Exhalative Breath Markers Do Not Offer for Diagnosis of Interstitial Lung Diseases: Data from the European IPF Registry (eurIPFreg) and Biobank.
ABSTRACT: Background: New biomarkers are urgently needed to facilitate diagnosis in Interstitial Lung Diseases (ILD), thus reducing the need for invasive procedures, and to enable tailoring and monitoring of medical treatment. Methods: In this study we investigated if patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF; n = 21), non-IPF ILDs (n = 57) and other lung diseases (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) n = 24, lung cancer (LC) n = 16) as well as healthy subjects (n = 20) show relevant differences in exhaled NO (FeNO; Niox MINO), or in eicosanoid (PGE2, 8-isoprostane; enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)) levels as measured in exhaled breath condensates (EBC) and bronchoalveolar lavage fluids (BALF). Results: There was no significant difference in FeNO values between IPF, non-IPF ILDs and healthy subjects, although some individual patients showed highly elevated FeNO. On the basis of the FeNO signal, it was neither possible to differentiate between the kind of disease nor to detect exacerbations. In addition, there was no correlation between FeNO values and lung function. The investigation of the eicosanoids in EBCs was challenging (PGE2) or unreliable (8-isoprostane), but worked out well in BALF. A significant increase of free 8-isoprostane was observed in BALF, but not in EBCs, of patients with IPF, hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) and sarcoidosis, possibly indicating severity of oxidative stress. Conclusions: FeNO-measurements are not of diagnostic benefit in different ILDs including IPF. The same holds true for PGE2 and 8-isoprostane in EBC by ELISA.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Exhaled breath condensate (EBC) sampling has been considered an inventive and novel method for the isolation of respiratory viruses. METHODS: In our study, 102 volunteers experiencing upper airway infection were recruited over the winter and early spring of 2008/2009 and the first half of the winter of 2009/2010. Ninety-nine EBCs were successfully obtained and screened for 14 commonly circulating respiratory viruses. To investigate the efficiency of virus isolation from EBC, a nasal swab was taken in parallel from a subset of volunteers. The combined use of the ECoVent device with the RTube™ allowed the registration of the exhaled volume and breathing frequency during collection. In this way, the number of exhaled viral particles per liter air or per minute can theoretically be estimated. RESULTS: Viral screening resulted in the detection of 4 different viruses in EBC and/or nasal swabs: Rhinovirus, Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus B, Influenza A and Influenza B. Rhinovirus was detected in 6 EBCs and 1 EBC was Influenza B positive. We report a viral detection rate of 7% for the EBCs, which is much lower than the detection rate of 46.8% observed using nasal swabs. CONCLUSION: Although very promising, EBC collection using the RTube™ is not reliable for diagnosis of respiratory infections.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Exhaled nitric oxide (NO) production is increased in asthma and reflects the degree of airway inflammation. The alveolar NO concentration (Calv) in interstitial pneumonia is reported to be increased. However, it remains unknown whether NO production is increased and nitrosative stress occurs in eosinophilic pneumonia (EP). We hypothesized that nitrosative stress markers including Calv, inducible type of NO synthase (iNOS), and 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT), are upregulated in EP.<h4>Methods</h4>Exhaled NO including fractional exhaled NO (FENO) and Calv was measured in ten healthy subjects, 13 patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), and 13 patients with EP. iNOS expression and 3-NT formation were assessed by immunocytochemistory in BALf cells. The exhaled NO, lung function, and systemic inflammatory markers of the EP patients were investigated after corticosteroid treatment for 4 weeks.<h4>Results</h4>The Calv levels in the EP group (14.4 ± 2.0 ppb) were significantly higher than those in the healthy subjects (5.1 ± 0.6 ppb, p < 0.01) and the IPF groups (6.3 ± 0.6 ppb, p < 0.01) as well as the FENO and the corrected Calv levels (all p < 0.01). More iNOS and 3-NT positive cells were observed in the EP group compared to the healthy subject and IPF patient. The Calv levels had significant positive correlations with both iNOS (r = 0.858, p < 0.05) and 3-NT positive cells (r = 0.924, p < 0.01). Corticosteroid treatment significantly reduced both the FENO (p < 0.05) and the Calv levels (p < 0.01). The magnitude of reduction in the Calv levels had a significant positive correlation with the peripheral blood eosinophil counts (r = 0.802, p < 0.05).<h4>Conclusions</h4>These results suggested that excessive nitrosative stress occurred in EP and that Calv could be a marker of the disease activity.
