Differential Metabolism of Medium-Chain Fatty Acids in Differentiated Human-Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Astrocytes.
ABSTRACT: Medium-chain triglyceride (MCT) ketogenic diets increase ketone bodies, which are believed to act as alternative energy substrates in the injured brain. Octanoic (C8:0) and decanoic (C10:0) acids, which produce ketone bodies through ?-oxidation, are used as part of MCT ketogenic diets. Although the ketogenic role of MCT is well-established, it remains unclear how the network metabolism underlying ?-oxidation of these medium-chain fatty acids (MCFA) differ. We aim to elucidate basal ?-oxidation of these commonly used MCFA at the cellular level. Human-induced pluripotent stem cell-derived (iPSC) astrocytes were incubated with [U-13C]-C8:0 or [U-13C]-C10:0, and the fractional enrichments (FE) of the derivatives were used for metabolic flux analysis. Data indicate higher extracellular concentrations and faster secretion rates of ?-hydroxybutyrate (?HB) and acetoacetate (AcAc) with C8:0 than C10:0, and an important contribution from unlabeled substrates. Flux analysis indicates opposite direction of metabolic flux between the MCFA intermediates C6:0 and C8:0, with an important contribution of unlabeled sources to the elongation in the C10:0 condition, suggesting different ?-oxidation pathways. Finally, larger intracellular glutathione concentrations and secretions of 3-OH-C10:0 and C6:0 were measured in C10:0-treated astrocytes. These findings reveal MCFA-specific ketogenic properties. Our results provide insights into designing different MCT-based ketogenic diets to target specific health benefits.
Project description:Background: Ketones are the brain's main alternative fuel to glucose. Dietary medium-chain triglyceride (MCT) supplements increase plasma ketones, but their ketogenic efficacy relative to coconut oil (CO) is not clear. Objective: The aim was to compare the acute ketogenic effects of the following test oils in healthy adults: coconut oil [CO; 3% tricaprylin (C8), 5% tricaprin (C10)], classical MCT oil (C8-C10; 55% C8, 35% C10), C8 (>95% C8), C10 (>95% C10), or CO mixed 50:50 with C8-C10 or C8. Methods: In a crossover design, 9 participants with mean ± SD ages 34 ± 12 y received two 20-mL doses of the test oils prepared as an emulsion in 250 mL lactose-free skim milk. During the control (CTL) test, participants received only the milk vehicle. The first test dose was taken with breakfast and the second was taken at noon but without lunch. Blood was sampled every 30 min over 8 h for plasma acetoacetate and ?-hydroxybutyrate (?-HB) analysis. Results: C8 was the most ketogenic test oil with a day-long mean ± SEM of +295 ± 155 µmol/L above the CTL. C8 alone induced the highest plasma ketones expressed as the areas under the curve (AUCs) for 0-4 and 4-8 h (780 ± 426 µmol ? h/L and 1876 ± 772 µmol ? h/L, respectively); these values were 813% and 870% higher than CTL values (P < 0.01). CO plasma ketones peaked at +200 µmol/L, or 25% of the C8 ketone peak. The acetoacetate-to-?-HB ratio increased 56% more after CO than after C8 after both doses. Conclusions: In healthy adults, C8 alone had the highest net ketogenic effect over 8 h, but induced only half the increase in the acetoacetate-to-?-HB ratio compared with CO. Optimizing the type of MCT may help in developing ketogenic supplements designed to counteract deteriorating brain glucose uptake associated with aging. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT 02679222.
Project description:Diabetes prevalence increases with age, and ?-cell dysfunction contributes to the incidence of the disease. Dietary lipids have been recognized as contributory factors in the development and progression of the disease. Unlike long chain triglycerides, medium chain triglycerides (MCT) increase fat burning in animal and human subjects as well as serum C-peptide in type 2 diabetes patients. We evaluated the beneficial effects of MCT on ?-cells in vivo and in vitro. MCT improved glycemia in aged rats via ?-cell function assessed by measuring insulin secretion and content. In ?-cells, medium chain fatty acid (MCFA)-C10 activated fatty acid receptor 1 FFAR1/GPR40, while MCFA-C8 induced mitochondrial ketogenesis and the C8:C10 mixture improved ? cell function. We showed that GPR40 signaling positively impacts ketone body production in ?-cells, and chronic treatment with ?-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) improves ?-cell function. We also showed that BHB and MCFA help ?-cells recover from lipotoxic stress by improving mitochondrial function and increasing the expression of genes involved in ?-cell function and insulin biogenesis, such as Glut2, MafA, and NeuroD1 in primary human islets. MCFA offers a therapeutic advantage in the preservation of ?-cell function as part of a preventative strategy against diabetes in at risk populations.
