N-Methyl-d-glucamine-Calixresorcinarene Conjugates: Self-Assembly and Biological Properties.
ABSTRACT: Deep insight of the toxicity of supramolecular systems based on macrocycles is of fundamental interest because of their importance in biomedical applications. What seems to be most interesting in this perspective is the development of the macrocyclic compounds with biocompatible fragments. Here, calixresorcinarene derivatives containing N-methyl- d-glucamine moieties at the upper rim and different chemical groups at the lower rim were synthesized and investigated. These macrocycles showed a tendency to self-aggregate in aqueous solution, and their self-assembly abilities depend on the structure of the lower rim. The in vitro cytotoxic and antimicrobial activity of the calixresorcinarenes revealed the relationship of biological properties with the ability to aggregate. Compared to macrocycles with methyl groups on the lower rim, calixresorcinarenes with sulfonate groups appear to possess very similar antibacterial properties, but over six times less hemolytic activity. In some ways, this is the first example that reveals the dependence of the observed hemolytic and antibacterial activity on the lipophilicity of the calixarene structure.
Project description:Reactions of glycidyl methacrylate with the crown and chair conformers of tetra(4-hydroxyphenyl)calixresorcinarene were studied. The reactions were done over epoxide groups present in the ester, which can easily undergo an opening reaction with hydroxyl groups in the macrocyclic system. Initially, epoxidation reactions were carried out with pure conformers, and it was observed that the reaction between tetra(4-hydroxyphenyl)calixresorcinarene fixed in the chair conformation does not occur, while for the molecule fixed in the crown conformation only one tetraalkylated derivative was obtained. The obtained product was characterized using IR, ¹H-NMR, 13C-NMR, COSY, HMQC and HMBC techniques. An exhaustive NMR study showed that the reaction is selective at the hydroxyl groups in the lower rim, without affecting the hydroxyl groups in the upper rim. In addition, the RP-HPLC analysis of the epoxidation reaction mixture, using both crown and chair conformers, showed that only the crown conformer reacted under tested conditions. Finally, a comparative study of the reactivity of tetranonylcalixresorcinarene with glycidyl methacrylate showed that the reaction does not take place. Instead, the formation of the tetranonylcalixresorcinarene tetrasodium salt was observed, which confirms that the hydroxyl groups in the upper rim are unreactive under these conditions.
Project description:The colorimetric properties of resorcinarene solutions had not been investigated since Baeyer's initial synthesis. We recently reported that solutions containing resorcinarene macrocycles develop color upon heating or standing. In the presence of saccharides, these solutions exhibit significant color changes which are easily seen. We herein present strong evidence that the solution color is due to macrocycle ring opening and oxidation. The optical responses to saccharides are due to complexation of the sugar with the acyclic chromophores. We apply these mechanistic insights toward the challenging problem of the visual detection of neutral oligosaccharides by simple chromogens. In addition, we also report the first single-crystal X-ray crystal structure determination of a rarely observed "diamond" resorcinarene stereoisomer.
Project description:Singlet oxygen sensitization involving a class of hemiquinonoid-substituted resorcinarenes prepared from the corresponding 3,5-di-t-butyl-4-hydroxyphenyl-substituted resorcinarenes is reported. Based on variation in the molecular structures, quantum yields comparable with that of the well-known photosensitizing compound meso-tetraphenylporphyrin were obtained for the octabenzyloxy-substituted double hemiquinonoid resorcinarene reported herein. The following classes of compounds were studied: benzyloxy-substituted resorcinarenes, acetyloxy-substituted resorcinarenes and acetyloxy-substituted pyrogallarenes. Single crystal X-ray crystallographic analyses revealed structural variations in the compounds with conformation (i.e., rctt, rccc, rcct) having some influence on the identity of hemiquinonoid product available. Multiplicity of hemiquinonoid group affects singlet oxygen quantum yield with those doubly substituted being more active than those containing a single hemiquinone. Compounds reported here lacking hemiquinonoid groups are inactive as photosensitizers. The term 'fuchsonarene' (fuchson + arene of resorcinarene) is proposed for use to classify the compounds.
