[Co(TPP)]-Catalyzed Formation of Substituted Piperidines.
ABSTRACT: Radical cyclization via cobalt(III)-carbene radical intermediates is a powerful method for the synthesis of (hetero)cyclic structures. Building on the recently reported synthesis of five-membered N-heterocyclic pyrrolidines catalyzed by CoII porphyrins, the [Co(TPP)]-catalyzed formation of useful six-membered N-heterocyclic piperidines directly from linear aldehydes is presented herein. The piperidines were obtained in overall high yields, with linear alkenes being formed as side products in small amounts. A DFT study was performed to gain a deeper mechanistic understanding of the cobalt(II)-porphyrin-catalyzed formation of pyrrolidines, piperidines, and linear alkenes. The calculations showed that the alkenes are unlikely to be formed through an expected 1,2-hydrogen-atom transfer to the carbene carbon. Instead, the calculations were consistent with a pathway involving benzyl-radical formation followed by radical-rebound ring closure to form the piperidines. Competitive 1,5-hydrogen-atom transfer from the ?-position to the benzyl radical explained the formation of linear alkenes as side products.
Project description:The development of new and practical 3-pentoxythiocarbonyl auxiliaries for IrI -catalyzed C-H alkylation of azacycles is described. This method allows for the ?-C-H alkylation of a variety of substituted pyrrolidines, piperidines, and tetrahydroisoquinolines through alkylation with alkenes. While the practicality of these simple carbamate-type auxiliaries is underscored by the ease of installation and removal, the method's utility is demonstrated in its ability to functionalize biologically relevant l-proline and l-trans-hydroxyproline, delivering unique 2,5-dialkylated amino acid analogues that are not accessible by other C-H functionalization methods.
Project description:The metalloradical activation of o-aryl aldehydes with tosylhydrazide and a cobalt(II) porphyrin catalyst produces cobalt(III)-carbene radical intermediates, providing a new and powerful strategy for the synthesis of medium-sized ring structures. Herein we make use of the intrinsic radical-type reactivity of cobalt(III)-carbene radical intermediates in the [CoII (TPP)]-catalyzed (TPP=tetraphenylporphyrin) synthesis of two types of 8-membered ring compounds; novel dibenzocyclooctenes and unprecedented monobenzocyclooctadienes. The method was successfully applied to afford a variety of 8-membered ring compounds in good yields and with excellent substituent tolerance. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations and experimental results suggest that the reactions proceed via hydrogen atom transfer from the bis-allylic/benzallylic C-H bond to the carbene radical, followed by two divergent processes for ring-closure to the two different types of 8-membered ring products. While the dibenzocyclooctenes are most likely formed by dissociation of o-quinodimethanes (o-QDMs) which undergo a non-catalyzed 8?-cyclization, DFT calculations suggest that ring-closure to the monobenzocyclooctadienes involves a radical-rebound step in the coordination sphere of cobalt. The latter mechanism implies that unprecedented enantioselective ring-closure reactions to chiral monobenzocyclooctadienes should be possible, as was confirmed for reactions mediated by a chiral cobalt-porphyrin catalyst.
Project description:Benzyl bromides and related molecules are among the most common substrates in organic synthesis. They are typically used as electrophiles in nucleophilic substitution reactions. These molecules can also be activated via single-electron-transfer (SET) process for radical reactions. Representative recent progress includes ?-carbon benzylation of ketones and aldehydes via photoredox catalysis. Here we disclose the generation of (nitro)benzyl radicals via N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) catalysis under reductive conditions. The radical intermediates generated via NHC catalysis undergo formal 1,2-addition with ketones to eventually afford tertiary alcohol products. The overall process constitutes a formal polarity-inversion of benzyl bromide, allowing a direct coupling of two initially electrophilic carbons. Our study provides a new carbene-catalysed reaction mode that should enable unconventional transformation of (nitro)benzyl bromides under mild organocatalytic conditions.
Project description:An efficient intermolecular conjugate addition of alcohols to activated alkenes catalyzed by N-heterocyclic carbenes has been developed. With 5 mol % of the free carbene derived from IMes·HCl, unsaturated ketones and esters are competent substrates, and a variety of primary and secondary alcohols can be employed as the nucleophile. No oligomerization is observed under these mild conditions for effective hydroalkoxylation. In addition to reactions with activated alkenes, IMes catalyzes the formation of vinyl ethers through the 1,4-addition of alcohols to ynones and promotes tandem conjugate addition/Michael cascade reactions. Preliminary data support a Brønsted base mechanism with the free carbene.
