Long-term safety and efficacy of rupatadine in Japanese patients with perennial allergic rhinitis: a 52-week open-label clinical trial.
ABSTRACT: Objective: Long-term safety and efficacy of 10- and 20-mg rupatadine in Japanese patients with perennial allergic rhinitis (PAR) were investigated in a 52-week open-label study (JapicCTI-152952, clinicaltrials.jp). Methods: The rupatadine dose was fixed to 10 mg once daily for the first 2 weeks. Thereafter, the study investigator was allowed to increase the dosage to 20 mg if the response was insufficient. Safety was evaluated on the basis of treatment-emergent adverse events, laboratory findings, and vital sign measurements. The primary efficacy endpoint was changed from baseline to Week 2 in the total 4 nasal symptom score. Secondary efficacy endpoints included changes over time in ocular symptoms, patient and physician clinical overall impression, and patient quality-of-life. Results: Seventy-two immunoglobulin E positive patients (mean age = 32.1 years), consisting of 58 adults (age ≥ 18 years) and 14 adolescents (12-17 years), were enrolled. Ninety-four treatment-emergent adverse events were reported in 48 patients (66.7%), including nine adverse drug reactions in nine patients (12.5%). The most frequently reported adverse drug reaction was somnolence (9.7%). The primary and secondary efficacy endpoints demonstrated a statistically significant clinical benefit with rupatadine. The rupatadine dose was increased from 10 to 20 mg in 36 patients (50.0%), which resulted in better symptom management. Conclusions: Rupatadine 10- and 20-mg once-daily doses were well tolerated in long-term use. Updosing to 20 mg is a reasonable option in PAR patients whose symptoms cannot be controlled effectively by the 10-mg dose.
Project description:Background:The clinical efficacy of rupatadine in terms of responders has not been previously explored in perennial allergic rhinitis (PAR). Methods:This pooled analysis included data from 6 randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials conducted in PAR patients treated with rupatadine 10 mg or 20 mg, or placebo. Participants were aged???18 years, with diagnosis of PAR and a Total 4 Nasal Symptom Score (T4NSS)???5. We evaluated the T4NSS and Total 5 Symptom Score (T5SS) for 28 days of treatment, the responder proportion (50% and 75% response), and the time to response. Results:Efficacy data from 1486 patients were analysed: 585 received placebo, 682 rupatadine 10 mg, and 219 rupatadine 20 mg. Compared with placebo, rupatadine promoted greater symptom improvements and higher responder proportions (50% and 75% response) for T4NSS and T5SS over 28 days. Symptom improvements and responder proportions were higher in the rupatadine 20 mg group vs the 10 mg group. The time to response was shorter in the rupatadine 20 mg group vs the 10 mg group for T4NSS (16 and 9 days for the 50% and 75% responses, respectively) and for T5SS (13 and 8 days for the 50% and 75% responses, respectively). Conclusions:Rupatadine was efficacious in reducing allergic rhinitis symptoms, showing high responder proportions. The faster and stronger effect of rupatadine 20 mg may suggest its use in patients with severe PAR or not responding to the standard dose.
Project description:<h4>Introduction</h4>Rupatadine is a marketed second generation antihistamine, with anti-PAF activity, indicated for symptomatic treatment of allergic rhinitis and urticaria. This study was conducted to evaluate the pharmacokinetics (PK), pharmacodynamics (PD), safety and tolerability of rupatadine in healthy Japanese subjects after single and multiple oral doses.<h4>Methods</h4>In this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 27 male and female healthy Japanese subjects were administered single and multiple escalating rupatadine dose of 10, 20 and 40 mg or placebo. Blood samples were collected at different time points for PK measurements and subjects were assessed for safety and tolerability. The effect of rupatadine on cognitive functioning was evaluated by means of computerized cognitive tests: rapid visual information processing (RVP), reaction time (RT), spatial working memory (SWM) and visual analogue scales (VAS).<h4>Results</h4>Exposure to rupatadine as measured by Cmax and AUC was found to increase in a dose dependent manner over the dose range of 10-40 mg for both single and multiple dose administration. The safety assessments showed that all treatment related side effects were of mild intensity and there were no serious adverse events (SAEs) or withdrawals due to treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) in this study. The therapeutic dose of rupatadine did not show any CNS impairment in any of the cognitive tests.<h4>Conclusions</h4>This study demonstrated that rupatadine is safe and well tolerated by Japanese healthy subjects. The PK-PD profile confirmed previous experience with rupatadine.