Project description:Controlling the self-assembly of molecules in water is difficult because the small size, polarity, and hydrogen bond donating and accepting properties of water attenuate most non-covalent interactions. Here we describe how resorcinarene 1, with pyridinium pendent groups, assembles in water to form head-to-tail assemblies. These small supramolecular polymers form because they offer greater stabilization than any latent head-to-head assembly of resorcinarenes to form dimeric (or hexameric) containers. Instead, the resorcinarene bowl - particularly if negatively charged - is a good host for the pyridinium pendent groups of a second resorcinarene. Alternatively, resorcinarene 1 is also a good host for complexing anions and cations of any added salt. In combination therefore, host 1 possesses a rich repertoire of supramolecular properties that is dependent on the ionic strength and the nature of salts, pH, and the concentration of the host. These findings provide new information about controlling the self-assembly of resorcinarenes in water.
Project description:Amyloid-? peptides (A?) fibrillation is the hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, it has been challenging to discover potent agents in order to inhibit A? fibrillation. Herein, we demonstrated the effect of resorcinarene on inhibiting A? fibrillation in vitro via experimental and computational methods. A? were incubated with different concentrations of resorcinarene so as to monitor the kinetics by using thioflavin T binding assay. The results, which were further confirmed by far-UV CD spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy, strongly indicated that the higher concentration of resorcinarene, the more effective the inhibition of A? fibrillation. A cytotoxicity study showed that when sea urchin embryos were exposed to the resorcinarene, the majority survived due to the resorcinarene low toxicity. In addition, when the resorcinarene was added, the formation of toxic A? 42 species was delayed. Computational studies of A? fibrillation, including docking simulations and MD simulations, illustrated that the interaction between inhibitor resorcinarene and A? is driven by the non-polar interactions. These studies display a novel strategy for the exploration of promising antiamyloiddogenic agents for AD treatments.
Project description:Aminomethylation reactions between chiral amino compounds (S)-(-)-1-phenylethylamine and l-proline with tetranonylresorcinarene and tetra-(4-hydroxyphenyl)resorcinarene in presence of formaldehyde were studied. The reaction between l-proline and resorcinarenes generated regioselectively chiral tetra-Mannich bases, due to the molecular incorporation of the fragment of the chiral amino acid. On the other hand, tetranonylresorcinarene and (S)-(-)-1-phenylethylamine formed regio- and diasteroselectively chiral tetrabenzoxazines, both by chiral auxiliary functionalization and by the transformation of the molecular structure that confers inherent chirality. The products obtained were characterized using IR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, COSY, HMQC, and HMBC techniques. The reaction of (S)-(-)-1-phenylethylamine with tetra-(4-hydroxyphenyl)resorcinarene did not proceed under the experimental conditions. Once the chiral aminomethylated tetra-(4-hydroxyphenyl)resorcinarene was obtained, the chemical modification of poly(GMA-co-EDMA) was studied, and the results showed an efficient incorporation of the aminomethylated compound. For the physical modification, chiral aminomethylated tetranonylresorcinarenes were employed, finding that the incorporation of modified resorcinarenes occurs, but with less efficiency than that observed using chemical modification. The modified polymers were characterized via FT-IR, scanning electron microscopy imaging, and elemental analysis. Finally, polymers modified with chiral resorcinarenes were used as sorbents in norepinephrine microextraction; for practical purposes, artificial urine was prepared and used. To perform the microextraction, the decision was made to use the modern rotating-disk sorptive extraction technique (RDSE), because of its analytical attributes as a green, or eco-friendly, technique. According to the results, the method preliminarily validated for the determination of norepinephrine in artificial urine shows that the modified polymer with chiral derivative of tetra-(4-hydroxyphenyl)resorcinarene worked effectively as a new sorbent phase for the quantitative microextraction of norepinephrine, exhibiting high stability and homogeneity of composition and structure within the working range.
