The Influence of an Ultrasonic Cleaning Protocol for CAD/CAM Abutment Surfaces on Cell Viability and Inflammatory Response In Vitro.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND/AIM:To evaluate the effect of an ultrasonic cleaning and disinfection method for CAD/CAM abutment surfaces on cell viability and inflammatory response in vitro. MATERIALS AND METHODS:Untreated and manually polished surfaces of CAD/CAM generated titanium and zirconia disks were randomly assigned, either to a 3-step ultrasonic cleaning and disinfection process (test: TiUF, TiPF, ZrUF, ZrPF) or to 30 sec steam cleaning (control: TiUS, TiPS, ZrUS, ZrPS). Pre-cleaning surface analyses using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and surface profilometry were performed. Human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs) were cultured on test and control specimens and subsequently examined for cell viability and inflammatory response. Expression of acute inflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-6 and vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) were assessed by means of RT-qPCR. RESULTS:Cells on all specimens exhibited a satisfactory viability, indicating firm attachment. Cells on polished zirconia samples, cleaned by means of sonication (ZrPF), exhibited significantly higher viability than cells on the same material cleaned by steam (ZrPS), p=0.019. For all other three material/ surface treatment combinations (TiU, TiP, ZrU), no such difference was observed between the cleaning methods. The messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) levels of IL-6 and VEGFA were between 50 and 105% of that of the control cells on the non-toxic control surface. mRNA levels of IL-6 and VEGFA correlated well with each other. CONCLUSION:Except for higher viability of cells cultured on polished zirconia specimens, no universally applicable advantage could be found for the ultrasonic cleaning procedure for zirconia and titanium abutment surfaces regarding cell viability, IL-6 expression or VEGFA expression. The cleaning procedures did not have any negative effect either.
Project description:Manufacturing processes of custom implant abutments may contaminate their surfaces with micro wear deposits and generic pollutants. Such particulate debris, if not removed, might be detrimental and provoke inflammatory reactions in peri-implant tissues. Although regulatory guidelines for adequate cleaning, disinfection, or sterilization exist, there does not appear to be a consistent application and data on the amount and extent of such contaminants is lacking. The aim of the present in vitro study was to evaluate the quality and quantity of processing-related surface contamination of computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) abutments in the state of delivery and after ultrasonic cleaning. A total of 28 CAD/CAM monotype and hybrid abutments were cleaned and disinfected applying a three-stage ultrasonic protocol (Finevo protocol). Before and after cleaning, the chemical composition and the contamination of the abutments were assessed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and computer-aided planimetric measurement (CAPM). In the delivery condition, monotype abutments showed a significantly higher amount of debris compared to hybrid abutments (4.86 ± 6.10% vs. 0.03 ± 0.03%, p < 0.001). The polishing process applied in the laboratory after bonding the hybrid abutment components reduces the surface roughness and thus contributes substantially to their purity. The extent of contamination caused by computer-aided manufacturing of custom abutments can be substantially minimized using a three-stage ultrasonic protocol.
Project description:Zirconia (3Y-TZP) dental prostheses are widely used in clinical dentistry. However, the effect of ultrasonic scaling performed as a part of professional tooth cleaning on 3Y-TZP dental prostheses, especially in conjunction with low-temperature degradation (LTD), has not been fully investigated. The present study aimed to evaluate the influence of ultrasonic scaling and LTD on the surface properties of 3Y-TZP in relation to bacterial adhesion on the treated surface. 3Y-TZP specimens (4 × 4 × 2 mm) were polished and then subjected to autoclaving at 134°C for 100 h to induce LTD, followed by 10 rounds of ultrasonic scaling using a steel scaler tip for 1 min each. Surface roughness, crystalline structure, wettability, and hardness were analyzed by optical interferometry, X-ray diffraction analysis, contact angle measurement, and nano-indentation technique, respectively. Subsequently, bacterial adhesion onto the treated 3Y-TZP surface was evaluated using Streptococcus mitis and S. oralis. The results demonstrated that the combination of ultrasonic scaling and LTD significantly increased the Sa value (surface roughness parameter) of the polished 3Y-TZP surface from 1.6 nm to 117 nm. LTD affected the crystalline structure, causing phase transformation from the tetragonal to the monoclinic phase, and decreased both the contact angle and surface hardness. However, bacterial adhesion was not influenced by these changes in surface properties. The present study suggests that ultrasonic scaling may be acceptable for debridement of 3Y-TZP dental prostheses because it did not facilitate bacterial adhesion even in the combination with LTD, although it did cause slight roughening of the surface.
