Silencing of the FTO gene inhibits insulin secretion: An in vitro study using GRINCH cells.
ABSTRACT: Expression of fat mass and obesity-associated gene (FTO) and ADP-ribosylation factor-like 15 (ARL15) in human islets is inversely correlated with HbA1c. However, their impact on insulin secretion is still ambiguous. Here in, we investigated the role of FTO and ARL15 using GRINCH (Glucose-Responsive Insulin-secreting C-peptide-modified Human proinsulin) clonal rat ?-cells. GRINCH cells have inserted GFP into the human C-peptide insulin gene. Hence, secreted CpepGFP served to monitor insulin secretion. mRNA silencing of FTO in GRINCH cells showed a significant reduction in glucose but not depolarization-stimulated insulin secretion, whereas ARL15 silencing had no effect. A significant down-regulation of insulin mRNA was observed in FTO knockdown cells. Type-2 Diabetic islets revealed a reduced expression of FTO mRNA. In conclusion, our data suggest that fluorescent CpepGFP released from GRINCH cells may serve as a convenient marker for insulin secretion. Silencing of FTO expression, but not ARL15, inhibits insulin secretion by affecting metabolic signaling.
Project description:Although endoplasmic reticulum (ER) chaperone binding to mutant proinsulin has been reported, the role of protein chaperones in the handling of wild-type proinsulin is underinvestigated. Here, we have explored the importance of glucose-regulated protein 94 (GRP94), a prominent ER chaperone known to fold insulin-like growth factors, in proinsulin handling within ?-cells. We found that GRP94 coimmunoprecipitated with proinsulin and that inhibition of GRP94 function and/or expression reduced glucose-dependent insulin secretion, shortened proinsulin half-life, and lowered intracellular proinsulin and insulin levels. This phenotype was accompanied by post-ER proinsulin misprocessing and higher numbers of enlarged insulin granules that contained amorphic material with reduced immunogold staining for mature insulin. Insulin granule exocytosis was accelerated twofold, but the secreted insulin had diminished bioactivity. Moreover, GRP94 knockdown or knockout in ?-cells selectively activated protein kinase R-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK), without increasing apoptosis levels. Finally, GRP94 mRNA was overexpressed in islets from patients with type 2 diabetes. We conclude that GRP94 is a chaperone crucial for proinsulin handling and insulin secretion.
Project description:NEW FINDINGS:What is the central question of this study? Periodic decreases in arterial blood O2 or chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) is a hallmark feature of sleep apnoea patients. Despite a large body of clinical evidence linking sleep disordered breathing with apnoeas to diabetes, the causal relationships between CIH and ?-cell function and the underlying molecular mechanisms have not been established. What is the main finding and its importance? In a rodent model, we show that mitochondrial oxidative stress generated by CIH leads to pancreatic ?-cell dysfunction manifested by augmented basal insulin secretion, insulin resistance, defective proinsulin processing and impaired glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. The results of the present study provide evidence for direct effects of CIH on ?-cell function, which may be an underlying molecular mechanism contributing to the development of type 2 diabetes among sleep apnoea patients. Breathing disorders with recurrent apnoea produce periodic decreases in arterial blood O2, i.e. chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH). Recurrent apnoea patients and CIH-exposed rodents exhibit several co-morbidities, including diabetes. However, the effects of CIH on pancreatic ?-cell function are not known. In the present study, we investigated pancreatic ?-cell function in C57BL6 mice exposed to 30 days of CIH. Compared with control animals, the CIH-exposed mice exhibited elevated levels of fasting plasma insulin but comparable glucose levels and higher homeostasis model assessment, indicating insulin resistance. Pancreatic ?-cell morphology was unaltered in CIH-exposed mice. Insulin content was decreased in CIH-exposed ?-cells, and this effect was associated with increased proinsulin levels. The mRNA and protein levels of the enzyme prohormone convertase 1, which converts proinsulin to insulin, were downregulated in CIH-treated islets. More importantly, glucose-stimulated insulin secretion was impaired in CIH-exposed mice and in isolated islets. Mitochondrial levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were elevated in CIH-exposed pancreatic islets. Treatment of mice with mito-tempol, a scavenger of mitochondrial ROS, during exposure to CIH prevented the augmented insulin secretion and restored the proinsulin and homeostasis model assessment values to control levels. These results demonstrate that CIH leads to pancreatic ?-cell dysfunction, manifested by augmented basal insulin secretion, insulin resistance, defective proinsulin processing, impaired glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and increased mitochondrial ROS, which mediate the effects of CIH on pancreatic ?-cell function.