Project description:Pd(II)-catalyzed ?-C(sp(3))-H arylation of pyrrolidines, piperidines, azepanes, and N-methylamines with arylboronic acids has been developed for the first time. This transformation is applicable to wide arrays of pyrrolidines and boronic acids, including heteroaromatic boronic acids. A diastereoselective one-pot heterodiarylation of pyrrolidines has also been achieved.
Project description:Trifluoromethylative difunctionalization and hydrofunctionalization of unactivated alkenes have been developed into powerful synthetic methodologies. On the other hand, methylative difunctionalization of olefins remains an unexplored research field. We report in this paper the Cu-catalyzed alkoxy methylation, azido methylation of alkenes using dicumyl peroxide (DCP), and di-tert-butyl peroxide (DTBP) as methyl sources. Using functionalized alkenes bearing a tethered nucleophile (alcohol, carboxylic acid, and sulfonamide), methylative cycloetherification, lactonization, and cycloamination processes are subsequently developed for the construction of important heterocycles such as 2,2-disubstituted tetrahydrofurans, tetrahydropyrans, ?-lactones, and pyrrolidines with concurrent generation of a quaternary carbon center. The results of control experiments suggest that the 1,2-alkoxy methylation of alkenes goes through a radical-cation crossover mechanism, whereas the 1,2-azido methylation proceeds via a radical addition and Cu-mediated azide transfer process.
Project description:A method for the enantioselective, intramolecular sulfenoamination of various olefins has been developed using a chiral BINAM-based selenophosphoramide, Lewis base catalyst. Terminal and trans disubstituted alkenes afforded pyrrolidines, piperidines, and azepanes in high yields and high enantiomeric ratios via enantioselective formation and subsequent stereospecific capture of the thiiranium intermediate with the pendant tosyl-protected amine.
Project description:Advances in hydroarylation have been achieved by the development of a one-pot regioselective allene hydrosilylation/Pd(0)-catalyzed cross-coupling protocol. The regioselectivity is primarily governed by N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) ligand identity in the hydrosilylation step and is preserved in the subsequent cross-coupling reaction. This methodology affords streamlined access to functionalized 1,1-disubstituted alkenes with excellent regiocontrol.
Project description:An expanded substrate scope and in-depth analysis of the reaction mechanism of the copper(II) carboxylate-promoted intramolecular carboamination of unactivated alkenes is described. This method provides access to N-functionalized pyrrolidines and piperidines. Both aromatic and aliphatic gamma- and delta-alkenyl N-arylsulfonamides undergo the oxidative cyclization reaction efficiently. N-Benzoyl-2-allylaniline also underwent the oxidative cyclization. The terminal olefin substrates examined were more reactive than those with internal olefins, and the latter terminated in elimination rather than carbon-carbon bond formation. The efficiency of the reaction was enhanced by the use of more organic soluble copper(II) carboxylate salts, copper(II) neodecanoate in particular. The reaction times were reduced by the use of microwave heating. High levels of diastereoselectivity were observed in the synthesis of 2,5-disubstituted pyrrolidines, wherein the cis substitution pattern predominates. The mechanism of the reaction is discussed in the context of the observed reactivity and in comparison to analogous reactions promoted by other reagents and conditions. Our evidence supports a mechanism wherein the N-C bond is formed via intramolecular syn aminocupration and the C-C bond is formed via intramolecular addition of a primary carbon radical to an aromatic ring.
Project description:The copper-catalyzed enantioselective intramolecular aminooxygenation of alkenes is reported herein. This is the first report of an enantioselective intramolecular alkene aminooxygenation process. N-Arylsulfonyl-2-allylanilines and 4-pentenylarylsulfonamides cyclize in high yield and with good enantioselectivity, providing new chiral methyleneoxy-functionalized dihydroindolines and pyrrolidines. Tetramethylaminopyridyl radical (TEMPO) serves as both the source of the oxygen and the stoichiometric oxidant. These reactions are catalyzed by copper(II) triflate, complexed with (4S,5R)-Bis-Phbox. The unprotected aminoalcohols can be obtained by sequential dissolving metal reductions of the N-S and O-N bonds.