Crystal structures of Moorella thermoacetica cyanuric acid hydrolase reveal conformational flexibility and asymmetry important for catalysis.
ABSTRACT: An ancient enzyme family responsible for the catabolism of the prebiotic chemical cyanuric acid (1,3,5-triazine-2,4,6-triol) was recently discovered and is undergoing proliferation in the modern world due to industrial synthesis and dissemination of 1,3,5-triazine compounds. Cyanuric acid has a highly stabilized ring system such that bacteria require a unique enzyme with a novel fold and subtle active site construction to open the ring. Each cyanuric acid hydrolase monomer consists of three isostructural domains that coordinate and activate the three-fold symmetric substrate cyanuric acid for ring opening. We have now solved a series of X-ray structures of an engineered, thermostable cyanuric acid ring-opening enzyme at 1.51 ~ 2.25 Å resolution, including various complexes with the substrate, a tight-binding inhibitor, or an analog of the reaction intermediate. These structures reveal asymmetric interactions between the enzyme and bound ligands, a metal ion binding coupled to conformational changes and substrate binding important for enzyme stability, and distinct roles of the isostructural domains of the enzyme. The multiple conformations of the enzyme observed across a series of structures and corroborating biochemical data suggest importance of the structural dynamics in facilitating the substrate entry and the ring-opening reaction, catalyzed by a conserved Ser-Lys dyad.
Project description:Cyanuric acid, a metabolic intermediate in the degradation of many s-triazine compounds, is further metabolized by cyanuric acid hydrolase. Cyanuric acid also accumulates in swimming pools due to the breakdown of the sanitizing agents di- and trichloroisocyanuric acid. Structurally stable cyanuric acid hydrolases are being considered for usage in pool water remediation. In this study, cyanuric acid hydrolase from the thermophile Moorella thermoacetica ATCC 39073 was cloned, expressed in Escherichia coli, and purified to homogeneity. The recombinant enzyme was found to have a broader temperature range and greater stability, at both elevated and low temperatures, than previously described cyanuric acid hydrolases. The enzyme had a narrow substrate specificity, acting only on cyanuric acid and N-methylisocyanuric acid. The M. thermoacetica enzyme did not require metals or other discernible cofactors for activity. Cyanuric acid hydrolase from M. thermoacetica is the most promising enzyme to use for cyanuric acid remediation applications.
Project description:Cyanuric acid hydrolase (CAH) catalyzes the hydrolytic ring-opening of cyanuric acid (2,4,6-trihydroxy-1,3,5-triazine), an intermediate in s-triazine bacterial degradation and a by-product from disinfection with trichloroisocyanuric acid. In the present study, an X-ray crystal structure of the CAH-barbituric acid inhibitor complex from Azorhizobium caulinodans ORS 571 has been determined at 2.7 Å resolution. The CAH protein fold consists of three structurally homologous domains forming a ?-barrel-like structure with external ?-helices that result in a three-fold symmetry, a dominant feature of the structure and active site that mirrors the three-fold symmetrical shape of the substrate cyanuric acid. The active site structure of CAH is similar to that of the recently determined AtzD with three pairs of active site Ser-Lys dyads. In order to determine the role of each Ser-Lys dyad in catalysis, a mutational study using a highly sensitive, enzyme-coupled assay was conducted. The 10?-fold loss of activity by the S226A mutant was at least ten times lower than that of the S79A and S333A mutants. In addition, bioinformatics analysis revealed the Ser226/Lys156 dyad as the only absolutely conserved dyad in the CAH/barbiturase family. These data suggest that Lys156 activates the Ser226 nucleophile which can then attack the substrate carbonyl. Our combination of structural, mutational, and bioinformatics analyses differentiates this study and provides experimental data for mechanistic insights into this unique protein family.