Project description:Polarimetry was used to investigate the binding abilities of a chiral calixresorcinarene derivative, bearing L-proline subunits, towards a set of suitably selected organic guests. The simultaneous formation of 1:1 and 2:1 host-guest inclusion complexes was observed in several cases, depending on both the charge status of the host and the structure of the guest. Thus, the use of the polarimetric method was thoroughly revisited, in order to keep into account the occurrence of multiple equilibria. Our data indicate that the stability of the host-guest complexes is affected by an interplay between Coulomb interactions, ?-? interactions, desolvation effects and entropy-unfavorable conformational dynamic restraints. Polarimetry is confirmed as a very useful and versatile tool for the investigation of supramolecular interactions with chiral hosts, even in complex systems involving multiple equilibria.
Project description:The synthesis and spectroscopic characterization of self-assembled dimeric resorcinarenes 1a-d containing four 2-benzimidazolone (cyclic urea) bridges are reported. The nanometer-size capsules are held together by a cyclic array of complementary hydrogen bonds. Unlike the related imide-bridged resorcinarenes reported by Rebek and coworkers [Heinz, T., Rudkevich, D. M. & Rebek, J., Jr. (1998) Nature (London) 394, 764-766], these strongly bound dimers aggregate in chloroform solutions yielding different self-organized structures, depending on the nature and length of the four carbon chains attached at the bottom of each resorcinarene platform, as revealed by transmission electron microscopy. Thus, phenethyl groups (dimer 1c x 1c) produce long fibers, probably arising from tail to tail contacts and subsequent threading of the resulting linear self-assembled polymers, whereas long alkyl chains (dimers 1a x 1a and 1b x 1b) induce formation of large reverse vesicles of 0.8-2.2 microm diameter through side to side extensive stacking. Presumably, the rigidity of the dimer precludes folding of the aggregate into smaller vesicles. On the contrary, dimer 1d. 1d, containing four nine-carbon chains and a cis-double bond, does not substantially aggregate and gives rise to reasonably resolved (1)H NMR spectra. The compound was shown to be dimeric either by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight and vapor pressure osmometry. Encapsulation studies were followed by NMR. Propionic or pivalic acid was included in the capsules, probably as head to head hydrogen-bonded dimers in mesitylene-d(12), a solvent too big to be a guest by its own. Longer dimeric carboxylic acids or larger substrates, like 2-adamantyl azide or cyclohexylcarbodiimide, do not encapsulate, but mixtures of a long and a short carboxylic acid (i.e., propionic-adamantyl or propionic-cyclohexyl) yield pairwise complexes.
Project description:The synthesis of new calixarenes adopting a cone stereoisomeric form bearing two or four azide fragments on the upper rim and water-soluble triazolyl amphiphilic receptors with two or four polyammonium headgroups via copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition reaction has been performed for the first time. It was found that the synthesized macrocycles form stable aggregates with hydrodynamic diameters between 150-200 nm and electrokinetic potentials about +40 to +60 mV in water solutions. Critical aggregation concentration (CAC) values were measured using a micelle method with pyrene and eosin Y as dye probes. The CAC values of tetraalkyl-substituted macrocycles 12a,b (5 µM for both) are significantly lower than those for dialkyl-substituted macrocycles 10a,b (790 and 160 µM, respectively). Premicellar aggregates of macrocycles 10a,b and 12a,b with the dye eosin Y were used for nucleotides sensing through a dye replacement procedure. It is unusual that disubstituted macrocycles 10a,b bind more effectively a less charged adenosine 5'-diphosphate (ADP) than adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP). A simple colorimetric method based on polydiacetylene vesicles decorated with 10b was elaborated for the naked-eye detection of ADP with a detection limit of 0.5 mM.
Project description:A fluorescently labeled resorcinarene cavitand has been successfully embedded in DLPC lipid vesicles and imaged using confocal microscopy. The cavitand resides exclusively in the bilayer.