Project description:Rationale:Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a progressive fibrotic interstitial lung disease, with high mortality. Currently, the aetiology and the pathology of IPF are poorly understood, with both innate and adaptive responses previously being implicated in the disease pathogenesis. Heat shock proteins (Hsp) and antibodies to Hsp in patients with IPF have been suggested as therapeutic targets and prognostic biomarkers, respectively. We aimed to study the relationship between the expression of Hsp72 and anti-Hsp72 antibodies in the BAL fluid and serum Aw disease progression in patients with IPF. Methods:A novel indirect ELISA to measure anti-Hsp72 IgG was developed and together with commercially available ELISAs used to detect Hsp72 IgG, Hsp72 IgGAM, and Hsp72 antigen, in the serum and BALf of a cohort of IPF (n = 107) and other interstitial lung disease (ILD) patients (n = 66). Immunohistochemistry was used to detect Hsp72 in lung tissue. The cytokine expression from monocyte-derived macrophages was measured by ELISA. Results:Anti-Hsp72 IgG was detectable in the serum and BALf of IPF (n = 107) and other ILDs (n = 66). Total immunoglobulin concentrations in the BALf showed an excessive adaptive response in IPF compared to other ILDs and healthy controls (p = 0.026). Immunohistochemistry detection of C4d and Hsp72 showed that these antibodies may be targeting high expressing Hsp72 type II alveolar epithelial cells. However, detection of anti-Hsp72 antibodies in the BALf revealed that increasing concentrations were associated with improved patient survival (adjusted HR 0.62, 95% CI 0.45-0.85; p = 0.003). In vitro experiments demonstrate that anti-Hsp72 complexes stimulate macrophages to secrete CXCL8 and CCL18. Conclusion:Our results indicate that intrapulmonary anti-Hsp72 antibodies are associated with improved outcomes in IPF. These may represent natural autoantibodies, and anti-Hsp72 IgM and IgA may provide a beneficial role in disease pathogenesis, though the mechanism of action for this has yet to be determined.
Project description:Background: Sarcoidosis and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) are two most frequent forms of interstitial lung diseases (ILDs). Cellular and biochemical composition of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALf) was shown to reflect the proliferative and fibrotic changes in the local environment in the lung. However, the usefulness of BALf cellular profile evaluation in the diagnosis of ILDs is limited. The aim of the study was a multivariate, molecular, comparative analysis of BALf cells from IPF and sarcoidosis patients. Methods: Transcriptomic measurements were carried out using Affymetrix Human Gene 2.1 ST ArrayStrip in 21 samples: 9 IPF and 12 sarcoidosis. The mRNA expression for the most significantly differentiating genes was evaluated by real time PCR in 32 samples (11 IPF and 21 sarcoidosis). Results: The number of genes differentially expressed between IPF and sarcoidosis groups were 4832 (13359 probesets). Our cluster analysis indicated that sarcoidosis BALf cells are characterized by increased mRNA expression of genes associated with ribosome biogenesis, transcription machinery. Clusters formed by genes with changed mRNA expression in IPF samples were implicated in the processes of cell adhesion and migration, metalloproteinase expression and negative regulation of cell proliferation. PCR verification showed higher expression of ANK3 in the sarcoidosis compared to the IPF group, and higher expression of MMP7 and PPBP in patients with IPF. The GO analysis indicated that predominant biological processes associated with the differential mRNA gene expression of BALf cells were upregulation of neutrophils in IPF and lymphocytes in sarcoidosis. Conclusions: Analysis of BALf from sarcoidosis and IPF showed highly different mRNA profile of cells present in bronchoalveolar compartment and provided new data on the pathobiology of these ILDs. The changes of most important biological processes observed at the molecular level in BALf cells were associated with ribosome biogenesis and proteasome apparatus in sarcoidosis and neutrophilic dysfunction in IPF. Overall design: The microarray experiments were performed using 21 samples: 9 IPF and 12 sarcoidosis.
