ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Angiogenesis improves reperfusion to the ischaemic tissue after vascular obstruction. The underlying molecular mechanisms of post-ischaemic angiogenesis are not clear. FAM3A belongs to the family with sequence similarity 3 (FAM3) genes, but its biological function in endothelial cells in regards to vascular diseases is not well understood. METHODS:Gain- and loss-of-function methods by adenovirus or associated-adenovirus (AAV) in different models were applied to investigate the effects of FAM3A on endothelial angiogenesis. Endothelial angiogenesis was analysed by tube formation, migration and proliferation in vitro, and the blood flow and capillary density in a hind limb ischaemic model in vivo. FINDINGS:Endothelial FAM3A expression is downregulated under hypoxic conditions. Overexpression of FAM3A promotes, but depletion of FAM3A suppresses, endothelial tube formation, proliferation and migration. Utilizing the mouse hind limb ischaemia model, we also observe that FAM3A overexpression can improve blood perfusion and increase capillary density, whereas FAM3A knockdown has the opposite effects. Mechanistically, mitochondrial FAM3A increases adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production and secretion; ATP binds to P2 receptors and then upregulates cytosolic free Ca2+ levels. Increased intracellular Ca2+ levels enhance phosphorylation of the transcriptional factor cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) and its recruitment to the VEGFA promoter, thus activating VEGFA transcription and the final endothelial angiogenesis. INTERPRETATION:In summary, our data demonstrate that FAM3A positively regulates angiogenesis through activation of VEGFA transcription, suggesting that FAM3A may constitute a novel molecular therapeutic target for ischaemic vascular disease.
Project description:Arterial bypass grafts remain the gold standard for the treatment of end-stage ischaemic disease. Yet patients unable to tolerate the cardiovascular stress of arterial surgery or those with unreconstructable disease would benefit from grafts that are able to induce therapeutic angiogenesis. Here, we introduce an approach whereby implantation of 3D-printed grafts containing endothelial-cell-lined lumens induces spontaneous, geometrically guided generation of collateral circulation in ischaemic settings. In rodent models of hind-limb ischaemia and myocardial infarction, we demonstrate that the vascular patches rescue perfusion of distal tissues, preventing capillary loss, muscle atrophy and loss of function. Inhibiting anastomoses between the construct and the host's local capillary beds, or implanting constructs with unpatterned endothelial cells, abrogates reperfusion. Our 3D-printed grafts constitute an efficient and scalable approach to engineer vascular patches able to guide rapid therapeutic angiogenesis and perfusion for the treatment of ischaemic diseases.
Project description:Diabetes mellitus (DM) is associated with poor clinical outcomes in humans with peripheral arterial disease (PAD) and in pre-clinical models of PAD, but the effects of glycaemic control are poorly understood. We investigated the effect of glycaemic control on experimental PAD in mice with Type 1 DM and explored the effects of hyperglycaemia on vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2) expression in ischaemia.Hind limb ischaemia was induced in non-diabetic, untreated Type 1 DM, and treated Type 1 DM mice. We assessed perfusion recovery, capillary density, VEGFR2 levels, and VEGFR2 ubiquitination in ischaemic hind limbs. We found that untreated Type 1 DM mice showed impaired perfusion recovery, lower hind limb capillary density 5 weeks post-ischaemia, and lower VEGFR2 protein in Day 3 post-ischaemic hind limbs when compared with non-DM controls. Treated Type 1 DM mice had perfusion recovery, capillary