Risk factors for alcohol use among pregnant women, ages 15-44, in the United States, 2002 to 2017.
ABSTRACT: Fetal alcohol exposure can lead to severe birth and developmental defects. Determining which pregnant women are most likely to drink is essential for targeting interventions. In National Survey on Drug Use and Health data on pregnant women from 2002 to 2017 (N?=?13,488), logistic regression was used to produce adjusted odds ratios (aOR) indicating characteristics associated with two past-month outcomes: any alcohol use and binge drinking. Risk factors were sociodemographic (age, race/ethnicity, marital status, education level, income) and clinical (trimester, substance use, alcohol use disorder, major depression). Where associations differed by pregnancy stage (trimester 1 vs. trimesters 2 and 3), association was evaluated by stage. Overall, higher risk for any and binge drinking was observed among those with other substance use (aORs 2.9-25.9), alcohol use disorder (aORs 4.5-7.5), depression (aORs?=?1.6), and unmarried women (aORs 1.6-3.2). For any drinking, overall, higher risk was observed in adolescents (aOR?=?1.5) and those with higher education (aOR?=?1.4), while lower risk was observed in those with lower income (aORs?=?0.7). For binge drinking, associations differed by pregnancy stage. In trimester 1, lower risk was observed in middle ages (aOR?=?0.4). In trimesters 2/3, higher risk was observed in Blacks (aOR?=?3.3) and those with lower income (aORs 3.5-3.9), while lower risk was observed in those with higher education (aOR?=?0.3). To prevent severe prenatal harm, health care providers should focus on women at higher risk for binge drinking during pregnancy: women with tobacco or drug use, alcohol use disorder, or depression, and women who are unmarried, Black, or of lower socioeconomic status.
Project description:Emergency department (ED) patients comprise a high-risk population for alcohol misuse and sexual risk for HIV. In order to design future interventions to increase HIV screening uptake, we examined the interrelationship among alcohol misuse, sexual risk for HIV and HIV screening uptake among these patients.A random sample of 18-64-year-old English- or Spanish-speaking patients at two EDs during July-August 2009 completed a self-administered questionnaire about their alcohol use using the Alcohol Use Questionnaire, the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), and the HIV Sexual Risk Questionnaire. Study participants were offered a rapid HIV test after completing the questionnaires. Binging (? five drinks/occasion for men, ? four drinks for women) was assessed and sex-specific alcohol misuse severity levels (low-risk, harmful, hazardous, dependence) were calculated using AUDIT scores. Analyses were limited to participants who had sexual intercourse in the past 12 months. Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess the associations between HIV screening uptake and (1) alcohol misuse, (2) sexual risk for HIV, and (3) the intersection of HIV sexual risk and alcohol misuse. Adjusted odds ratios (AORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated. All models were adjusted for patient demographic characteristics and separate models for men and women were constructed.Of 524 participants (55.0% female), 58.4% identified as white, non-Hispanic, and 72% reported previous HIV testing. Approximately 75% of participants reported drinking alcohol within the past 30 days and 74.5% of men and 59.6% of women reported binge drinking. A relationship was found between reported sexual risk for HIV and alcohol use among men (AOR 3.31 [CI 1.51-7.24]) and women (AOR 2.78 [CI 1.48-5.23]). Women who reported binge drinking were more likely to have higher reported sexual risk for HIV (AOR 2.55 [CI 1.40-4.64]) compared to women who do not report binge drinking. HIV screening uptake was not higher among those with greater alcohol misuse and sexual risk among men or women.The apparent disconnection between HIV screening uptake and alcohol misuse and sexual risk for HIV among ED patients in this study is concerning. Brief interventions emphasizing these associations should be evaluated to reduce alcohol misuse and sexual risk and increase the uptake of ED HIV screening.