Project description:Medium-chain triglycerides (MCT), containing C8-C12 fatty acids, are used to treat several pediatric disorders and are widely consumed as a nutritional supplement. Here, we investigated the role of the sirtuin deacylase Sirt5 in MCT metabolism by feeding Sirt5 knockout mice (Sirt5KO) high-fat diets containing either C8/C10 fatty acids or coconut oil, which is rich in C12, for five weeks. Coconut oil, but not C8/C10 feeding, induced periportal macrovesicular steatosis in Sirt5KO mice. 14C-C12 degradation was significantly reduced in Sirt5KO liver. This decrease was localized to the mitochondrial ?-oxidation pathway, as Sirt5KO mice exhibited no change in peroxisomal C12 ?-oxidation. Endoplasmic reticulum ?-oxidation, a minor fatty acid degradation pathway known to be stimulated by C12 accumulation, was increased in Sirt5KO liver. Mice lacking another mitochondrial C12 oxidation enzyme, long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (LCAD), also developed periportal macrovesicular steatosis when fed coconut oil, confirming that defective mitochondrial C12 oxidation is sufficient to induce the steatosis phenotype. Sirt5KO liver exhibited normal LCAD activity but reduced mitochondrial acyl-CoA synthetase activity with C12. These studies reveal a role for Sirt5 in regulating the hepatic response to MCT and may shed light into the pathogenesis of periportal steatosis, a hallmark of human pediatric non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.
Project description:Brain glucose hypometabolism is a common feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Previous studies have shown that cognition is improved by providing AD patients with an alternate energy source: ketones derived from either ketogenic diet or supplementation with medium chain triglycerides (MCT). Recently, data on the neuroprotective capacity of MCT-derived medium chain fatty acids (MCFA) suggest 8-carbon and 10-carbon MCFA may have cognition-enhancing properties which are not related to ketone production. We investigated the effect of 8 week treatment with MCT8, MCT10 or sunflower oil supplementation (5% by weight of chow diet) in 21 month old Wistar rats. Both MCT diets increased ketones plasma similarly compared to control diet, but MCT diets did not increase ketones in the brain. Treatment with MCT10, but not MCT8, significantly improved novel object recognition memory compared to control diet, while social recognition increased in both MCT groups. MCT8 and MCT10 diets decreased weight compared to control diet, where MCFA plasma levels were higher in MCT10 groups than in MCT8 groups. Both MCT diets increased IRS-1 (612) phosphorylation and decreased S6K phosphorylation (240/244) but only MCT10 increased Akt phosphorylation (473). MCT8 supplementation increased synaptophysin, but not PSD-95, in contrast MCT10 had no effect on either synaptic marker. Expression of Ube3a, which controls synaptic stability, was increased by both MCT diets. Cortex transcription via qPCR showed that immediate early genes related to synaptic plasticity (arc, plk3, junb, egr2, nr4a1) were downregulated by both MCT diets while MCT8 additionally down-regulated fosb and egr1 but upregulated grin1 and gba2. These results demonstrate that treatment of 8- and 10-carbon length MCTs in aged rats have slight differential effects on synaptic stability, protein synthesis and behavior that may be independent of brain ketone levels.
Project description:Metabolic illnesses such as non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) are in constant increase worldwide. Highly consumed long chain fatty acids (LCFA) are among the most obesogenic and steatogenic nutrients. Hepatic steatosis is associated with several complications such as insulin resistance. Growing evidence points to medium chain fatty acids (MCFA), more efficiently oxidized than LCFA, as a promising dietary alternative against NAFLD. However, reports on the hepatic effects of MCFA are sometimes conflicting. In this study we exposed HepG2 cells, a human hepatocellular model, to 0.25 mM of hexanoic (C6), or octanoic (C8), and decanoic (C10) acids separately or in a C8 + C10 equimolar mix reflecting commercially available MCFA-rich oils. We found that C6, a poorly studied MCFA, as well as C8 and C10 did not provoke the deleterious lipid anabolism runaway typically induced by LCFA palmitate. MCFA tended, instead, to promote a balanced metabolic profile and were generally non-cytotoxic. Accordingly, mitochondrial integrity was mostly preserved following MCFA treatment. However, treatments with C8 induced a mitochondrial membrane potential decrease, suggesting prolonged exposure to this lipid could be problematic. Finally, MCFA treatments maintained optimal insulin sensitivity and even fostered basal and insulin-dependent phosphorylation of the Akt-mTOR pathway. Overall, MCFA could constitute an effective nutritional tool to manage liver steatosis and hepatic insulin resistance.
