ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:The authors' aims were to compare, according to strata, dentists' participation in Medicaid and Medicaid provider-level caseload measured as the number of patients or visits for preventive or restorative care for 2 comparison years. METHODS:The data sources were the 2012-2013 Medicaid Analytic eXtract claims and 2013 National Plan and Provider Enumeration System data sets. The authors measured Medicaid participation as the proportion of dentists participating in Medicaid among those in the National Plan and Provider Enumeration System. The authors measured provider-level caseload according to the number of patients or visits. The authors stratified oral health care providers according to state; whether practicing in rural, suburban, or urban communities; and provider type. RESULTS:The differences in participation rates for rural versus suburban and versus urban communities ranged from -4% through 27% and -6% through 37%, respectively. The 2012 state median number of patients per provider for preventive care ranged from 99 through 358. The provider-level caseload increased from rural to urban and from other provider to general dentist to pediatric dentist. The difference in caseload from 2012 to 2013 was not statistically significant except for the pediatric dentist type. CONCLUSIONS:This study's results suggest that the realized caseload for children enrolled in Medicaid varies according to provider type and urbanicity. The state median caseload for preventive care is lower than the 500:1 patient to provider ratio used as the minimum caseload in access estimates from other studies. PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS:This study's results can assist states in gauging the level of oral health care provided to children insured by Medicaid compared with that in other states, with implications for the specification of oral health policies.
Project description:BACKGROUND:In Iowa from 2014 to 2017, there were 2 separate public dental benefit programs for Medicaid-enrolled adults: one for the Medicaid expansion population called the Dental Wellness Plan (DWP), and one for the traditional, non-expansion adult Medicaid population. The programs differed with respect to reimbursement, administration, and benefit structure. This study explored differences in patterns and predictors of dentist participation in the two programs. METHODS:Authors sent a survey to all private practice dentists in Iowa (n = 1301) 2 years after DWP implementation. Descriptive, bivariate, and logistic regression analyses were used to examine patterns and predictors of dentist participation in Medicaid and DWP. RESULTS:Overall rates of dentists' acceptance of new Medicaid and DWP patients were 45 and 43%, respectively. However, Medicaid participants were much more likely than DWP participants to place limits on patient acceptance. Adjusting for other factors, practice busyness was the only significant predictor of DWP participation, and practice location was the only significant predictor of Medicaid participation. Dentists who were not busy enough were more than twice as likely to participate in DWP compared to others, and dentists in rural areas were almost twice as likely to participate in Medicaid compared to dentists in urban areas. CONCLUSIONS:Dentist participation in Medicaid is an ongoing concern for states aiming to ensure access to dental care for low-income populations. We found distinct participation patterns and predictors between a traditional Medicaid dental program and the DWP, suggesting different motivations for participation between the two programs.
Project description:<h4>Importance</h4>There is a recommendation for children to have a dental home by 6 months of age, but there is limited evidence supporting the effectiveness of early preventive dental care or whether primary care providers (PCPs) can deliver it.<h4>Objective</h4>To investigate the effectiveness of preventive dental care in reducing caries-related treatment visits among Medicaid enrollees.<h4>Design, setting, and participants</h4>High-dimensional propensity scores were used to address selection bias for a retrospective cohort study of children continuously enrolled in coverage from the Alabama Medicaid Agency from birth between 2008 and 2012, adjusting for demographics, access to care, and general health service use.<h4>Exposures</h4>Children receiving preventive dental care prior to age 2 years from PCPs or dentists vs no preventive dental care.<h4>Main outcome and measures</h4>Two-part models estimated caries-related treatment and expenditures.<h4>Results</h4>Among 19?658 eligible children, 25.8% (n = 3658) received early preventive dental care, of whom 44% were black, 37.6% were white, and 16.3% were Hispanic. Compared with matched children without early preventive dental care, children with dentist-delivered preventive dental care more frequently had a subsequent caries-related treatment (20.6% vs 11.3%, P < .001), higher rate of visits (0.29 vs 0.15 per child-year, P < .001), and greater dental expenditures ($168 vs $87 per year, P < .001). Dentist-delivered preventive dental care was associated with an increase in the expected number of caries-related treatment visits by 0.14 per child per year (95% CI, 0.11-0.16) and caries-related treatment expenditures by $40.77 per child per year (95% CI, $30.48-$51.07). Primary care provider-delivered preventive dental care did not significantly affect caries-related treatment use or expenditures.<h4>Conclusions and relevance</h4>Children with early preventive care visits from dentists were more likely to have subsequent dental care, including caries-related treatment, and greater expenditures than children without preventive dental care. There was no association with subsequent caries-related treatment and preventive dental care from PCPs. We observed no evidence of a benefit of early preventive dental care, regardless of the provider. Additional research beyond administrative data may be necessary to elucidate any benefits of early preventive dental care.