Project description:Background: Prospective pharmacological studies on breathomics profiles in COPD patients have not been previously reported. We assessed the effects of treatment and withdrawal of an extrafine inhaled corticosteroid (ICS)-long-acting ?2-agonist (LABA) fixed dose combination (FDC) using a multidimensional classification model including breathomics. Methods: A pilot, proof-of-concept, pharmacological study was undertaken in 14 COPD patients on maintenance treatment with inhaled fluticasone propionate/salmeterol (500/50 ?g b.i.d.) for at least 8 weeks (visit 1). Patients received 2-week treatment with inhaled beclomethasone dipropionate/formoterol (100/6 ?g b.i.d.) (visit 2), 4-week treatment with formoterol alone (6 ?g b.i.d.) (visit 3), and 4-week treatment with beclomethasone/formoterol (100/6 ?g b.i.d.) (visit 4). Exhaled breath analysis with two e-noses, based on different technologies, and exhaled breath condensate (EBC) NMR-based metabolomics were performed. Sputum cell counts, sputum supernatant and EBC prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and 15-F2t-isoprostane, fraction of exhaled nitric oxide, and spirometry were measured. Results: Compared with formoterol alone, EBC acetate and sputum PGE2, reflecting airway inflammation, were reduced after 4-week beclomethasone/formoterol. Three independent breathomics techniques showed that extrafine beclomethasone/formoterol short-term treatment was associated with different breathprints compared with regular fluticasone propionate/salmeterol. Either ICS/LABA FDC vs. formoterol alone was associated with increased pre-bronchodilator FEF25-75% and FEV1/FVC (P = 0.008-0.029). The multidimensional model distinguished fluticasone propionate/salmeterol vs. beclomethasone/formoterol, fluticasone propionate/salmeterol vs. formoterol, and formoterol vs. beclomethasone/formoterol (accuracy > 70%, P < 0.01). Conclusions: Breathomics could be used for assessing ICS treatment and withdrawal in COPD patients. Large, controlled, prospective pharmacological trials are required to clarify the biological implications of breathomics changes. EUDRACT number: 2012-001749-42.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Leukotriene (LT) B4 concentrations are increased and prostaglandin (PG) E2 concentrations are decreased in exhaled breath condensate (EBC) in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). A study was undertaken to investigate the short term effects of cyclo-oxygenase (COX) inhibition on exhaled LTB4 and PGE2 concentrations in patients with COPD and to identify the COX isoform responsible for exhaled PGE2 production.<h4>Methods</h4>Two studies were performed. A double blind, crossover, randomised, placebo controlled study with ibuprofen (400 mg qid for 2 days), a non-selective COX inhibitor, was undertaken in 14 patients with stable COPD, and an open label study with oral rofecoxib (25 mg once a day for 5 days), a selective COX-2 inhibitor, was undertaken in a different group of 16 COPD patients. EBC was collected before and after drug treatment. Exhaled LTB4 and PGE2 concentrations were measured with specific immunoassays.<h4>Results</h4>All patients complied with treatment as indicated by a reduction in ex vivo serum thromboxane B2 concentrations (ibuprofen) and a reduction in lipopolysaccharide induced increase in ex vivo plasma PGE2 values (rofecoxib) of more than 80%. Exhaled LTB4 was increased after ibuprofen (median 175.5 (interquartile range 128.8-231.5) pg/ml v 84.0 (70.0-98.5) pg/ml, p < 0.001) and exhaled PGE2 was reduced (93.5 (84.0-105-5) pg/ml v 22.0 (15.0-25.5) pg/ml, p < 0.0001). Rofecoxib had no effect on exhaled LTB4 (p = 0.53) or PGE2 (p = 0.23).<h4>Conclusions</h4>Non-selective COX inhibition decreases PGE2 and increases LTB4 in EBC, whereas selective COX-2 inhibition has no effect on these eicosanoids. PGE2 in EBC is primarily derived from COX-1 activity, and COX inhibition may redirect arachidonic acid metabolism towards the 5-lipoxygenase pathway.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Swimming in chlorinated pools involves exposure to disinfection by-products (DBPs) and has been associated with impaired respiratory health. OBJECTIVES: We evaluated short-term changes in several respiratory biomarkers to explore mechanisms of potential lung damage related to swimming pool exposure. METHODS: We measured lung function and biomarkers of airway inflammation [fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO), eight cytokines, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in exhaled breath condensate], oxidative stress (8-isoprostane in exhaled breath condensate), and lung permeability [surfactant protein D (SP-D) and the Clara cell secretory protein (CC16) in serum] in 48 healthy nonsmoking adults before and after they swam for 40 min in a chlorinated indoor swimming pool. We measured trihalomethanes in exhaled breath as a marker of individual exposure to DBPs. Energy expenditure during swimming, atopy, and CC16 genotype (rs3741240) were also determined. RESULTS: Median serum CC16 levels increased from 6.01 to 6.21 microg/L (average increase, 3.3%; paired Wilcoxon test p = 0.03), regardless of atopic status and CC16 genotype. This increase was explained both by energy expenditure and different markers of DBP exposure in multivariate models. FeNO was unchanged overall but tended to decrease among atopics. We found no significant changes in lung function, SP-D, 8-isoprostane, eight cytokines, or VEGF. CONCLUSIONS: We detected a slight increase in serum CC16, a marker of lung epithelium permeability, in healthy adults after they swam in an indoor chlorinated pool. Exercise and DBP exposure explained this association, without involving inflammatory mechanisms. Further research is needed to confirm the results, establish the clinical relevance of short-term serum CC16 changes, and evaluate the long-term health impacts.