Project description:The s-triazine cyclopropylmelamine (N-cyclopropyl-1,3,5-triazine-2,4,6-triamine) was degraded to about 6 mol of NH4+/mol of substrate by a mixture of two bacteria (strains A and D, both Pseudomonas spp.) Only strain A grew with cyclopropylmelamine as sole and limiting source of nitrogen. The organism obtained 2 mol of nitrogen/mol of substrate and excreted a product that was identified as cyclopropylammelide [6-cyclopropylamino-1,3,5-triazine-2,4(1 H,3 H)-dione]. Proteins in extracts from strain A were separated on a Sephadex G-200 column. Cyclopropylmelamine was found to be deaminated in two separable steps to cyclopropylammelide via cyclopropylammeline [4-amino-6-cyclopropylamino-1,3,5-triazine-2(1 H)-one], which was identified. Strain D could not utilize cyclopropylmelamine or cyclopropylammeline, but could utilize cyclopropylammelide (or homologue) as sole and limiting source of nitrogen and obtain about 4 mol of nitrogen/mol of substrate. Proteins in cell extracts from strain D were separated on a DEAE-cellulose column. Alkylammelides were degraded quantitatively by one enzyme fraction to 1 mol of cyanuric acid plus 1 mol of alkylamine/mol of substrate. The specific activities of enzymes in extracts of the two strains were as high as the activities observed during growth. The three activities studied in the two strains were all active under aerobic and oxygen-free conditions. The reactions appear to be hydrolytic, yielding 2 mol of NH4+ plus 1 mol of cyclopropylamine and 1 mol of cyanuric acid/mol of substrate.
Project description:Pesticides based on the s-triazine ring structure are widely used in cultivation of food crops. Cleavage of the s-triazine ring is an important step in the mineralization of s-triazine compounds and hence in their complete removal from the environment. Cyanuric acid amidohydrolase cleaves cyanuric acid (2,4,6-trihydroxy-s-triazine), which yields carbon dioxide and biuret; the biuret is subject to further metabolism, which yields CO(2) and ammonia. The trzD gene encoding cyanuric acid amidohydrolase was cloned into pMMB277 from Pseudomonas sp. strain NRRLB-12227, a strain that is capable of utilizing s-triazines as nitrogen sources. Hydrolysis of cyanuric acid was detected in crude extracts of Escherichia coli containing the cloned gene by monitoring the disappearance of cyanuric acid and the appearance of biuret by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). DEAE and hydrophobic interaction HPLC were used to purify cyanuric acid amidohydrolase to homogeneity, and a spectrophotometric assay for the purified enzyme was developed. The purified enzyme had an apparent K(m) of 0.05 mM for cyanuric acid at pH 8.0. The enzyme did not cleave any other s-triazine or hydroxypyrimidine compound, although barbituric acid (2,4, 6-trihydroxypyrimidine) was found to be a strong competitive inhibitor. Neither the nucleotide sequence of trzD nor the amino acid sequence of the gene product exhibited a significant level of similarity to any known gene or protein.
Project description:1. The degradative pathway of melamine (1,3,5-triazine-2,4,6-triamine) was examined in Pseudomonas sp. strain A. 2. The bacterium grew with melamine, ammeline, ammelide, cyanuric acid or NH+4 as sole source of nitrogen, and each substrate was entirely metabolized. Utilization of ammeline, ammelide, cyanuric acid or NH+4 was concomitant with growth. But with melamine as substrate, a transient intermediate was detected, which was identified as ammeline by three methods. 3. Enzymes from strain A were separated by chromatography on DEAE-cellulose, and four activities were examined. 4. Melamine was converted stoichiometrically into equimolar amounts of ammeline and NH+4. 5. Ammeline was converted stoichiometrically into equimolar amounts of ammelide and NH+4; ammelide was identified by four methods. 6. Ammelide was converted stoichiometrically into equimolar amounts of cyanuric acid and NH+4; cyanuric acid was identified by four methods. 7. Cyanuric acid was converted by an enzyme preparation into an unidentified product with negligible release of NH+4. 8. The specific activities of the degradative enzymes (greater than or equal to 0.3 mkat/kg of protein) were high enough to explain the growth rate of the organism. 9. The bacterium converted 0.4 mM-melamine anaerobically into 2.3 mM-NH+4. 10. Two other pseudomonads and two strains of Klebsiella pneumoniae were also examined, with similar results. 11. The degradative pathway of melamine appears to be hydrolytic, and proceeds by three successive deaminations to cyanuric acid, which is further metabolized.