density, and VEGFR2 protein levels comparable with that of non-diabetic mice at the same time points. Treatment with anti-VEGFR2 antibody negated that the improved perfusion recovery displayed by treated Type 1 DM mice. In ischaemic Type 1 DM hind limbs and endothelial cells exposed to simulated ischaemia, high glucose impaired VEGFR2 expression and was associated with increased VEGFR2 ubiquitination. Inhibition of the ubiquitin-proteasome complex restored normal endothelial VEGFR2 expression in simulated ischaemia.Hyperglycaemia in Type 1 DM impairs VEGFR2 protein expression in ischaemic hind limbs, likely due to increased ubiquitination and degradation by the proteasome complex. Glycaemic control allows normal levels of VEGFR2 in ischaemia and improved perfusion recovery.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Fatty acid synthase (FASN) is overexpressed and associated with poor prognosis in several human cancers. Here, we investigate the effect of FASN inhibitors on the metastatic spread and angiogenesis in experimental melanomas and cultured melanoma cells. METHODS: The lung colonisation assay and cutaneous melanomas were performed by the inoculation of mouse melanoma B16-F10 cells in C57BL6 mice. Blood vessel endothelial cells (RAEC and HUVEC) were applied to determine cell proliferation, apoptosis, and the formation of capillary-like structures. Vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) expression was evaluated by quantitative RT-PCR and ELISA in B16-F10, human melanoma (SK-MEL-25), and human oral squamous carcinoma (SCC-9) cells. Conditioned media from these cancer cell lines were used to study the effects of FASN inhibitors on endothelial cells. RESULTS: B16-F10 melanoma-induced metastases and angiogenesis were significantly reduced in orlistat-treated mice. Fatty acid synthase inhibitors reduced the viability, proliferation, and the formation of capillary-like structures by RAEC cells, as well as the tumour cell-mediated formation of HUVEC capillary-like structures. Cerulenin and orlistat stimulated the production of total VEGFA in B16-F10, SK-MEL-25, and SCC-9 cells. Both drugs also enhanced VEGFA(121), (165), (189,) and (165b) in SK-MEL-25 and SCC-9 cells. CONCLUSION: FASN inhibitors reduce metastasis and tumour-induced angiogenesis in experimental melanomas, and differentially modulate VEGFA expression in B16-F10 cells.
Project description:FAM3A plays important roles in regulating hepatic glucose/lipid metabolism and the proliferation of VSMCs. This study determined the role and mechanism of FAM3A in the adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. During the adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes, FAM3A expression was significantly increased. FAM3A overexpression enhanced 3T3-L1 preadipocyte adipogenesis with increased phosphorylated Akt (pAkt) level, whereas FAM3A silencing inhibited 3T3-L1 preadipocyte adipogenesis with reduced pAkt level. Moreover, FAM3A silencing reduced the expression and secretion of adipokines in 3T3-L1 cells. FAM3A protein is mainly located in mitochondrial fraction of 3T3-L1 cells and mouse adipose tissue. FAM3A overexpression increased, whereas FAM3A silencing decreased ATP production in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. FAM3A-induced adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes was blunted by inhibitor of P2 receptor. In white adipose tissues of db/db and HFD-fed obese mice, FAM3A expression was reduced. One-month rosiglitazone administration upregulated FAM3A expression, and increased cellular ATP content and pAkt level in white adipose tissues of normal and obese mice. In conclusion, FAM3A enhances the adipogenesis of preadipocytes by activating ATP-P2 receptor-Akt pathway. Under obese condition, a decrease in FAM3A expression in adipose tissues plays important roles in the development of adipose dysfunction and type 2 diabetes.