Project description:Background:Different clinical trials showed the superior efficacy of rupatadine compared to placebo at improving seasonal allergic rhinitis (SAR) symptoms, but no study has assessed if the response promoted is clinically meaningful. Methods:This study is a pooled analysis of data of seven randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled SAR studies comparing responder proportions upon treatment with rupatadine (10 or 20 mg) or placebo. We evaluated the following symptom scores at baseline (Visit 1) and over 14 days of treatment: Total 4 Nasal Symptom Score (T4NSS), Total 2 Ocular Symptom Score (T2OSS) and Total 6 Symptom Score (T6SS). The proportion of responders (50% and 75% response) and the time to response were compared between groups on days 7 (Visit 2) and 14 (Visit 3). Responder rates were compared between groups on days 7 and 14 for the complete/near-to-complete response for T4NSS (TN4SS score???2 and each symptom score???1) and T6SS (T6SS score???3 and each symptom score???1). Results:Data from 1470 patients were analyzed: 332 treated with placebo, 662 with rupatadine 10 mg and 476 with rupatadine 20 mg. The reduction in T4NSS, T2OSS and T6SS over 14 days of treatment relative to baseline was statistically higher in rupatadine groups vs the placebo group, with greater improvements in the 20 mg group. A statistically higher proportion of patients reached the 50% and 75% response for T4NSS, T2OSS and T6SS in rupatadine groups compared to the placebo group across the visits. Among rupatadine-treated patients, those receiving 20 mg compared favourably for both cut-off responses. The time to achieve a proportion of responders was shorter in the rupatadine 20 mg group than in the rupatadine 10 mg and placebo groups for all the symptom scores. The number of patients who achieved a complete/near-to-complete response for both symptom scores was higher in rupatadine groups than in the placebo group, with higher proportions in the 20 mg group. Conclusions:This responder analysis confirms the superior efficacy of rupatadine vs placebo to treat SAR. Rupatadine promoted higher proportions of responders according to stringent response criteria and in a dose-dependent manner, with faster and higher response rates in the 20 mg group.
Project description:Currently there are no specific treatments available for acute dengue infection. We considered that rupatadine, a platelet-activating factor receptor inhibitor, might modulate dengue-associated vascular leak. The effects of rupatadine were assessed in vitro, and in a dengue model, which showed that rupatadine significantly reduced endothelial permeability by dengue sera in vitro, and significantly inhibited the increased haematocrit in dengue-infected mice with dose-dependency. We conducted a randomised, placebo-controlled trial in 183 adult patients in Sri Lanka with acute dengue, which showed that rupatadine up to 40?mg daily appeared safe and well-tolerated with similar proportions of adverse events with rupatadine and placebo. Although the primary end-point of a significant reduction in fluid leakage (development of pleural effusions or ascites) was not met, post-hoc analyses revealed small but significant differences in several parameters on individual illness days - higher platelet counts and lower aspartate-aminotransferase levels on day 7 in the rupatadine group compared to the placebo group, and smaller effusions on day 8 in the subgroup of patients with pleural effusions. However, due to the small sample size and range of recruitment time, the potential beneficial effects of rupatadine require further evaluation in large studies focused on recruitment during the early febrile phase.
Project description:Background:There are few clinical trials that assess the efficacy of antihistamines in very young children. Rupatadine is a second-generation antihistamine indicated for the treatment of allergic rhinitis (AR) and urticaria. In this study, AR symptoms were evaluated before and after daily 1 mg/mL rupatadine oral solution administration in 2-5-year-old children. Methods:A multicenter open-label study was carried out in 2-5-year-old children with AR. Safety assessments were collected during the study including spontaneous adverse events, vital signs, and electrocardiogram (QTc interval). Additionally, evaluations of Total Five Symptoms Score (T5SS, including: nasal congestion; sneezing; rhinorrhoea; itchy nose, mouth, throat, and/or ears; and itchy, watery, and red eyes) were analyzed. Symptoms were evaluated by parents/legal guardian before and after 4 weeks of rupatadine administration, dosed according to body weight. Results:A total of 44 children received the study treatment. Only 15 adverse events were reported. All of them were of mild intensity and considered not related to the study treatment. No patient exceeded the standard parameter of >450 ms in the last visit, for the QTc interval on their electrocardiograms. From a maximum score value of 15, T5SS values at Day 14 (6.35) and Day 28 (5.42) were both statistically significant different (p<0.001) from the baseline T5SS value (mean 8.65), with a reduction of 26.6% and 37.4%, respectively. All individual symptoms, including nasal congestion, showed also a decrease from baseline at both 14 and 28 days. Conclusion:Rupatadine 1 mg/mL oral solution was found to be safe in 2-5-year-old children, correlating with an improvement of AR symptoms, overall and each individually, after a daily dose administration. With this study, we enlarge the available information in this very young pediatric patients' group, in which there is a general lack of clinical evidence.