Project description:The degradative pathway of cyanuric acid [1,3,5-triazine-2,4,6(1H,3H,5H)-trione] was examined in Pseudomonas sp. strain D. The bacterium grew with cyanuric acid, biuret, urea or NH4+ as sole source of nitrogen, and each substrate was entirely metabolized concomitantly with growth. Enzymes from strain D were separated by chromatography on DEAE-cellulose and three reactions were examined. Cyanuric acid (1 mol) was converted stoichiometrically into 1.0 mol of CO2 and 1.1 mol of biuret, which was conclusively identified. Biuret (1 mol) was converted stoichiometrically into 1.1 mol of NH4+, about 1 mol of CO2 and 1.0 mol of urea, which was conclusively identified. Urea (1 mol) was converted into 1.9 mol of NH4+ and 1.0 mol of CO2. The reactions proceeded under aerobic or anoxic conditions and were presumed to be hydrolytic. Data indicate that the same pathway occurred in another pseudomonad and a strain of Klebsiella pneumoniae.
Project description:Cyanuric acid was likely present on prebiotic Earth, may have been a component of early genetic materials, and is synthesized industrially today on a scale of more than one hundred million pounds per year in the United States. In light of this, it is not surprising that some bacteria and fungi have a metabolic pathway that sequentially hydrolyzes cyanuric acid and its metabolites to release the nitrogen atoms as ammonia to support growth. The initial reaction that opens the s-triazine ring is catalyzed by the unusual enzyme cyanuric acid hydrolase. This enzyme is in a rare protein family that consists of only cyanuric acid hydrolase (CAH) and barbiturase, with barbiturase participating in pyrimidine catabolism by some actinobacterial species. The X-ray structures of two cyanuric acid hydrolase proteins show that this family has a unique protein fold. Phylogenetic, bioinformatic, enzymological, and genetic studies are consistent with the idea that CAH has an ancient protein fold that was rare in microbial populations but is currently becoming more widespread in microbial populations in the wake of anthropogenic synthesis of cyanuric acid and other s-triazine compounds that are metabolized via a cyanuric acid intermediate. The need for the removal of cyanuric acid from swimming pools and spas, where it is used as a disinfectant stabilizer, can potentially be met using an enzyme filtration system. A stable thermophilic cyanuric acid hydrolase from Moorella thermoacetica is being tested for this purpose.
Project description:The known enzymes that open the s-triazine ring, the cyanuric acid hydrolases, have been confined almost exclusively to the kingdom Bacteria and are all homologous members of the rare cyanuric acid hydrolase/barbiturase protein family. In the present study, a filamentous fungus, Sarocladium sp. strain CA, was isolated from soil by enrichment culturing using cyanuric acid as the sole source of nitrogen. A reverse-genetic approach identified a fungal cyanuric acid hydrolase gene composed of two exons and one intron. The translated spliced sequence was 39 to 53% identical to previously characterized bacterial cyanuric acid hydrolases. The sequence was used to generate a gene optimized for expression in Escherichia coli and encoding an N-terminally histidine-tagged protein. The protein was purified by nickel affinity and anion-exchange chromatography. The purified protein was shown by (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance ((13)C-NMR) to produce carboxybiuret as the product, which spontaneously decarboxylated to yield biuret and carbon dioxide. The protein was very narrow in substrate specificity, showing activity only with cyanuric acid and N-methyl cyanuric acid. Barbituric acid was an inhibitor of enzyme activity. Sequence analysis identified genes with introns in other fungi from the Ascomycota that, if spliced, are predicted to encode proteins with cyanuric acid hydrolase activity. The Ascomycota cyanuric acid hydrolase homologs are most closely related to cyanuric acid hydrolases from Actinobacteria.