Project description:Nearly all state Medicaid programs reimburse nondental primary care providers (PCPs) for providing preventive oral health services to young children; yet, little is known about how treatment outcomes compare with children visiting dentists. This study compared the association between the provider of preventive services (PCP, dentist, or both) with Medicaid-enrolled children before their third birthday and subsequent dental caries-related treatment (CRT) and CRT payment.We conducted a retrospective study of young children enrolled in North Carolina Medicaid during 2000 to 2006. The annual number of CRT and CRT payments per child between the ages of 3 and 5 yr were estimated with a zero-inflated negative binomial regression and a hurdle model, respectively. Models were adjusted for relevant child- and county-level characteristics and used propensity score weighting to address observed confounding.We examined 41,453 children with > 1 preventive oral health visit from a PCP, dentist, or both before their third birthday. Unadjusted annual mean CRT and payments were lowest among children who had only PCP visits (CRT = 0.87, payment = $172) and higher among children with only dentist visits (CRT = 1.48, payment = $234) and both PCP and dentist visits (CRT = 1.52, payment = $273). Adjusted results indicated that children who had dentist visits (with or without PCP visits) had significantly more CRT and higher CRT payments per year during the ages of 3 and 4 yr than children who had only PCP visits. However, these differences attenuated each year after age 3 yr.Because of children's increased opportunity to receive multiple visits in medical offices during well-child visits, preventive oral health services provided by PCPs may lead to a greater reduction in CRT than dentist visits alone. This study supports guidelines and reimbursement policies that allow preventive dental visits based on individual needs.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>To examine the effects of distance to dentists and dentist supply on dental services use among children with Medicaid coverage in Iowa.<h4>Data source</h4>Iowa Medicaid claims for enrolled children between 2000 and 2009.<h4>Study design</h4>The study sample included 41,554 children (providing 158,942 child-year observations) who were born in Iowa between 2000 and 2006 and enrolled from birth in the Iowa Medicaid program. Children were followed through 2009. We used logistic regression to simultaneously examine the effects of distance (miles to nearest dentist) and county-level dentist supply on a broad range of dental services controlling for key confounders. Additional models only used within-child variation over time to remove unobservable time-invariant confounders.<h4>Principal findings</h4>Distance was related to lower utilization of comprehensive dental exams (2 percent lower odds per 1 mile increase in distance), an effect that also held in models using within-child variation only. Dentist supply was positively related to comprehensive exams and other preventive services and negatively related to major dental treatments; however, these associations became smaller and insignificant when examining within-child changes except for other preventive services.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Longer distance to dentists is a barrier for use of comprehensive dental exams, conditional on dentist supply.