Project description:PURPOSE:In this prospective clinical pilot study, abutments with different topologies (machined versus polished) were compared with respect to the clinical outcome and the microbiological profile. Furthermore, three different sampling methods (retrieval of abutment, collection of peri-abutment exudate using paper-points, and a small peri-abutment soft-tissue biopsy) were evaluated for the identification and quantification of colonising bacteria. METHODS:Twelve patients, seven with machined abutment and five with polished abutment, were included in the analysis. Three different sampling procedures were employed for the identification and quantification of colonising bacteria from baseline up to 12 months, using quantitative culturing. Clinical outcome measures (Holgers score, hygiene, pain, numbness and implant stability) were investigated. RESULTS:The clinical parameters, and total viable bacteria per abutment or in tissue biopsies did not differ significantly between the polished and machined abutments. The total CFU/mm2 abutment and CFU/peri-abutment fluid space of anaerobes, aerobes and staphylococci were significantly higher for the polished abutment. Anaerobic bacteria were detected in the tissue biopsies before BAHS implantation. Anaerobes and Staphylococcus spp. were detected in all three compartments after BAHS installation. For most patients (10/12), the same staphylococcal species were found in at least two of the three compartments at the same time-point. The common skin coloniser Staphylococcus epidermidis was identified in all patients but one (11/12), whereas the pathogen Staphylococcus aureus was isolated in five of the patients. Several associations between clinical and microbiological parameters were found. CONCLUSIONS:There was no difference in the clinical outcome with the use of polished versus machined abutment at 3 and 12 months after implantation. The present pilot trial largely confirmed a suitable study design, sampling and analytical methodology to determine the effects of modified BAHS abutment properties. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE:2. Controlled prospective comparative study.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Artificial intelligence (AI) is a branch of computer science concerned with building smart software or machines capable of performing tasks that typically require human intelligence. We present a protocol for the use of AI to fabricate implant-supported monolithic zirconia crowns (MZCs) cemented on customized hybrid abutments. METHODS:The study protocol consisted of: (1) intraoral scan of the implant position; (2) design of the individual abutment and temporary crown using computer-aided design (CAD) software; (3) milling of the zirconia abutment and the temporary polymethyl-methacrylate (PMMA) crown, with extraoral cementation of the zirconia abutment on the relative titanium bonding base, to generate an individual hybrid abutment; (4) clinical application of the hybrid abutment and the temporary PMMA crown; (5) intraoral scan of the hybrid abutment; (6) CAD of the final crown with automated margin line design using AI; (7) milling, sintering and characterisation of the final MZC; and (8) clinical application of the MZC. The outcome variables were mathematical (quality of the fabrication of the individual zirconia abutment) and clinical, such as (1) quality of the marginal adaptation, (2) of interproximal contact points and (3) of occlusal contacts, (4) chromatic integration, (5) survival and (6) success of MZCs. A careful statistical analysis was performed. RESULTS:90 patients (35 males, 55 females; mean age 53.3?±?13.7?years) restored with 106 implant-supported MZCs were included in the study. The follow-up varied from 6 months to 3 years. The quality of the fabrication of individual hybrid abutments revealed a mean deviation of 44??m (± 6.3) between the original CAD design of the zirconia abutment, and the mesh of the zirconia abutment captured intraorally at the end of the provisionalization. At the delivery of the MZCs, the marginal adaptation, quality of interproximal and occlusal contacts, and aesthetic integration were excellent. The three-year cumulative survival and success of the MZCs were 99.0% and 91.3%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS:AI seems to represent a reliable tool for the restoration of single implants with MZCs cemented on customised hybrid abutments via a full digital workflow. Further studies are needed to confirm these positive results.