Project description:We have recently identified endothelial cell-secreted developmental endothelial locus-1 (Del-1) as an endogenous inhibitor of ?2-integrin-dependent leukocyte infiltration. Del-1 was previously also implicated in angiogenesis. Here, we addressed the role of endogenously produced Del-1 in ischaemia-related angiogenesis. Intriguingly, Del-1-deficient mice displayed increased neovascularisation in two independent ischaemic models (retinopathy of prematurity and hind-limb ischaemia), as compared to Del-1-proficient mice. On the contrary, angiogenic sprouting in vitro or ex vivo (aortic ring assay) and physiological developmental retina angiogenesis were not affected by Del-1 deficiency. Mechanistically, the enhanced ischaemic neovascularisation in Del-1-deficiency was linked to higher infiltration of the ischaemic tissue by CD45+ haematopoietic and immune cells. Moreover, Del-1-deficiency promoted ?2-integrin-dependent adhesion of haematopoietic cells to endothelial cells in vitro, and the homing of hematopoietic progenitor cells and of immune cell populations to ischaemic muscles in vivo. Consistently, the increased hind limb ischaemia-related angiogenesis in Del-1 deficiency was completely reversed in mice lacking both Del-1 and the ?2-integrin LFA-1. Additionally, enhanced retinopathy-associated neovascularisation in Del-1-deficient mice was reversed by LFA-1 blockade. Our data reveal a hitherto unrecognised function of endogenous Del-1 as a local inhibitor of ischaemia-induced angiogenesis by restraining LFA-1-dependent homing of pro-angiogenic haematopoietic cells to ischaemic tissues. Our findings are relevant for the optimisation of therapeutic approaches in the context of ischaemic diseases.
Project description:During pregnancy, a tremendous increase in fetoplacental angiogenesis is associated with elevated blood flow. Aberrant fetoplacental vascular function may lead to pregnancy complications including pre-eclampsia. Fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) and vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) are crucial regulators of fetoplacental endothelial function. G protein ? subunit 14 (GNA14), a member of G?q/11 subfamily is involved in mediating hypertensive diseases and tumor vascularization. However, little is known about roles of GNA14 in mediating the FGF2- and VEGFA-induced fetoplacental endothelial function. Using human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) cultured under physiological chronic low oxygen (3% O2 ) as a cell model, we show that transfecting cells with adenovirus carrying GNA14 complementary DNA (cDNA; Ad-GNA14) increases (p?<?0.05) protein expression of GNA14. GNA14 overexpression blocks (p?<?0.05) FGF2-stimulated endothelial migration, whereas it enhances (p?<?0.05) endothelial monolayer integrity (maximum increase of ~35% over the control at 24?hr) in response to FGF2. In contrast, GNA14 overexpression does not significantly alter VEGFA-stimulated cell migration, VEGFA-weakened cell monolayer integrity, and intracellular Ca++ mobilization in response to adenosine triphosphate (ATP), FGF2, and VEGFA. GNA14 overexpression does not alter either FGF2- or VEGFA-induced phosphorylation of ERK1/2. However, GNA14 overexpression time-dependently elevates (p?<?0.05) phosphorylation of phospholipase C-?3 (PLC?3) at S1105 in response to FGF2, but not VEGFA. These data suggest that GNA14 distinctively mediates fetoplacental endothelial cell migration and permeability in response to FGF2 and VEGFA, possibly in part by altering activation of PLC?3 under physiological chronic low oxygen.
Project description:Although zinc finger E-box binding homeobox 1 (ZEB1) has been identified as a key factor in the regulation of breast cancer differentiation and metastasis, its potential role in modulating tumor angiogenesis has not been fully examined. Here, we present the novel finding that conditioned medium derived from ZEB1-expressing MDA-MB-231 cells significantly increased the capillary tube formation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), whereas ZEB1 knockdown by RNA interference had the opposite effect. ZEB1 caused marked upregulation of the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) at both mRNA and protein levels. Pre-incubation of HUVECs with anti-VEGFA neutralized antibody attenuated ZEB1-mediated tube formation of HUVECs. In breast cancer tissues, expression of ZEB1 was positively correlated with those of VEGFA and CD31. At the molecular level, ZEB1 activated VEGFA transcription by increasing SP1 recruitment to its promoter, which was mediated via the activation of PI3K and p38 pathways. Using a nude mouse xenograft model, we demonstrated that elevated expression of ZEB1 promotes in vivo tumorigenesis and angiogenesis in breast cancer. Collectively, we found that ZEB1-expressing breast cancer cells increase VEGFA production and thus stimulate tumor growth and angiogenesis via a paracrine mechanism.
