PLK4 promotes centriole duplication by phosphorylating STIL to link the procentriole cartwheel to the microtubule wall.
ABSTRACT: Centrioles play critical roles in organizing the assembly of the mitotic spindle and templating the formation of primary cilia. Centriole duplication occurs once per cell cycle and is regulated by Polo-like kinase 4 (PLK4). Although significant progress has been made in understanding centriole composition, we have limited knowledge of how PLK4 activity controls specific steps in centriole formation. Here, we show that PLK4 phosphorylates its centriole substrate STIL on a conserved site, S428, to promote STIL binding to CPAP. This phospho-dependent binding interaction is conserved in Drosophila and facilitates the stable incorporation of both STIL and CPAP into the centriole. We propose that procentriole assembly requires PLK4 to phosphorylate STIL in two different regions: phosphorylation of residues in the STAN motif allow STIL to bind SAS6 and initiate cartwheel assembly, while phosphorylation of S428 promotes the binding of STIL to CPAP, linking the cartwheel to microtubules of the centriole wall.
Project description:Polo-like kinase 4 (Plk4) initiates an early step in centriole assembly by phosphorylating Ana2/STIL, a structural component of the procentriole. Here, we show that Plk4 binding to the central coiled-coil (CC) of Ana2 is a conserved event involving Polo-box 3 and a previously unidentified putative CC located adjacent to the kinase domain. Ana2 is then phosphorylated along its length. Previous studies showed that Plk4 phosphorylates the C-terminal STil/ANa2 (STAN) domain of Ana2/STIL, triggering binding and recruitment of the cartwheel protein Sas6 to the procentriole assembly site. However, the physiological relevance of N-terminal phosphorylation was unknown. We found that Plk4 first phosphorylates the extreme N terminus of Ana2, which is critical for subsequent STAN domain modification. Phosphorylation of the central region then breaks the Plk4-Ana2 interaction. This phosphorylation pattern is important for centriole assembly and integrity because replacement of endogenous Ana2 with phospho-Ana2 mutants disrupts distinct steps in Ana2 function and inhibits centriole duplication.
Project description:Formation of one procentriole next to each pre-existing centriole is essential for centrosome duplication, robust bipolar spindle assembly and maintenance of genome integrity. However, the mechanisms maintaining strict control over centriole copy number are incompletely understood. Here we show that Plk4 and STIL, the key regulators of centriole formation, form a protein complex that provides a scaffold for recruiting HsSAS-6, a major component of the centriolar cartwheel, at the onset of procentriole formation. Furthermore, we demonstrate that phosphorylation of STIL by Plk4 facilitates the STIL/HsSAS-6 interaction and centriolar loading of HsSAS-6. We also provide evidence that negative feedback by centriolar STIL regulates bimodal centriolar distribution of Plk4 and seemingly restricts occurrence of procentriole formation to one site on each parental centriole. Overall, these findings suggest a mechanism whereby coordinated action of three critical factors ensures formation of a single procentriole per parental centriole.
Project description:The conserved process of centriole duplication requires Plk4 kinase to recruit and promote interactions between Sas6 and Sas5/Ana2/STIL (respective nomenclature of worms/flies/humans). Plk4-mediated phosphorylation of Ana2/STIL in its conserved STAN motif has been shown to promote its interaction with Sas6. However, STAN motif phosphorylation is not required for recruitment of Ana2 to the centriole. Here we show that in Drosophila, Ana2 loads onto the site of procentriole formation ahead of Sas6 in a process that also requires Plk4. However, whereas Plk4 is first recruited to multiple sites around the ring of zone II at the periphery of the centriole, Ana2 is recruited to a single site in telophase before Plk4 becomes finally restricted to this same single site. When we over-ride the auto-destruction of Plk4, it remains localized to multiple sites in the outer ring of the centriole and, if catalytically active, recruits Ana2 to these sites. Thus, it is the active form of Plk4 that promotes Ana2's recruitment to the centriole. We now show that Plk4 phosphorylates Ana2 at a site other than the STAN motif, which lies in a conserved region we term the ANST (ANa2-STil) motif. Mutation of this site, S38, to a non-phosphorylatable residue prevents the procentriole loading of Ana2 and blocks centriole duplication. Thus the initiation of procentriole formation requires Plk4 to first phosphorylate a single serine residue in the ANST motif to promote Ana2's recruitment and, secondly, to phosphorylate four residues in the STAN motif enabling Ana2 to recruit Sas6. We discuss these findings in light of the multiple Plk4 phosphorylation sites on Ana2.