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use is an increasingly common method of nicotine delivery in the general population. It is well-established that tobacco users are at increased risk to engage in hazardous drinking and meet criteria for alcohol use disorder (AUD) relative to nonusers. Less is known, however, about the risk of harmful alcohol use among people who use e-cigarettes. The current study reports on the association between e-cigarette and alcohol use in the U.S. population using a nationally representative sample. METHODS:Data from 36,309 adults who participated in the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions-Wave III were included in the study. The Alcohol Use Disorder and Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule (AUDADIS) measured past-year e-cigarette and alcohol use outcomes. Based on past-year e-cigarette use, respondents were categorized as nonusers, nondaily users, or daily users. Alcohol use outcomes were drinking quantity/frequency, binge drinking frequency, AUD diagnostic status, and National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism-defined hazardous drinking status. RESULTS:Controlling for demographic characteristics, daily and nondaily e-cigarette users showed increased risk of harmful alcohol use compared to e-cigarette nonusers, including hazardous drinking (adjusted odds ratios [AORs] = 1.69; 2.48), AUD (AORs = 1.89; 2.44), and binge drinking frequency (AORs = 1.30 to 3.30). Nondaily e-cigarette use was associated with higher levels of risk than was daily use. Secondary analyses examined alcohol use outcomes according to participants' patterns of dual tobacco cigarette/e-cigarette use. These analyses confirmed that e-cigarette use alongside tobacco cigarette use is associated with additive risk of harmful alcohol consumption, particularly among nondaily users. CONCLUSIONS:E-cigarette users, particularly those who engage in nondaily and dual use, show elevated rates of harmful alcohol use. Heavy drinking may constitute a source of health risk among e-cigarette users.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Prescription opioids were responsible for approximately 17,000 deaths in the U.S. in 2016. One in five prescription opioid deaths also involve alcohol. Drinkers who misuse prescription opioids (i.e., use without a prescription or use only for the experience or feeling it causes) are at a heightened risk of overdose. However, little is known about the relationship between drinking patterns and prescription opioid misuse. METHODS:Data were analyzed from 160,812 individuals (aged ?12 years) who responded to questions about prescription opioid misuse and alcohol consumption in the 2012, 2013, or 2014 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (analyzed in 2017-2018). The prevalence of self-reported past-30-days prescription opioid misuse was assessed by sociodemographic characteristics, other substance use (i.e., cigarettes, marijuana), and drinking patterns. Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to calculate AORs. RESULTS:From 2012 to 2014, 1.6% (95% CI=1.5, 1.7) of all individuals aged ?12 years (estimated 4.2 million) and 3.5% (95% CI=3.3, 3.8) of binge drinkers (estimated 2.2 million) reported prescription opioid misuse. Prescription opioid misuse was more common among binge drinkers than among nondrinkers (AOR=1.7, 95% CI=1.5, 1.9). Overall, the prevalence of prescription opioid misuse increased significantly with binge drinking frequency (p-value<0.001). CONCLUSIONS:More than half of the 4.2 million people who misused prescription opioids during 2012-2014 were binge drinkers, and binge drinkers had nearly twice the odds of misusing prescription opioids, compared with nondrinkers. Widespread use of evidence-based strategies for preventing binge drinking might reduce opioid misuse and overdoses involving alcohol.
Project description:<b><i>Purpose:</i></b> The purpose of this study was to assess sexual orientation differences in high-intensity binge drinking using nationally representative data. <b><i>Methods:</i></b> Data were from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions III (<i>N</i>?=?36,309), a nationally representative sample of U.S. adults collected in 2012-2013. Sex-stratified adjusted logistic regression models were used to test sexual orientation differences in the prevalence of standard (4+ for women and 5+ for men) and high-intensity binge drinking (8+ and 12+ for women; 10+ and 15+ for men) across three dimensions of sexual orientation: sexual attraction, sexual behavior, and sexual identity. <b><i>Results:</i></b> Sexual minority women, whether defined on the basis of sexual attraction, behavior, or identity, were more likely than sexual majority women to engage in high-intensity binge drinking at two (adjusted odds ratios [aORs] ranging from 1.52 to 2.90) and three (aORs ranging from 1.61 to 3.27) times the standard cutoff for women (4+). Sexual minority men, depending on sexual orientation dimension, were equally or less likely than sexual majority men to engage in high-intensity binge drinking. <b><i>Conclusion:</i></b> This study is the first to document sexual orientation-related disparities in high-intensity binge drinking among adults in the United States using nationally representative data. The results suggest that differences in alcohol-related risk among sexual minority individuals vary depending on sex and sexual orientation dimension.