Project description:The effects on angiogenesis of a novel CXC chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) antagonist, SDF-1betaP2G, derived from human stromal cell-derived factor-1beta (SDF-1beta), were examined in a model of hind limb ischaemia in mice.The antagonistic activities of SDF-1betaP2G against CXCR4 were evaluated in vitro and in vivo and compared with phosphate-buffered saline and AMD3100 (a small bicyclam antagonist of SDF-1). Angiogenesis, muscle regeneration and the expression of pro-angiogenic factors were evaluated in ischaemic gastrocnemius muscles. Distant toxic effects of SDF-1betaP2G were evaluated by inflammatory and apoptotic markers. SDF-1betaP2G induced CXCR4 internalization and competitively inhibited the chemotaxis of SDF-1beta but did not mediate migration, calcium influx, or the phosphorylation of Akt and extracellular signal-regulated kinase in cultured T-lymphoblastic leukaemia cells or H9C2 cells. SDF-1betaP2G enhanced blood flow, angiogenesis, and muscle regeneration in ischaemic hind limbs, and the enhancement was significantly better than that of AMD3100. Markers of angiogenesis and progenitor cell migration, including phosphorylated Akt, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), SDF-1 and CXCR4, were up-regulated by SDF-1betaP2G and co-localized with CD31-positive cells. Neutralization of VEGF with its specific antibody abolished SDF-1betaP2G-induced blood reperfusion and angiogenesis. No apparent inflammatory and apoptotic effects were found in heart, liver, kidneys, and testes after SDF-1betaP2G administration.Our findings indicate that the novel CXCR4 antagonist, SDF-1betaP2G, can efficiently enhance ischaemic angiogenesis, blood flow restoration, and muscle regeneration without apparent adverse effects, most likely through a VEGF-dependent pathway.
Project description:Metabolic reprogramming is an active regulator of stem cell fate choices, and successful stem cell differentiation in different compartments requires the induction of oxidative phosphorylation. However, the mechanisms that promote mitochondrial respiration during stem cell differentiation are poorly understood. Here we demonstrate that Stat3 promotes muscle stem cell myogenic lineage progression by stimulating mitochondrial respiration in mice. We identify Fam3a, a cytokine-like protein, as a major Stat3 downstream effector in muscle stem cells. We demonstrate that Fam3a is required for muscle stem cell commitment and skeletal muscle development. We show that myogenic cells secrete Fam3a, and exposure of Stat3-ablated muscle stem cells to recombinant Fam3a in vitro and in vivo rescues their defects in mitochondrial respiration and myogenic commitment. Together, these findings indicate that Fam3a is a Stat3-regulated secreted factor that promotes muscle stem cell oxidative metabolism and differentiation, and suggests that Fam3a is a potential tool to modulate cell fate choices.
Project description:The juxtaposition of a dense capillary network to lung epithelial cells is essential for air-blood gas exchange. Defective lung vascular development can result in bronchopulmonary dysplasia and alveolar capillary dysplasia. Although vascular endothelial growth factor A (Vegfa) is required for formation of the lung capillary network, little is known regarding the factors that regulate the density and location of the distal capillary plexus and the expression pattern of Vegfa. Here, we show that fibroblast growth factor 9 (FGF9) and sonic hedgehog (SHH) signaling to lung mesenchyme, but not to endothelial cells, are each necessary and together sufficient for distal capillary development. Furthermore, both gain- and loss-of-function of FGF9 regulates Vegfa expression in lung mesenchyme, and VEGF signaling is required for FGF9-mediated blood vessel formation. FGF9, however, can only partially rescue the reduction in capillary density found in the absence of SHH signaling, and SHH is unable to rescue the vascular phenotype found in Fgf9(-/-) lungs. Thus, both signaling systems regulate distinct aspects of vascular development in distal lung mesenchyme. These data suggest a molecular mechanism through which FGF9 and SHH signaling coordinately control the growth and patterning of the lung capillary plexus, and regulate the temporal and spatial expression of Vegfa.