Project description:Background:Bile acids play a pivotal role in cholesterol metabolism via the enterohepatic circulation. This study investigated the effects of medium-chain triglycerides (MCTs)/medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs) on the reduction of bile acid absorption in the small intestine and the mechanisms of action in vivo and partially verified in vitro. Methods:Thirty-six C57BL/6 J mice with hypercholesterolaemia were randomly divided into 3 groups: fed a cholesterol-rich diet (CR group), fed a cholesterol-rich and medium-chain triglyceride diet (CR-MCT group) and fed a cholesterol-rich and long-chain triglyceride diet (CR-LCT group). Body weights and blood lipid profiles were measured in all groups after 16 weeks of treatment. The concentrations of bile acids in bile and faeces were analysed using HPLC-MS (high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry). Gene transcription and the expression levels associated with bile acid absorption in the small intestines were determined using real-time PCR and Western blot. Ileal bile acid binding protein (I-BABP) was analysed using immunofluorescence. The effects of MCFAs on the permeability of bile acid (cholic acid, CA) in Caco-2 cell monolayers and I-BABP expression levels in Caco-2 cells treated with caprylic acid (C8:0), capric acid (C10:0), stearic acid (C18:0) and oleic acid (C18:1) were determined. Results:Mice in the CR-MCT group exhibited lower body weights and serum total cholesterol (TC) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels and a higher HDL-C/LDL-C ratio than the CR-LCT group (P?<?0.05). The concentrations of primary bile acids (primarily CA) and secondary bile acids in faeces and secondary bile acids in bile in the CR-MCT group were significantly higher than in the CR-LCT group (P?<?0.05). C8:0 and C10:0 decreased the permeability of CA in Caco-2 cell monolayers. MCT/MCFAs (C8:0 and C10:0) inhibited I-BABP gene expression in the small intestines and Caco-2 cells (P?<?0.05). Conclusions:MCT slowed the body weight increase and promoted the excretion of bile acids. MCT lowered serum cholesterol levels at least partially via reduction of bile acid absorption in the small intestine by inhibition of I-BABP expression. Our results provide the basis for clinical trials of MCT as a dietary supplement for lowering plasma cholesterol and reducing risk of CHD.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Medium chain C8-C10 triglycerides (MCTs) improve fat absorption in short bowel patients. Effects on overall energy absorption remain unknown. AIMS: To determine whether MCTs and medium chain fatty acids (MCFAs) are absorbed in the colon like the short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) or are lost in faeces similarly to long chain fatty acids (LCFAs). METHODS: Nine small bowel resected patients without and 10 with a colon in continuity excreted 2-6 MJ/day and were randomised and crossed over between two high fat diets (10 MJ/day, 50% as fat), based on either long chain triglycerides (LCT) alone or equal quantities of LCT and MCT. RESULTS: Patients with a colon absorbed C8-C10 fatty acids considerably better than patients without a colon at similar and extreme levels of LCFA malabsorption; the colonic impact on absorption of C14-18 fatty acids was negligible. MCT redoubled fat (MCT+LCT) absorption from 23% to 58% in patients with a colon, and increased overall bomb calorimetric energy absorption from 46% to 58%. The increase in fat absorption from 37% to 46% in patients without a colon did not improve overall energy absorption because malabsorption of carbohydrate and protein increased. CONCLUSION: In small bowel resected patients, the colon seems to serve as a digestive organ for medium chain fat, probably absorbed as MCFAs, perhaps because like the SCFAs, they are water soluble. Only patients with a colon gained from MCT treatment.