Project description:<h4>Introduction</h4>People in Ethiopia, including pregnant women, highly consume both home-made and manufactured alcohol beverages due to lack of awareness about the harmful effect of risky alcohol use, and cultural acceptance of alcohol consumption. Alcohol consumption and other hazardous patterns of use like binge drinking have tremendous adverse effects on fetus and mothers. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the magnitude of alcohol consumption, binge drinking and its determinants among pregnant women residing in Kolfe sub-city, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.<h4>Methods</h4>Institutional based cross-sectional study was conducted among a total of 367 pregnant women. The participants were selected using a systematic random sampling method. Data were collected through a structured questionnaire. A binary logistic regression was conducted using SPSS version 20 software to identify determinants of alcohol consumption and binge drinking. A p-value < 0.05 was used to declare a statistical significance in multiple logistic regression. The results were described using adjusted odds ratio with a 95% confidence interval.<h4>Results</h4>This study revealed that the prevalence of alcohol consumption, binge drinking, and weekly alcohol consumption of four or more units among pregnant women was 39.78%, 3.54% and 4.9%, respectively. Not having formal education [AOR 95% CI = 8.47 (2.42, 29.62), having primary education [AOR 95% CI = 4.26 (1.23, 14.74), being a housewife [AOR 95% CI = 4.18 (2.13, 8.22), having an unplanned pregnancy [AOR 95% CI = 2.47(1.33, 4.60), having a history of abortion [AOR 95% CI = 3.33 (1.33, 6.05)], not having awareness about the harmful effect of alcohol consumption [AOR 95% CI = 4.66 (2.53, 8.61)], and not having family social support [AOR 95% CI = 2(1.14,3.53) were determinants of alcohol consumption among pregnant women.<h4>Conclusions</h4>This study found a high level of alcohol consumption among pregnant women. Interventions to create awareness on the harmful effects of alcohol are needed. Moreover, strengthening social support during pregnancy and family planning services to reduce unplanned pregnancy and abortion should be considered.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Problem drinking that predates enlistment into military service may contribute to the overall burden of alcohol misuse in the Armed Forces; however, evidence bearing on this issue is limited. This study examines prevalence and correlates of alcohol misuse among new U.S. Army soldiers. METHODS:Cross-sectional survey data were collected from soldiers reporting for basic combat training. The survey retrospectively assessed lifetime alcohol consumption and substance abuse/dependence, enabling estimation of the prevalence of lifetime binge drinking and heavy drinking in a sample of 30,583 soldiers and of probable alcohol use disorder (AUD) among 26,754 soldiers with no/minimal lifetime use of other drugs. Co-occurrence of mental disorders and other adverse outcomes with binge drinking, heavy drinking, and AUD was examined. Discrete-time survival analysis, with person-year the unit of analysis and a logistic link function, was used to estimate associations of AUD with subsequent onset of mental disorders and vice versa. RESULTS:Weighted prevalence of lifetime binge drinking was 27.2% (SE = 0.4) among males and 18.9% (SE = 0.7) among females; respective estimates for heavy drinking were 13.9% (SE = 0.3) and 9.4% (SE = 0.4). Among soldiers with no/minimal drug use, 9.5% (SE = 0.2) of males and 7.2% (SE = 0.5) of females had lifetime AUD. Relative to no alcohol misuse, binge drinking, heavy drinking, and AUD were associated with increased odds of all mental disorders and other adverse outcomes under consideration (adjusted odds ratios [AORs] = 1.5 to 4.6; ps < 0.001). Prior mental disorders and suicidal ideation were associated with onset of AUD (AORs = 2.3 to 2.8; ps < 0.001), and prior AUD was associated with onset of mental disorders and suicidal ideation (AORs = 2.0 to 3.2, ps < 0.005). CONCLUSIONS:Strong bidirectional associations between alcohol misuse and mental disorders were observed in a cohort of soldiers beginning Army service. Conjoint recognition of alcohol misuse and mental disorders upon enlistment may provide opportunities for risk mitigation early in a soldier's career.
Project description:Drinking alcohol during pregnancy can cause fetal alcohol spectrum disorders, including birth defects, behavioral disorders, and impaired cognitive development (1). Little is known about the co-use of other substances by females who drink during pregnancy. CDC used 2015-2018 data from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) to estimate the overall and trimester-specific prevalence of self-reported drinking in the past 12 months, current drinking, and binge drinking, overall and by trimester, and the co-use of other substances among pregnant females aged 12-44 years. Past drinking (12 months) was reported by 64.7% of pregnant respondents. Current drinking (at least one drink in the past 30 days) was reported by 19.6% of respondents who were in their first trimester of pregnancy and 4.7% of respondents who were in their second or third trimester. Binge drinking (consuming four or more drinks on at least one occasion in the past 30 days) was reported by 10.5% of first trimester respondents and 1.4% of second or third trimester respondents. Overall, 38.2% of pregnant respondents who reported current drinking also reported current use of one or more other substances. The substances used most with alcohol were tobacco and marijuana. Self-reported drinking prevalence was substantially lower among second or third trimester respondents than among first trimester respondents. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) recommends alcohol use and substance use disorders screening for all females seeking obstetric-gynecologic care and counseling patients that there is no known safe level of alcohol use during pregnancy (2).