Project description:Centrioles are duplicated once in every cell cycle, ensuring the bipolarity of the mitotic spindle. How the core components cooperate to achieve high fidelity in centriole duplication remains poorly understood. By live-cell imaging of endogenously tagged proteins in human cells throughout the entire cell cycle, we quantitatively tracked the dynamics of the critical duplication factors: Plk4, STIL and HsSAS6. Centriolar Plk4 peaks and then starts decreasing during the late G1 phase, which coincides with the accumulation of STIL at centrioles. Shortly thereafter, the HsSAS6 level increases steeply at the procentriole assembly site. We also show that both STIL and HsSAS6 are necessary for attenuating Plk4 levels. Furthermore, our mathematical modeling and simulation suggest that the STIL-HsSAS6 complex in the cartwheel has a negative feedback effect on centriolar Plk4. Combined, these findings illustrate how the dynamic behavior of and interactions between critical duplication factors coordinate the centriole-duplication process.This article has an associated First Person interview with the first author of the paper.
Project description:Polo-like kinase 4 (Plk4) is a key regulator of centriole biogenesis. Studies have shown that Plk4 undergoes dynamic relocalization from a ring-like pattern around a centriole to a dot-like morphology at the procentriole assembly site and this event is central for inducing centriole biogenesis. However, the detailed mechanisms underlying Plk4's capacity to drive its symmetry-breaking ring-to-dot relocalization remain largely unknown. Here, we showed that Plk4 self-initiates this process in an autophosphorylation-dependent manner and that STIL, its downstream target, is not required for this event. Time-dependent analyses with mEOS-fused photoconvertible Plk4 revealed that a portion of ring-state Plk4 acquires a capacity, presumably through autophosphorylation, to linger around a centriole, ultimately generating a dot-state morphology. Interestingly, Plk4 WT, but not its catalytically inactive mutant, showed the ability to form a nanoscale spherical assembly in the cytosol of human cells or heterologous <i>E. coli</i>, demonstrating its autophosphorylation-dependent self-organizing capacity. At the biochemical level, Plk4 - unlike its N-terminal βTrCP degron motif - robustly autophosphorylated the PC3 SSTT motif within its C-terminal cryptic polo-box, an event critical for inducing its physical clustering. Additional <i>in vivo</i> experiments showed that although STIL was not required for Plk4's initial ring-to-dot conversion, coexpressed STIL greatly enhanced Plk4's ability to generate a spherical condensate and recruit Sas6, a major component of the centriolar cartwheel structure. We propose that Plk4's autophosphorylation-induced clustering is sufficient to induce its ring-to-dot localization conversion and that subsequently recruited STIL potentiates this process to generate a procentriole assembly body critical for Plk4-dependent centriole biogenesis.
Project description:Centriole duplication involves the growth of a procentriole next to the parental centriole. Mutations in STIL and CPAP/CENPJ cause primary microcephaly (MCPH). Here, we show that human STIL has an asymmetric localization to the daughter centriole and is required for procentriole formation. STIL levels oscillate during the cell cycle. Interestingly, STIL interacts directly with CPAP and forms a complex with hSAS6. A natural mutation of CPAP (E1235V) that causes MCPH in humans leads to significantly lower binding to STIL. Overexpression of STIL induced the formation of multiple procentrioles around the parental centriole. STIL depletion inhibited normal centriole duplication, Plk4-induced centriole amplification, and CPAP-induced centriole elongation, and resulted in a failure to localize hSAS6 and CPAP to the base of the nascent procentriole. Furthermore, hSAS6 depletion hindered STIL targeting to the procentriole, implying that STIL and hSAS6 are mutually dependent for their centriolar localization. Together, our results indicate that the two MCPH-associated proteins STIL and CPAP interact with each other and are required for procentriole formation, implying a central role of centriole biogenesis in MCPH.