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Removal of cement-retained implant fixed restorations when needed, can be challenging. Conventional methods of crown removal are time consuming and costly for patients and practitioners. This research explored the use of two different types of pulsed erbium lasers as a non-invasive tool to retrieve cemented zirconia crowns from zirconia implant abutments. MATERIALS AND METHODS:Twenty identical zirconia crowns were cemented onto 20 identical zirconia prefabricated abutments using self-adhesive resin cement. The specimens were divided into two groups for laser assisted crown removal; G1 for erbium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet laser (Er:YAG), and G2 for erbium, chromium-doped yttrium, scandium, gallium and garnet (Er,Cr:YSGG). For the G1, after the first crown removal, the specimens were re-cemented and removed again using the Er:YAG laser. Times needed to remove the crowns were recorded and analyzed using ANOVA (? = 0.05). The surfaces of the crown and the abutment were further examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) analyses. RESULTS:The average times of zirconia crown removal from zirconia abutments were 5 min 20 sec and 5 min 15 sec for the Er:YAG laser of first and second experiments (G1), and 5 min 55 sec for the Er,Cr:YSGG laser experiment (G2). No statistical differences were observed among the groups. SEM and EDS examinations of the materials showed no visual surface damaging or material alteration from the two pulsed erbium lasers. CONCLUSIONS:Both types of pulsed erbium lasers can be viable alternatives for retrieving a zirconia crown from a zirconia implant abutment. Despite operating at different wavelengths, the Er:YAG and Er,Cr:YSGG lasers, perform similarly in removing a zirconia crown from a zirconia implant abutment with similar parameters. There are no visual and elemental composition damages as a result of irradiation with pulsed erbium lasers.
Project description:We present an ultrasonic device with the ability to locally remove deposited layers from a glass slide in a controlled and rapid manner. The cleaning takes place as the result of cavitating bubbles near the deposited layers and not due to acoustic streaming. The bubbles are ejected from air-filled cavities micromachined in a silicon surface, which, when vibrated ultrasonically at a frequency of 200 kHz, generate a stream of bubbles that travel to the layer deposited on an opposing glass slide. Depending on the pressure amplitude, the bubble clouds ejected from the micropits attain different shapes as a result of complex bubble interaction forces, leading to distinct shapes of the cleaned areas. We have determined the removal rates for several inorganic and organic materials and obtained an improved efficiency in cleaning when compared to conventional cleaning equipment. We also provide values of the force the bubbles are able to exert on an atomic force microscope tip.
Project description:The hybrid abutment emerged as an alternative to maintain a stable and favorable volume of peri-implant tissue; it is composed of a mesostructure in ceramic and a metallic connection, which can be machined according to the peri-implant emergence profile. This case report presented the clinical steps for a dental implant with immediate provisional restoration, followed by the installation of implant-supported all-ceramic crowns with zirconia abutment and platform switching. A 40-year-old male patient was rehabilitated with an implant-supported ceramic crown in the region of element 11 and a ceramic veneer was cemented on the upper right central incisor. To do so, an atraumatic extraction of the upper left central incisor was performed followed by implant placement and immediate loading. In this case, a zirconia hybrid abutment was used with a metallic link in the cervical region with a concave platform switching base. This association of clinical steps enabled improving the aesthetics in the anterior dental region.
