited to study microenvironment parameters using pulse electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) due to their long relaxation times. Here, we are reporting the study of relaxation properties of monophosphonated TAM radicals in the presence of chemical exchange processes. The dependence of Hahn and inversion recovery echo on the solution pH and the chemical exchange rate are discussed. The modulation of Hahn echo intensity in solutions due to chemical exchange is observed in pulse EPR experiments. An analysis of the Hahn echo intensity decay allows for the quantitative determination of the chemical exchange rate and solution pH value.