Project description:Centriole duplication occurs once per cell cycle in order to maintain control of centrosome number and ensure genome integrity. Polo-like kinase 4 (Plk4) is a master regulator of centriole biogenesis, but how its activity is regulated to control centriole assembly is unclear. Here we used gene editing in human cells to create a chemical genetic system in which endogenous Plk4 can be specifically inhibited using a cell-permeable ATP analogue. Using this system, we demonstrate that STIL localization to the centriole requires continued Plk4 activity. Most importantly, we show that direct binding of STIL activates Plk4 by promoting self-phosphorylation of the activation loop of the kinase. Plk4 subsequently phosphorylates STIL to promote centriole assembly in two steps. First, Plk4 activity promotes the recruitment of STIL to the centriole. Second, Plk4 primes the direct binding of STIL to the C terminus of SAS6. Our findings uncover a molecular basis for the timing of Plk4 activation through the cell cycle-regulated accumulation of STIL.
Project description:Duplication of centrioles, namely the formation of a procentriole next to the parental centriole, is regulated by the polo-like kinase Plk4. Only a few other proteins, including STIL (SCL/TAL1 interrupting locus, SIL) and Sas-6, are required for the early step of centriole biogenesis. Following Plk4 activation, STIL and Sas-6 accumulate at the cartwheel structure at the initial stage of the centriole assembly process. Here, we show that STIL interacts with Plk4 in vivo. A STIL fragment harboring both the coiled-coil domain and the STAN motif shows the strongest binding affinity to Plk4. Furthermore, we find that STIL is phosphorylated by Plk4. We identified Plk4-specific phosphorylation sites within the C-terminal domain of STIL and show that phosphorylation of STIL by Plk4 is required to trigger centriole duplication.
Project description:Centrioles are assembled during S phase and segregated into 2 daughter cells at the end of mitosis. The initiation of centriole assembly is regulated by polo-like kinase 4 (PLK4), the major serine/threonine kinase in centrioles. Despite its importance in centriole duplication, only a few substrates have been identified, and the detailed mechanism of PLK4 has not been fully elucidated. CP110 is a coiled-coil protein that plays roles in centriolar length control and ciliogenesis in mammals. Here, we revealed that PLK4 specifically phosphorylates CP110 at the S98 position. The phospho-resistant CP110 mutant inhibited centriole assembly, whereas the phospho-mimetic CP110 mutant induced centriole assembly, even in PLK4-limited conditions. This finding implies that PLK4 phosphorylation of CP110 is an essential step for centriole assembly. The phospho-mimetic form of CP110 augmented the centrosomal SAS6 level. Based on these results, we propose that the phosphorylated CP110 may be involved in the stabilization of cartwheel SAS6 during centriole assembly.
Project description:Centrioles are 9-fold symmetric structures duplicating once per cell cycle. Duplication involves self-oligomerization of the centriolar protein SAS-6, but how the 9-fold symmetry is invariantly established remains unclear. Here, we found that SAS-6 assembly can be shaped by preexisting (or mother) centrioles. During S phase, SAS-6 molecules are first recruited to the proximal lumen of the mother centriole, adopting a cartwheel-like organization through interactions with the luminal wall, rather than via their self-oligomerization activity. The removal or release of luminal SAS-6 requires Plk4 and the cartwheel protein STIL. Abolishing either the recruitment or the removal of luminal SAS-6 hinders SAS-6 (or centriole) assembly at the outside wall of mother centrioles. After duplication, the lumen of engaged mother centrioles becomes inaccessible to SAS-6, correlating with a block for reduplication. These results lead to a proposed model that centrioles may duplicate via a template-based process to preserve their geometry and copy number.