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Hypertriglyceridemia is associated with increased cardiovascular risk and may be caused by impaired lipoprotein clearance. Angiopoietin-like protein 3 (ANGPTL3) inhibits lipoprotein lipase activity, increasing triglycerides and other lipids. Evinacumab, an ANGPTL3 inhibitor, reduced triglycerides in healthy human volunteers and in homozygous familial hypercholesterolemic individuals. Results from 2 Phase 1 studies in hypertriglyceridemic subjects are reported here. METHODS:Subjects with triglycerides >150 but ?450 mg/dL and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol ?100 mg/dL (n=83 for single ascending dose study [SAD]; n=56 for multiple ascending dose study [MAD]) were randomized 3:1 to evinacumab:placebo. SAD subjects received evinacumab subcutaneously at 75/150/250 mg, or intravenously at 5/10/20 mg/kg, monitored up to day 126. MAD subjects received evinacumab subcutaneously at 150/300/450 mg once weekly, 300/450 mg every 2 weeks, or intravenously at 20 mg/kg once every 4 weeks up to day 56 with 6 months of follow-up. The primary outcomes were incidence and severity of treatment-emergent adverse events. Efficacy analyses included changes in triglycerides and other lipids over time. RESULTS:In the SAD, 32 (51.6%) versus 9 (42.9%) subjects on evinacumab versus placebo reported treatment-emergent adverse events. In the MAD, 21 (67.7%) versus 9 (75.0%) subjects on subcutaneously evinacumab versus placebo and 6 (85.7%) versus 1 (50.0%) on intravenously evinacumab versus placebo reported treatment-emergent adverse events. No serious treatment-emergent adverse events or events leading to death or treatment discontinuation were reported. Elevations in alanine aminotransferase (7 [11.3%] SAD), aspartate aminotransferase (4 [6.5%] SAD), and creatinine phosphokinase (2 [3.2%) SAD, 1 [14.3%] MAD) were observed with evinacumab (none in the placebo groups), which were single elevations and were not dose-related. Dose-dependent reductions in triglycerides were observed in both studies, with maximum reduction of 76.9% at day 3 with 10 mg/kg intravenously (P<0.0001) in the SAD and of 83.1% at day 2 with 20 mg/kg intravenously once every 4 weeks (P=0.0003) in the MAD. Significant reductions in other lipids were observed with most evinacumab doses versus placebo. CONCLUSION:Evinacumab was well-tolerated in 2 Phase 1 studies. Lipid changes in hypertriglyceridemic subjects were similar to those observed with ANGPTL3 loss-of-function mutations. Because the latter is associated with reduced cardiovascular risk, ANGPTL3 inhibition may improve clinical outcomes. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION:https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifiers: NCT01749878 and NCT02107872.
Project description:This phase 1b dose-escalation study evaluated isatuximab plus pomalidomide/dexamethasone in patients with relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma (RRMM). Patients who had received ?2 prior MM therapies, including lenalidomide and a proteasome inhibitor (PI), were enrolled and received isatuximab at 5, 10, or 20 mg/kg (weekly for 4 weeks, followed by every 2 weeks), pomalidomide 4 mg (days 1-21), and dexamethasone 40 mg (weekly) in 28-day cycles until progression/intolerable toxicity. The primary objective was to determine the safety and recommended dose of isatuximab with this combination. Secondary objectives included evaluation of pharmacokinetics, immunogenicity, and efficacy. Forty-five patients received isatuximab (5 [n = 8], 10 [n = 31], or 20 [n = 6] mg/kg). Patients received a median of 3 (range, 1-10) prior lines; most were refractory to their last regimen (91%), with 82% lenalidomide-refractory and 84% PI-refractory. Median treatment duration was 9.6 months; 19 patients (42%) remain on treatment. Most common adverse events included fatigue (62%), and upper respiratory tract infection (42%), infusion reactions (42%), and dyspnea (40%). The most common grade ?3 treatment-emergent adverse event was pneumonia, which occurred in 8 patients (17.8%). Hematologic laboratory abnormalities were common (lymphopenia, leukopenia, anemia, 98% each; neutropenia, 93%; and thrombocytopenia, 84%). Overall response rate was 62%; median duration of response was 18.7 months; median progression-free survival was 17.6 months. These results demonstrate potential meaningful clinical activity and a manageable safety profile of isatuximab plus pomalidomide/dexamethasone in heavily pretreated patients with RRMM. The 10 mg/kg weekly/every 2 weeks isatuximab dose was selected for future studies. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT02283775.