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Recently, epithelial alarmins have been shown to play important roles in non-allergen driven respiratory diseases like idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Little is known about the expression of the epithelial alarmins in IPF. METHODS:This study aimed to prospectively examine interleukin (IL)-25, IL-33, and thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) levels in the serum and exhaled breath condensate (EBC) in patients with IPF before and after one-year of antifibrotic treatment. A total of 82 volunteers, including 52 patients diagnosed with IPF that qualified for antifibrotic therapy as well as 30 controls, were examined. All study participants underwent baseline peripheral blood and EBC sampling. In 35 out of 52 IPF subjects, a follow-up sampling was performed after 12 months of antifibrotic treatment. Concentrations of alarmins in the serum and EBC were evaluated by means of ELISA. RESULTS:Baseline TSLP concentrations were significantly elevated in patients with IPF compared to controls both in the serum (p < 0.05) and EBC (p < 0.0001). Baseline IL-25 and IL-33 serum and EBC levels did not differ significantly between IPF subjects and controls. Prospective analysis of changes in the epithelial alarmin levels showed significantly decreased IL-25 and TSLP EBC concentrations after 12 months of antifibrotic treatment (p < 0.05), which was observed in the subgroup of IPF patients treated with pirfenidone, but not in those treated with nintedanib. In stable patients with IPF over a study period (absolute forced vital capacity (FVC) % of predicted decline/year ? 5%, n = 25), a significant decrease in the EBC levels of both IL-25 and TSLP after 12 months of antifibrotic treatment was noted (p < 0.05), whereas, in progressor IPF patients (absolute FVC % of predicted decline/year > 5%, n = 10), a significant decrease was noted in the IL-25 EBC levels only (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS:Elevated TSLP levels in patients with IPF and their significant decrease in the lung compartment during antifibrotic therapy in stable patients with IPF, but not in progressors, support its significant contribution to pro-fibrotic type 2 immune responses in IPF. Noted changes in the epithelial alarmins concentration in the lung compartment during pirfenidone therapy may suggest its possible interaction with epithelial alarmins pathways in IPF.
Project description:Purinergic signalling regulates airway defence mechanisms, suggesting that extracellular purines could serve as airway inflammation biomarkers in cystic fibrosis (CF). The purines adenosine triphosphate (ATP), adenosine diphosphate (ADP), adenosine monophosphate (AMP) and adenosine were measured in sputum from 21 adults (spontaneously expectorated from seven CF patients, induced from 14 healthy controls) to assess normal values and CF-associated changes. Subsequently, purine levels were measured in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) from 37 children (25 CF patients, 12 disease controls) and compared with neutrophil counts, presence of airway infection and lung function. To noninvasively assess airway purines, ATP levels were measured using luminometry in exhaled breath condensate (EBC) from 14 children with CF and 14 healthy controls, then 14 CF children during a pulmonary exacerbation. Both ATP and AMP were elevated in sputum and BALF from CF subjects compared with controls. In BALF, ATP and AMP levels were inversely related to lung function and strongly correlated with neutrophil counts. In EBC, ATP levels were increased in CF relative to controls and decreased after treatment of CF pulmonary exacerbation. The purines adenosine triphosphate and adenosine monophosphate are candidate biomarkers of neutrophilic airways inflammation. Measurement of purines in sputum or exhaled breath condensate may provide a relatively simple and noninvasive method to track this inflammation.
Project description:Thiocyanate is a heme peroxidase substrate that scavenges oxidants produced during inflammation and regulates host defense. In cystic fibrosis (CF) patients, increased airway thiocyanate levels are associated with improved lung function. Research on airway thiocyanate is limited, however, because convenient non-invasive airway sampling methods, such as exhaled breath condensate (EBC), yield low concentrations that are difficult to detect with available assays. In the present study, we developed a method for the determination of thiocyanate in dilute samples using isotope dilution headspace gas chromatography-coupled high-resolution, accurate-mass mass spectrometry (GC-HRMS). The method reliably quantified as little as 4 pmol thiocyanate in EBC and could detect even lower amounts. We successfully measured thiocyanate in EBC from seven healthy donors, with a mean ±?SD of 27?±?16?nM and a median inter-assay coefficient of variation of 10.4% over six months. The method was applied to other biological fluids (plasma from the same visit as EBC donation; bronchoalveolar lavage fluid [BALF] from infants with CF; and healthy adult mouse BALF), giving reliable quantification of samples ranging from 10?nM to 100?µM. Thiocyanate concentrations in fluids besides EBC were (from lowest to highest): 0.73?±?0.39?µM in BALF of healthy adult mice (n?=?6); 1.4?±?1.4?µM in BALF from infants with CF (n?=?24); 46?±?22?µM in the plasma of adult volunteers (n?=?7). These results demonstrate the utility of this new method for clinical determination of thiocyanate in EBC and other biological fluids.