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Altered cortical Cytoarchitecture in the Fmr1 knockout mouse.


ABSTRACT: Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder caused by silencing of the FMR1 gene and subsequent loss of its protein product, fragile X retardation protein (FMRP). One of the most robust neuropathological findings in post-mortem human FXS and Fmr1 KO mice is the abnormal increase in dendritic spine densities, with the majority of spines showing an elongated immature morphology. However, the exact mechanisms of how FMRP can regulate dendritic spine development are still unclear. Abnormal dendritic spines can result from disturbances of multiple factors during neurodevelopment, such as alterations in neuron numbers, position and glial cells. In this study, we undertook a comprehensive histological analysis of the cerebral cortex in Fmr1 KO mice. They displayed significantly fewer neuron and PV-interneuron numbers, along with altered cortical lamination patterns. In terms of glial cells, Fmr1 KO mice exhibited an increase in Olig2-oligodendrocytes, which corresponded to the abnormally higher myelin expression in the corpus callosum. Iba1-microglia were significantly reduced but GFAP-astrocyte numbers and intensity were elevated. Using primary astrocytes derived from KO mice, we further demonstrated the presence of astrogliosis characterized by an increase in GFAP expression and astrocyte hypertrophy. Our findings provide important information on the cortical architecture of Fmr1 KO mice, and insights towards possible mechanisms associated with FXS.

SUBMITTER: Lee FHF 

PROVIDER: S-EPMC6570929 | BioStudies | 2019-01-01

REPOSITORIES: biostudies

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