Project description:Inosine, guanosine and adenosine strongly stimulated proinsulin biosynthesis and insulin secretion in isolated mouse pancreatic islets. None of the purine ribonucleosides stimulated insulin secretion in rat islets, although as reported [jain & Logothetopoulos (1977) Endocrinilogy 100, 923-927] inosine and guanosine, but no adenosine, were potent stimulants of proinsulin biosynthesis in this species. The purine bases had no effect in either species. D-Ribose, which enhanced proinsulin biosynthesis at 0.3 and 0.6 mM but not at 5mM in rat pancreatic islets [jain & Logothetopoulos (1977) Endocrinology 100, 923-927], produced no secretory signals in rat islets and was without any effect on proinsulin biosynthesis and insulin secretion in mouse islets. The rates of oxidation of 14C-labelled purine ribonucleosides and D-ribose in islets of the two species correlated well with their effectiveness as inducers of insulin secretion and proinsulin biosynthesis. Specific inhibitors of purine ribonucleoside phosphorylase, adenosine deaminiase and of purine ribonucleoside transport suppressed the stimulatory effects of nucleosides in pancreatic islets without altering the effect of D-glucose. The same inhibitors also markedly diminished the oxidation rats of the labelled purine ribonucleosides. The experiments clearly indicate that porinsulin biosynthesis and insulin secretion are modulated through metabolic signals and not through interactions of intact substrate molecules with cell receptors.
Project description:To evaluate the role of TCF7L2, a key regulator of glucose homeostasis, in estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4)-modulated glucose metabolism, mouse insulinoma cells (MIN6) and human liver cancer cells (hepG2 and HUH7) were treated with physiological concentrations of E2 or P4 in the up- and down-regulation of TCF7L2. Insulin/proinsulin secretion was measured in MIN6 cells, while glucose uptake and production were evaluated in liver cancer cells. E2 increased insulin/proinsulin secretion under both basal and stimulated conditions, whereas P4 increased insulin/proinsulin secretion only under glucose-stimulated conditions. An antagonistic effect, possibly concentration-dependent, of E2 and P4 on the regulation of islet glucose metabolism was observed. After E2 or P4 treatment, secretion of insulin/proinsulin was positively correlated with TCF7L2 protein expression. When TCF7L2 was silenced, E2- or P4-promoted insulin/proinsulin secretion was significantly weakened. Under glucotoxicity conditions, overexpression of TCF7L2 increased insulin secretion and processing. In liver cancer cells, E2 or P4 exposure elevated TCF7L2 expression, enhanced the activity of insulin signaling (pAKT/pGSK), reduced PEPCK expression, subsequently increased insulin-stimulated glucose uptake, and decreased glucose production. Silencing TCF7L2 eliminated effects of E2 or P4. In conclusion, TCF7L2 regulates E2- or P4-modulated islet and hepatic glucose metabolism. The results have implications for glucose homeostasis in pregnancy.
Project description:The Jagn1 protein was indentified in a SILAC proteomic screen of proteins that are increased in insulinoma cells expressing a folding-deficient proinsulin. Jagn1 mRNA was detected in primary rodent islets and in insulinoma cell lines and the levels were increased in response to ER stress. The function of Jagn1 was assessed in insulinoma cells by both knock-down and overexpression approaches. Knock-down of Jagn1 caused an increase in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion resulting from an increase in proinsulin biosynthesis. In contrast, overexpression of Jagn1 in insulinoma cells resulted in reduced cellular proinsulin and insulin levels. Our results identify a novel role for Jagn1 in regulating proinsulin biosynthesis in pancreatic ?-cells. Under ER stress conditions Jagn1 is induced which might contribute to reducing proinsulin biosynthesis, in part by helping to relieve the protein folding load in the ER in an effort to restore ER homeostasis.