Project description:BACKGROUND:College attendance is a risk factor for frequent and heavy drinking and marijuana initiation but less is known about the extent to which risk varies by type of college attendance and across age. METHODS:Using panel data of young adults who were high school seniors in 1990-1998 from the Monitoring the Future study (n?=?13,123), we examined the associations between college attendance at age 19/20 (4-year college full-time, other college, and non-attendance) and subsequent alcohol and marijuana use at age 21/22, 25/26, 29/30 and 35. Inverse propensity score weighting was used to balance the three college groups on pre-existing differences when examining associations with substance use outcomes. RESULTS:Compared to non-attendance, attending a 4-year college full-time was associated with significantly greater odds of binge drinking at age 21/22 (aOR?=?1.20) and 25/26 (aOR?=?1.12) and lower odds of alcohol abstinence at age 35 (aOR?=?0.51). Similarly, other college attendance was associated with greater odds of binge drinking at age 21/22 (aOR?=?1.08) and 25/26 (aOR?=?1.04) and lower odds of abstinence at age 35 (aOR?=?0.70). Four-year college full-time attendance was associated with greater odds of marijuana use at age 21/22 (aOR?=?1.07) and 25/26 (aOR?=?1.02) but lower odds at age 29/30 (aOR?=?0.99). Other college attendance was associated with lower odds of marijuana use at age 25/26 (aOR?=?0.98) and 29/30 (aOR?=?0.97). Marijuana use at age 35 did not differ by college attendance. CONCLUSIONS:College attendance may confer elevated risk of substance use post-college. The magnitude and duration of risk vary by type of college attendance and substance.
Project description:The purpose of the present study was to investigate the potential associations of binge drinking detected at the exit of nightclubs and risk behaviors and alcohol effects just after leaving the venue in a representative sample of Brazilian nightclub patrons according to sex. For this purpose, a portal survey study called Balada com Ciência was conducted in 2013 in the megacity of São Paulo, Brazil, using a two-stage cluster sampling survey design. Individual-level data were collected in 2422 subjects at the entrance and 1822 subjects at the exit of 31 nightclubs, and breath alcohol concentration (BrAC) was measured using a breathalyzer. The following day, 1222 patrons answered an online follow-up survey that included questions about risk behaviors and alcohol effects practiced just after leaving the nightclub. Weighted logistic regressions were used to analyze binge drinking associated with risk behaviors by sex. For both sexes, the most prevalent risk behaviors practiced after leaving a nightclub were drinking and driving (men=27.9%; women=20.4%), the use of illicit drugs (men=15.8%; women=9.4%) and risky sexual behavior (men=11.4%; women=6.8%). The practice of binge drinking increased the behavior of illicit drug use after leaving the nightclub by 2.54 times [95% CI: 1.26-5.09] among men who drank and increased the risk of an episode of new alcohol use by 5.80 times [95% CI: 1.50-22.44] among women who drank. Alcoholic blackouts were more prevalent among men [OR=8.92; 95% CI: 3.83-20.80] and women [OR= 5.31; 95% CI: 1.68-16.84] whose BrAC was equivalent to binge drinking compared with patrons with a lower BrAC. Public policies aiming to reduce patrons' BrAC at the exit of nightclubs, such as staff training in responsible beverage service and legislation to prevent alcohol sales to drunk individuals, would be useful to protect patrons from the risk behaviors associated with binge drinking in nightclubs.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:We compared discrete time measures with trajectories of adolescent drinking frequency as predictors of sustained binge drinking in young adulthood. DESIGN:Prospective longitudinal study. SETTING:10 high schools in Montréal, Canada. PARTICIPANTS:1293 high-school students followed from mean (SD) age 12 (0.6) to 24 (0.7) years. PRIMARY OUTCOME MEASURES:Patterns of drinking frequency (self-reports every 3 months from ages 12 to 17) identified using group-based trajectory modelling. Sustained binge drinking was defined as binging monthly or more often at both ages 20 and 24. ANALYSES:Using logistic regression, sustained binge drinking was regressed on trajectory group membership and on four discrete time measures (frequency of drinking at age 12; frequency of drinking at age 17; age at drinking onset; age at onset of drinking monthly or more often). RESULTS:We identified seven drinking trajectories: late triers (15.2%), decreasers (9.5%), late escalators (10.4%), early slow escalators (16.5%), steady drinkers (14.4%), early rapid escalators (15.8%) and early frequent drinkers (18.2%). Sustained binge drinking was reported by 260 of 787 participants (33.0%) with complete data at both ages 20 and 24. Decreasers did not differ from late triers; all other patterns were associated with higher odds of sustained binge drinking (adjusted ORs: AORs=1.4-17.0). All discrete time measures were associated with sustained binge drinking, notably frequency at age 12 (a bit to try and drinking monthly: (AORs=2.6 (1.7; 3.9) and 2.8 (1.3; 6.1), respectively), age of drinking onset <13 years (AOR=7.6 (3.0; 24.1)), and any age of onset of drinking monthly or more often (AORs=5.1-8.2). CONCLUSION:Youth at risk of sustained binge drinking as young adults can be identified with indicators of early drinking as early as 7th grade (aged 12-13 years). Identification of easy-to-obtain indicators can facilitate screening and intervention efforts.