Project description:Children living in poverty encounter barriers to dentist visits and disproportionally experience dental caries. To improve access, most state Medicaid programs reimburse pediatric primary care providers for delivering preventive oral health services. To understand continuity of oral health services for children utilizing the North Carolina (NC) Into the Mouths of Babes (IMB) preventive oral health program, we examined the time to a dentist visit after a child's third birthday. This retrospective cohort study used NC Medicaid claims from 2000 to 2006 for 95,578 Medicaid-enrolled children who received oral health services before age 3. We compared children having only dentist visits before age 3 to those with: (1) only IMB visits and (2) both IMB and dentist visits. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate the time to a dentist visit following a child's third birthday. Propensity scores with inverse-probability-of-treatment-weights were used to address confounding. Children with only IMB visits compared to only dentist visits before age 3 had lower rates of dentist visits after their third birthday [adjusted hazard ratio (AHR) = 0.41, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.39-0.43]. No difference was observed for children having both IMB and dentist visits and only dentist visits (AHR = 0.99, 95 % CI 0.96-1.03). Barriers to dental care remain as children age, hindering continuity of care for children receiving oral health services in medical offices.
Project description:Background: Dental caries in pediatric patients are noted to have broad impacts on systemic health and well-being. Thus, utilizing an effectiveness-implementation hybrid I design, the Pediatric Providers Against Cavities in Children's Teeth (PACT) trial is investigating multi-level interventions at the practice (incorporation of oral health in electronic medical record [EMR]) and provider levels (theory-based didactic and skills training to communicate oral health facts to parent/caregiver, give a prescription to see a dentist and a list of area dentists) to increase dental utilization among 3 to 6 year old Medicaid-enrolled children attending well-child visits (WCV). The formative and pilot work for the larger main trial are presented. Methods: Formative work-Focus groups with 26 participants (Community leaders, providers, parent/caregivers); and key informant interviews with practice leadership (n = 4). Topics discussed were: core oral health (OH) information to communicate at WCVs and study logistics. Transcripts were coded and analyzed using Atlas.ti; Pilot study was refined using the formative findings and was conducted at two pediatric practices to test the implementation of: the provider didactic and skills training curriculum; EMR incorporation of four OH questions; logistics of incorporating OH activities at a WCV; and parent/caregiver recruitment. Results: Formative work showed that providers and parent/caregivers required knowledge of dental caries, and a list of area Medicaid-accepting dentists. Providers and practice leadership advised on the logistics of incorporating oral health into WCVs. All groups suggested asking parent/caregivers their preferred method of contact and emphasizing importance of OH to motivate participation. Utilizing these findings, the curriculum and protocol was revised. The pilot study in two practices successfully implemented the protocol as follows: all seven providers were trained in two 45 min didactic education and skills session; incorporation of OH questions into practices EMR; recruited 86 child-parent dyads (95% participation) at the WCV; providers delivered the OH intervention to parent/caregivers in <2 min and 90% completed EMR documentation of OH questions. These findings were instrumental in finalizing the main PACT trial in 18 practices. The RE-AIM framework is used in the main trial to collect effectiveness and implementation measures at baseline and follow-up visits. Conclusions: The formative and pilot findings were instrumental in refining the OH intervention and protocol which has resulted in successful implementation of the main trial. Trial Registration: Clinical trials.gov, Registered 9 November 2017, NCT03385629.
Project description:PURPOSE:Integrating oral health care into primary care has been promoted as a strategy to increase delivery of preventive oral health services (POHS) to young children, particularly in rural areas where few dentists practice. Using a multistate sample of Medicaid claims, we examined a child's odds of receiving POHS in a medical office by county rurality. METHODS:We used 2012-2014 Medicaid Analytic extract claims data for 6,275,456 children younger than 6 years in 39 states that allowed Medicaid payment for POHS in medical offices. We used county-level characteristics from the Area Health Resources Files, including a 3-level measure of county rurality. We used logistic regression to estimate a child's odds of receiving POHS in a medical office by county rurality, while controlling for other patient and county characteristics. FINDINGS:POHS in medical offices were received by 7.8% of children. Rates of POHS in medical offices were higher in metropolitan (metro) counties (8.4%) than nonmetro adjacent to metro (5.8%) and nonmetro not adjacent to metro (4.3%). In adjusted analysis, children living in nonmetro not adjacent to metro (OR = 0.79, 95% CI: 0.64-0.99) and adjacent to metro counties (OR = 0.70, 95% CI: 0.59-0.82) were significantly less likely to receive POHS in medical offices than children living in metro counties. CONCLUSIONS:In this study of POHS in medical offices among young Medicaid-enrolled children, we found POHS rates were lowest in nonmetro counties. Given barriers to dental care in rural areas, states should take additional steps beyond allowing Medicaid reimbursement to increase delivery of POHS in medical offices.