Project description:In an effort to establish the lowest effective dose of desvenlafaxine (administered as desvenlafaxine succinate), we assessed the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of 10- and 50-mg/day desvenlafaxine vs placebo for the treatment of major depressive disorder.Adult outpatients with DSM-IV-defined major depressive disorder and a 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D(17)) total score ?20 were randomly assigned to receive placebo or desvenlafaxine (10 or 50 mg/day) after a 6- to 14-day single-blind placebo lead-in period in an 8-week, phase 3, fixed-dose trial. The primary efficacy measure was change from baseline in the HAM-D(17) score analyzed using analysis of covariance. Efficacy analyses were conducted with the intent-to-treat population, using the last observation carried forward.The intent-to-treat population included 673 patients. Change from baseline to final evaluation in adjusted HAM-D(17) total scores was not significantly different comparing desvenlafaxine 10 mg/day (-9.28) and desvenlafaxine 50 mg/day (-8.92) with placebo (-8.42). There were no differences among treatment groups in the rates of treatment response or remission. Discontinuations due to adverse events occurred in 1.8%, 0.9%, and 1.8% of patients in the placebo and desvenlafaxine 10- and 50-mg/day groups, respectively. Overall rates of treatment-emergent adverse events with both doses were similar to placebo.Both doses of desvenlafaxine failed to separate from placebo. However, in a companion study reported separately, desvenlafaxine 50 mg, but not 25 mg, separated from placebo. Taken together, these studies suggest that 50 mg is the minimum effective dose of desvenlafaxine for the treatment of major depressive disorder. CLINICALTRIALS.GOV IDENTIFIER: NCT00863798 http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00863798?term=00863798&rank=1.
Project description:Anti-tumor necrosis factor (anti-TNF) agents are frequently used in combination with methotrexate (MTX) to treat rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We investigated the effect of a background MTX dose, in combination with anti-TNF certolizumab pegol (CZP), on treatment efficacy and safety in RA patients.A pre-specified subgroup analysis comparing 2 MTX dosage categories (<15 mg/week and ≥15 mg/week) was carried out using data pooled from phase III clinical trials, Rheumatoid Arthritis Prevention of Structural Damage 1 (RAPID 1) and RAPID 2, according to treatment group: CZP 200 mg, CZP 400 mg, or placebo, every 2 weeks. Inclusion criteria required MTX dosage ≥10 mg/week. Efficacy end points included week 24 American College of Rheumatology criteria for 20%, 50%, and 70% improvement (ACR20/50/70) responses analyzed by logistic regression, and changes from baseline in the Disease Activity Score in 28 joints using the erythrocyte sedimentation rate (DAS28-ESR) and the modified Sharp/van der Heijde score (SHS) were analyzed by analysis of covariance. Incidence rates of treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) were categorized by baseline MTX dose. Post hoc sensitivity analysis investigated 3 MTX dose categories: ≤10 mg/week, >10 and ≤15 mg/week, and >15 mg/week.A total of 638, 635, and 325 patients received CZP 200 mg, CZP 400 mg, and placebo, respectively. At week 24, treatment responses in both CZP groups were uninfluenced by baseline MTX dose category, and were superior to the placebo group for all investigated end points: ACR20/50/70, DAS28-ESR, and SHS. TEAE incidence rates were higher in patients receiving MTX ≥15 mg/week for most TEAE types across treatment groups.CZP efficacy was not affected by background MTX dose category. It can be hypothesized that to minimize TEAEs, background MTX doses could be tailored to individual patient tolerance without affecting CZP efficacy.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Ruxolitinib improves splenomegaly and symptoms in patients with intermediate-2 or high-risk myelofibrosis; however, nearly half develop grade 3/4 anemia and/or thrombocytopenia, necessitating dose reductions and/or transfusions. We report findings from an open-label phase 2 study exploring a dose-escalation strategy aimed at preserving clinical benefit while reducing hematological adverse events early in ruxolitinib treatment. METHODS:Patients with myelofibrosis received ruxolitinib 10 mg twice daily (BID), with incremental increases of 5 mg BID at weeks 12 and 18 for lack of efficacy (maximum, 20 mg BID). Symptom severity was measured using the Myelofibrosis Symptom Assessment Form Total Symptom Score (MFSAF TSS). RESULTS:Forty-five patients were enrolled, 68.9% of whom had a Dynamic International Prognostic Scoring System score of 1 to 2 (i.e., intermediate-1 disease risk). Median percentage change in spleen volume from baseline to week 24 was -?17.3% (??10% reduction achieved by 26 patients [57.8%]), with a clear dose response. Median percentage change in MFSAF TSS from baseline at week 24 was -?45.6%, also with a dose response. The most frequent treatment-emergent adverse events were anemia (26.7%), fatigue (22.2%), and arthralgias (20.0%). Grade 3/4 anemia (20.0%) and dose decreases due to anemia (11.1%) or thrombocytopenia (6.7%) were infrequent. CONCLUSIONS:A dose-escalation approach may mitigate worsening anemia during early ruxolitinib therapy in some patients with myelofibrosis. TRIAL REGISTRATION:ClinicalTrials.gov identifier, NCT01445769 . Registered September 23, 2011.