Project description:Dietary medium chain fatty acids (MCFA) and linoleic acid follow different metabolic routes, and linoleic acid activates PPAR receptors. Both these mechanisms may modify lipoprotein and fatty acid metabolism after dietary intervention. Our objective was to investigate how dietary MCFA and linoleic acid supplementation and body fat distribution affect the fasting lipoprotein subclass profile, lipoprotein kinetics, and postprandial fatty acid kinetics. In a randomized double blind cross-over trial, 12 male subjects (age 51±7 years; BMI 28.5±0.8 kg/m2), were divided into 2 groups according to waist-hip ratio. They were supplemented with 60 grams/day MCFA (mainly C8:0, C10:0) or linoleic acid for three weeks, with a wash-out period of six weeks in between. Lipoprotein subclasses were measured using HPLC. Lipoprotein and fatty acid metabolism were studied using a combination of several stable isotope tracers. Lipoprotein and tracer data were analyzed using computational modeling. Lipoprotein subclass concentrations in the VLDL and LDL range were significantly higher after MCFA than after linoleic acid intervention. In addition, LDL subclass concentrations were higher in lower body obese individuals. Differences in VLDL metabolism were found to occur in lipoprotein lipolysis and uptake, not production; MCFAs were elongated intensively, in contrast to linoleic acid. Dietary MCFA supplementation led to a less favorable lipoprotein profile than linoleic acid supplementation. These differences were not due to elevated VLDL production, but rather to lower lipolysis and uptake rates.
Project description:Consumption of diets containing medium-chain TAG (MCT) has been shown to confer neuroprotective effects. We aim to identify the global metabolic perturbations associated with consumption of a ketogenic diet (medium-chain TAG diet (MCTD)) in dogs with idiopathic epilepsy. We used ultra-performance liquid chromatography-MS (UPLC-MS) to generate metabolic and lipidomic profiles of fasted canine serum and made comparisons between the MCTD and standardised placebo diet phases. We identified metabolites that differed significantly between diet phases using metabolite fragmentation profiles generated by tandem MS (UPLC-MS/MS). Consumption of the MCTD resulted in significant differences in serum metabolic profiles when compared with the placebo diet, where sixteen altered lipid metabolites were identified. Consumption of the MCTD resulted in reduced abundances of palmitoylcarnitine, octadecenoylcarnitine, stearoylcarnitine and significant changes, both reduced and increased abundances, of phosphatidylcholine (PC) metabolites. There was a significant increase in abundance of the saturated C17 : 0 fatty acyl moieties during the MCTD phase. Lysophosphatidylcholine (17 : 0) (P=0·01) and PC (17:0/20:4) (P=0·03) were both significantly higher in abundance during the MCTD. The data presented in this study highlight global changes in lipid metabolism, and, of particular interest, in the C17 : 0 moieties, as a result of MCT consumption. Elucidating the global metabolic response of MCT consumption will not only improve the administration of current ketogenic diets for neurological disease models but also provides new avenues for research to develop better diet therapies with improved neuroprotective efficacies. Future studies should clarify the involvement and importance of C17 : 0 moieties in endogenous MCT metabolic pathways.
Project description:Background: Lower-brain glucose uptake is commonly present before the onset of cognitive deterioration associated with aging and may increase the risk of Alzheimer disease. Ketones are the brain's main alternative energy substrate to glucose. Medium-chain triglycerides (MCTs) are rapidly ?-oxidized and are ketogenic but also have gastrointestinal side effects. We assessed whether MCT emulsification into a lactose-free skim-milk matrix [emulsified MCTs (MCT-Es)] would improve ketogenesis, reduce side effects, or both compared with the same oral dose of MCTs consumed without emulsification [nonemulsified MCTs (MCT-NEs)]. Objectives: Our aims were to show that, in healthy adults, MCT-Es will induce higher ketonemia and have fewer side effects than MCT-NEs and the effects of MCT-NEs and MCT-Es on ketogenesis and plasma medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs) will be dose-dependent. Methods: Using a metabolic study day protocol, 10 healthy adults were each given 3 separate doses (10, 20, or 30 g) of MCT-NEs or MCT-Es with a standard breakfast or no treatment [control (CTL)]. Blood samples were taken every 30 min for 4 h to measure plasma ketones (?-hydroxybutyrate and acetoacetate), octanoate, decanoate, and other metabolites. Participants completed a side-effects questionnaire at the end of each study day. Results: Compared with CTL, MCT-NEs increased ketogenesis by 2-fold with no significant differences between doses. MCT-Es increased total plasma ketones by 2- to 4-fold in a dose-dependent manner. Compared with MCT-NEs, MCT-Es increased plasma MCFA bioavailability (F) by 2- to 3-fold and decreased the number of side effects by ?50%. Conclusions: Emulsification increased the ketogenic effect and decreased side effects in a dose-dependent manner for single doses of MCTs ?30 g under matching conditions. Further investigation is needed to establish whether emulsification could sustain ketogenesis and minimize side effects and therefore be used as a treatment to change brain ketone availability over a prolonged period of time. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02409927.