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>The purposes of this study were to (1) quantify dentists' practice patterns regarding caries prevention and (2) test the hypothesis that certain dentists' characteristics are associated with these practice patterns.<h4>Design</h4>The study used a cross-sectional study design consisting of a questionnaire survey.<h4>Participants</h4>The study queried dentists who worked in outpatient dental practices who were affiliated with the Dental Practice-Based Research Network Japan, which seeks to engage dentists in investigating research questions and sharing experiences and expertise (n=282).<h4>Measurement</h4>Dentists were asked about their practice patterns regarding caries preventive dentistry. Background data on patients, practice and dentist were also collected.<h4>Results</h4>38% of dentists (n=72) provided individualised caries prevention to more than 50% of their patients. Overall, 10% of the time in daily practice was spent on caries preventive dentistry. Dentists who provided individualised caries prevention to more than 50% of their patients spent significantly more time on preventive care and less time on removable prosthetics treatment, compared to dentists who did not provide individualised caries prevention. Additionally, they provided oral hygiene instruction, patient education, fluoride recommendations, intraoral photographs taken and diet counselling to their patients significantly more often than dentists who did not provide individualised caries prevention. Multiple logistic regression analysis suggested that the percentage of patients interested in caries prevention and the percentage of patients who received hygiene instruction, were both associated with the percentage of patients who receive individualised caries prevention.<h4>Conclusions</h4>We identified substantial variation in dentists' practice patterns regarding preventive dentistry. Individualised caries prevention was significantly related to provision of other preventive services and to having a higher percentage of patients interested in caries prevention, but not to the dentist's belief about the effectiveness of caries risk assessment. (Clinicaltrials.gov registration number NCT01 680 848).
Project description:Dental caries (tooth decay), the most common chronic disease affecting young children, is exacerbated by limited access to preventive dental services for low-income children. To address this problem, North Carolina implemented a program to reimburse physicians for up to six preventive oral health visits for Medicaid-enrolled children younger than age three. Analysis of physician and dentist Medicaid claims from the period 2000-2006 shows that the program greatly increased preventive oral health services. By 2006 approximately 30 percent of well-child visits for children ages six months up to three years included these services. However, additional strategies are needed to ensure preventive oral health care for more low-income children.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The effect of Early Head Start (EHS) on receipt of preventive oral health services (POHS) from both oral and medical health care providers is not known. METHODS:The authors compared children enrolled in North Carolina EHS programs with similar children enrolled in Medicaid but not EHS on the use of POHS. They analyzed 4 dependent variables (oral assessment by medical health care provider, oral assessment by oral health care provider, fluoride application by medical health care provider, fluoride application by oral health care provider) by using multivariate logistic regression that controlled for covariates. RESULTS:Primary caregivers of children enrolled in EHS (n = 479) and Medicaid (n = 699) were interviewed when children were approximately 10 and 36 months of age. An average of 81% of EHS and non-EHS children received POHS from an oral or medical health care provider at follow-up. EHS children had greater odds of receiving an oral health assessment (odds ratio [OR], 2.33; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.74 to 3.13) and fluoride (OR, 1.53; 95% CI, 1.16 to 2.03) from an oral health care provider than children not enrolled. EHS children had decreased odds (OR, 0.73; 95% CI, 0.54 to 0.99) of receiving fluoride from a medical health care provider. CONCLUSIONS:Both children enrolled in EHS and community control participants had high rates of POHS, but the source of services differed. EHS children had greater odds of receiving POHS from oral health care providers than non-EHS children. EHS and non-EHS children had equal rates for fluoride overall because of the greater percentage of non-EHS children with medical fluoride visits. PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS:The integration of POHS in early education and Medicaid medical benefits combined with existing dental resources in the community greatly improves access to POHS.