Project description:Cyanuric acid is an industrial chemical produced during the biodegradation of s-triazine pesticides. The biodegradation of cyanuric acid has been elucidated using a single model system, Pseudomonas sp. strain ADP, in which cyanuric acid hydrolase (AtzD) opens the s-triazine ring and AtzEG deaminates the ring-opened product. A significant question remains as to whether the metabolic pathway found in Pseudomonas sp. ADP is the exception or the rule in bacterial genomes globally. Here, we show that most bacteria utilize a different pathway, metabolizing cyanuric acid via biuret. The new pathway was determined by reconstituting the pathway in vitro with purified enzymes and by mining more than 250,000 genomes and metagenomes. We isolated soil bacteria that grow on cyanuric acid as a sole nitrogen source and showed that the genome from a Herbaspirillum strain had a canonical cyanuric acid hydrolase gene but different flanking genes. The flanking gene trtB encoded an enzyme that we show catalyzed the decarboxylation of the cyanuric acid hydrolase product, carboxybiuret. The reaction generated biuret, a pathway intermediate further transformed by biuret hydrolase (BiuH). The prevalence of the newly defined pathway was determined by cooccurrence analysis of cyanuric acid hydrolase genes and flanking genes. Here, we show the biuret pathway was more than 1 order of magnitude more prevalent than the original Pseudomonas sp. ADP pathway. Mining a database of over 40,000 bacterial isolates with precise geospatial metadata showed that bacteria with concurrent cyanuric acid and biuret hydrolase genes were distributed throughout the United States.IMPORTANCE Cyanuric acid is produced naturally as a contaminant in urea fertilizer, and it is used as a chlorine stabilizer in swimming pools. Cyanuric acid-degrading bacteria are used commercially in removing cyanuric acid from pool water when it exceeds desired levels. The total volume of cyanuric acid produced annually exceeds 200 million kilograms, most of which enters the natural environment. In this context, it is important to have a global understanding of cyanuric acid biodegradation by microbial communities in natural and engineered systems. Current knowledge of cyanuric acid metabolism largely derives from studies on the enzymes from a single model organism, Pseudomonas sp. ADP. In this study, we obtained and studied new microbes and discovered a previously unknown cyanuric acid degradation pathway. The new pathway identified here was found to be much more prevalent than the pathway previously established for Pseudomonas sp. ADP. In addition, the types of environment, taxonomic prevalences, and geospatial distributions of the different cyanuric acid degradation pathways are described here.
Project description:Biuret is an intermediate in the bacterial metabolism of s-triazine ring compounds and is occasionally used as a ruminant feed supplement. We used bioinformatics to identify a biuret hydrolase, an enzyme that has previously resisted efforts to stabilize, purify and characterize. This newly discovered enzyme is a member of the cysteine hydrolase superfamily, a family of enzymes previously not found to be involved in s-triazine metabolism. The gene from Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae strain 3841 encoding biuret hydrolase was synthesized, transformed into Escherichia coli, and expressed. The enzyme was purified and found to be stable. Biuret hydrolase catalyzed the hydrolysis of biuret to allophanate and ammonia. The k(cat)/K(M) of 1.7 × 10(5) M(-1)s(-1) and the relatively low K(M) of 23 ± 4 ?M together suggested that this enzyme acts uniquely on biuret physiologically. This is supported by the fact that of the 34 substrate analogs of biuret tested, only two demonstrated reactivity, both at less than 5% of the rate determined for biuret. Biuret hydrolase does not react with carboxybiuret, the product of the enzyme immediately preceding biuret hydrolase in the metabolic pathway for cyanuric acid. This suggests an unusual metabolic strategy of an enzymatically-produced intermediate undergoing non-enzymatic decarboxylation to produce the substrate for the next enzyme in the pathway.