Project description:Genetic variants near ARAP1 (CENTD2) and STARD10 influence type 2 diabetes (T2D) risk. The risk alleles impair glucose-induced insulin secretion and, paradoxically but characteristically, are associated with decreased proinsulin:insulin ratios, indicating improved proinsulin conversion. Neither the identity of the causal variants nor the gene(s) through which risk is conferred have been firmly established. Whereas ARAP1 encodes a GTPase activating protein, STARD10 is a member of the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR)-related lipid transfer protein family. By integrating genetic fine-mapping and epigenomic annotation data and performing promoter-reporter and chromatin conformational capture (3C) studies in ? cell lines, we localize the causal variant(s) at this locus to a 5 kb region that overlaps a stretch-enhancer active in islets. This region contains several highly correlated T2D-risk variants, including the rs140130268 indel. Expression QTL analysis of islet transcriptomes from three independent subject groups demonstrated that T2D-risk allele carriers displayed reduced levels of STARD10 mRNA, with no concomitant change in ARAP1 mRNA levels. Correspondingly, ?-cell-selective deletion of StarD10 in mice led to impaired glucose-stimulated Ca2+ dynamics and insulin secretion and recapitulated the pattern of improved proinsulin processing observed at the human GWAS signal. Conversely, overexpression of StarD10 in the adult ? cell improved glucose tolerance in high fat-fed animals. In contrast, manipulation of Arap1 in ? cells had no impact on insulin secretion or proinsulin conversion in mice. This convergence of human and murine data provides compelling evidence that the T2D risk associated with variation at this locus is mediated through reduction in STARD10 expression in the ? cell.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion is a critical function in the regulation of glucose homeostasis, and its deregulation is associated with the development of type 2 diabetes. Here, we performed a genetic screen using islets isolated from the BXD panel of advanced recombinant inbred (RI) lines of mice to search for novel regulators of insulin production and secretion. METHODS:Pancreatic islets were isolated from 36 RI BXD lines and insulin secretion was measured following exposure to 2.8 or 16.7 mM glucose with or without exendin-4. Islets from the same RI lines were used for RNA extraction and transcript profiling. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping was performed for each secretion condition and combined with transcriptome data to prioritize candidate regulatory genes within the identified QTL regions. Functional studies were performed by mRNA silencing or overexpression in MIN6B1 cells and by studying mice and islets with beta-cell-specific gene inactivation. RESULTS:Insulin secretion under the 16.7 mM glucose plus exendin-4 condition was mapped significantly to a chromosome 2 QTL. Within this QTL, RNA-Seq data prioritized Crat (carnitine O-acetyl transferase) as a strong candidate regulator of the insulin secretion trait. Silencing Crat expression in MIN6B1 cells reduced insulin content and insulin secretion by ?30%. Conversely, Crat overexpression enhanced insulin content and secretion by ?30%. When islets from mice with beta-cell-specific Crat inactivation were exposed to high glucose, they displayed a 30% reduction of insulin content as compared to control islets. We further showed that decreased Crat expression in both MIN6B1 cells and pancreatic islets reduced the oxygen consumption rate in a glucose concentration-dependent manner. CONCLUSIONS:We identified Crat as a regulator of insulin secretion whose action is mediated by an effect on total cellular insulin content; this effect also depends on the genetic background of the RI mouse lines. These data also show that in the presence of the stimulatory conditions used the insulin secretion rate is directly related to the insulin content.