Project description:Titanium is the most commonly used material to manufacture dental implants and abutments. Recently, zirconia abutments have been manufactured with better aesthetic properties. However, zirconia abutments are harder than titanium implants; therefore, they could wear the implant surface. Therefore, this article aims to describe a sphere-plane system that can be used to assess the wear that different abutment materials cause in the titanium of dental implants when submitted to cyclic loading. This method can be used to simulate the oral cavity, where the abutment (sphere) applies loads onto the implant (titanium plane). The spheres were made of different materials (titanium and zirconia), and the specimens were loaded for 4,000,000 cycles. The scar size and area on titanium planes were measured with stereoscopic images and analysed through profilometry.The wear of titanium planes was similar when tested against zirconia or titanium spheres. The sphere-plane system is a method that can be used to evaluate and quantify the wear of the titanium of dental implants, and compared with methods that use real implants, this system is simpler and less expensive. This method could facilitate further research to evaluate the wear of titanium against different materials and under different testing conditions.
Project description:Dental implant abutments are fundamental prosthetic components within dentistry that require optimal biocompatibility. The primary aim of this cross-sectional study was to preliminarily assess differences in the pro-inflammatory cytokine and bone metabolism mediator protein expression in the peri-implant crevicular fluid (PICF) adjacent to transmucosal abutments.Abutments were fabricated from either titanium or zirconia in patients previously receiving single-tooth implant therapy. All subjects sampled in this study had an identical implant system and implant-abutment connection. Participants (n = 46) had an average time of clinical function for 22 months (6.2-72.8 months, ±SD 17 months) and received a clinical and radiographic examination of the implant site at the time of PICF sampling using a paper strip-based sampling technique. Cytokine, chemokine, and bone metabolism mediator quantities (picograms/30 s) were determined using a commercial 22-multiplexed fluorescent bead-based immunoassay instrument. A total of 19 pro-inflammatory cytokines and seven bone metabolism mediators were evaluated.Multivariable analyses provided no evidence of a group (titanium or zirconia), gender, or age effect with regard to the expression of pro-inflammatory mediators evaluated. Significant (P = 0.022) differences were observed for the bone mediator leptin, with titanium abutments demonstrating significantly elevated levels in comparison with zirconia. Osteopontin demonstrated a significant (P = 0.0044) correlation with age of the subjects.No significant differences in pro-inflammatory cytokine or bone metabolism mediator profiles were observed biochemically, with the exception of leptin, for the abutment biomaterials of titanium or zirconia The molecular PICF findings support the observed clinical biocompatibility of both titanium and zirconia abutments.
Project description:Background and Objectives: Khat chewing is considered as a daily habit that is practiced by more than five million people globally. The effect of khat chewing on the surface roughness and the color stability of natural teeth and the material used in the fabrication of dental prosthesis remains unknown. This study was conducted to explore and compare the effect of khat homogenate (KH) on the surface roughness (Ra) and the average color changes (?E*) amongst natural teeth and selected shades from different porcelain types, namely, feldspathic metal ceramic (MC) VM13, computer-aided design/computer assisted manufacture (CAD/CAM) feldspathic (Vitablocs Mark II), and multilayer zirconia (Ceramill Zolid PS) porcelains. Materials and Methods: Seventy samples were prepared from natural teeth, feldspathic MC, CAD/CAM Vitablocs Mark II, and zirconia porcelain. The Ra values were measured using a profilometer and expressed in micrometers, whereas the ?E* values were measured using VITA Easyshade® V spectrophotometer for all samples before and after frequent immersion and thermocycling in KH for 30 days. The surface topography was used to assess the materials surfaces (glazed or polished) after KH immersion by using a white light interferometry machine. Results: Results revealed that the Ra and the ?E* values of the different types of tested porcelain were influenced by KH. The order of surface roughness values was glazed or polished MC > polished Zircon > polished Vitablocs Mark II > natural teeth. The lowest ?E* values were recorded for glazed Vitablocs Mark II and MC, and the values could be arranged as polished zircon > natural teeth > glazed zircon > polished MC > polished Vitablocs Mark II. P values were significantly varied (< 0.001) among all the tested groups, except the zircon group (>0.05) for both Ra and ?E*. Conclusion: KH significantly affected both surface parameter and color of glazed or polished porcelain materials and natural teeth.