Project description:We recently described the persistence of detectable serum proinsulin in a large majority of individuals with longstanding type 1 diabetes (T1D), including individuals with undetectable serum C-peptide. Here, we sought to further explore the mechanistic etiologies of persistent proinsulin secretion in T1D at the level of the islet, using tissues obtained from human donors. Immunostaining for proinsulin and insulin was performed on human pancreatic sections from the Network for Pancreatic Organ Donors with Diabetes (nPOD) collection (n?=?24). Differential proinsulin processing enzyme expression was analyzed using mass spectrometry analysis of human islets isolated from pancreatic sections with laser capture microdissection (n?=?6). Proinsulin processing enzyme mRNA levels were assessed using quantitative real-time PCR in isolated human islets (n?=?10) treated with or without inflammatory cytokines. Compared to nondiabetic controls, immunostaining among a subset (4/9) of insulin positive T1D donor islets revealed increased numbers of cells with proinsulin-enriched, insulin-poor staining. T1D donor islets also exhibited increased proinsulin fluorescence intensity relative to insulin fluorescence intensity. Laser capture microdissection followed by mass spectrometry revealed reductions in the proinsulin processing enzymes prohormone convertase 1/3 (PC1/3) and carboxypeptidase E (CPE) in T1D donors. Twenty-four hour treatment of human islets with inflammatory cytokines reduced mRNA expression of the processing enzymes PC1/3, PC2, and CPE. Taken together, these data provide new mechanistic insight into altered proinsulin processing in long-duration T1D and suggest that reduced ? cell prohormone processing is associated with proinflammatory cytokine-induced reductions in proinsulin processing enzyme expression.
Project description:S 21403 (mitiglinide) is a new drug for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Its action on insulin release and biosynthesis was investigated in several experimental systems utilizing pancreas from normal and T2DM animals. At high concentrations (10 microM), S 21403, like classical sulphonylurea, induced insulin release in the absence of glucose. In contrast, at therapeutic (0.1-1.0 microM) concentrations, S 21403 amplified insulin secretion glucose dose-dependently and with similar magnitude in normal and diabetic GK rat islets. In perfused GK rat pancreas, S 21403 induced normal kinetics of insulin secretion including first-phase response. The effect of S 21403 was strongly modulated by physiological factors. Thus, 0.1 microM adrenaline inhibited S 21403-induced insulin release. There was marked synergism between S 21403 and arginine in GK rat islets, combination of the two normalizing insulin secretion. In primary islet cultures from normal rats or prediabetic Psammomys obesus, prolonged exposure to S 21403 did not induce further depletion of insulin stores under normal or 'glucotoxic' conditions. Proinsulin biosynthesis was not affected by 2-h exposure of rat or prediabetic P. obesus islets to 1 microM S 21403. Yet, 24-h exposure of rat islets to S 21403 resulted in 30% increase in proinsulin biosynthesis at 8.3 mM glucose. Amplification by S 21403 of glucose-induced insulin secretion in diabetic GK beta-cells with restoration of first-phase response, a strong synergistic interaction with arginine and marked inhibition by adrenaline, make it a prime candidate for successful oral antidiabetic agent.
Project description:N6-Methyladenosine (m6A) is the most common and abundant mRNA modification that involves regulating the RNA metabolism. However, the role of m6A in regulating the ?-cell function is unclear. Methyltransferase-like 14 (METTL14) is a key component of the m6A methyltransferase complex. To define the role of m6A in regulating the ?-cell function, we generated ?-cell METTL14-specific knockout (?KO) mice by tamoxifen administration. Acute deletion of Mettl14 in ?-cells results in glucose intolerance as a result of a reduction in insulin secretion in ?-cells even though ?-cell mass is increased, which is related to increased ?-cell proliferation. To define the molecular mechanism, we performed RNA sequencing to detect the gene expression in ?KO islets. The genes responsible for endoplasmic reticulum stress, such as Ire1?, were among the top upregulated genes. Both mRNA and protein levels of IRE1? and spliced X-box protein binding 1 (sXBP-1) were increased in ?KO islets. The protein levels of proinsulin and insulin were decreased in ?KO islets. These results suggest that acute METTL14 deficiency in ?-cells induces glucose intolerance by increasing the IRE1?/sXBP-1 pathway.