Crowded Nests: Parent-Adult Child Coresidence Transitions and Parental Mental Health Following the Great Recession.
ABSTRACT: Although many studies have examined contemporary increases in parent-adult child coresidence, questions about what this demographic shift means for the well-being of parents remain. This article draws on insights from the life course perspective to investigate the relationship between parent-adult child coresidence and parental mental health among U.S. adults ages 50+, distinguishing between parents stably living with and without adult children and those who transitioned into or out of coresidence with an adult child. Based on analyses of the 2008 to 2012 waves of the Health and Retirement Study (N = 11,277), parents with a newly coresidential adult child experienced an increase in depressive symptoms relative to their peers without coresidential adult children. Further analyses suggest that transitions to coresidence that occurred in the southern United States or involved out-of-work children were particularly depressing for parents. These findings highlight the significance of evolving intergenerational living arrangements for the well-being of older adults.
Project description:<h4>Objectives</h4>Since the Great Recession, the proportion of young adults living with their parents has risen steadily in the United States. Research on coresidence with adult children and parental marital quality is mixed, but marital quality may suffer if children coreside under certain circumstances. When coresidence signifies a deviation from normative expectations, it may be a source of stress in parents' marriages. Further, living with adult children who are suffering problems may be especially detrimental to parental marital quality.<h4>Method</h4>Middle-aged parents (N = 287; mean age = 50.65) completed measures of marital quality, child problems, and coresidence at 2 time points, at the onset of the Great Recession in 2008 and again in 2013.<h4>Results</h4>Regression analyses estimating marital quality from coresidence status revealed that coresidence with a child was associated with lower parental marital quality in 2008, but not in 2013 (when it may be considered more normative to have adult children living in the home). Additional analyses showed living with a child who was suffering problems was associated with lower marital quality in 2013.<h4>Discussion</h4>These findings suggest that coresidence may be detrimental to marital quality, but perhaps only when coresidence is nonnormative or when coresidence co-occurs with child problems.
Project description:Early in the last century, it was commonplace for elderly women to live with their adult children. Over time, the prevalence of this type of living arrangement declined, as incomes increased. In more recent decades, coresidence between adult children and their retirement-age parents has become more common, as children rely on parental support later into adulthood. We use panel data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics to examine the living arrangements of older mothers and their adult children over the life course. We pay particular attention to the relationship between coresidence and indicators of parental and child needs. Our results suggest that for much of the life course, coresidence serves to benefit primarily the adult children rather than their older mother. We also highlight a little known phenomenon, that of children who never leave the parental home and remain coresident well into their later adult years.
Project description:Research has shown that parents with higher socioeconomic status provide more resources to their children during childhood and adolescence. The authors asked whether similar effects associated with parental socioeconomic position are extended to adult children. Middle-aged parents (N = 633) from the Family Exchanges Study reported support they provided to their grown children and coresidence with grown children (N = 1,384). Parents with higher income provided more emotional and material support to the average children. Grown children of parents with less education were more likely to coreside with them. Parental resources (e.g., being married) and demands (e.g., family size) explained these patterns. Of interest is that lower income parents provided more total support to all children (except total financial support). Lower income families may experience a double jeopardy; each grown child receives less support on average, but parents exert greater efforts providing more total support to all their children.
Project description:Parents play a key role in launching their children into adulthood. Differences in the resources they provide their children have implications for perpetuating patterns of family inequality. Using data on 6,962 young adults included in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997, we examine differences in the support parents provide to young adult children by immigrant status and race/ethnicity and whether and how those differences are explained by parent resources and young adult resources and roles. Immigrant status and race/ethnicity are associated with patterns of support in complex ways. We find that racial/ethnic and immigrant disparities in perceptions of support, financial support, and receiving advice from parents about education or employment are explained by family socioeconomic resources. Group differences in whether young adults say they would turn to a parent for advice and coresidence persist after accounting for these factors, however. Young adult resources and roles also shape parental support of young adults in the transition to adulthood, but taking account of these characteristics does not explain immigrant and racial/ethnic group differences. Our findings highlight the need to consider both race/ethnicity and immigrant status to understand family relationships and sources of support.
Project description:<h4>Objectives</h4>Multi-actor data show that parents' and adult children's evaluations of their relation do not necessarily match. We studied disagreement in parent- and child-reported closeness, comparing parent-child dyads involving separated parents, non-separated parents, and stepparents to shed new light on today's diverse landscape of adult parent-child relations.<h4>Method</h4>Using data from the Parents and Children in the Netherlands (OKiN) survey, we analyzed closeness in parent-child dyads (N = 4,602) comparing (step)parents' and their adult children's (aged 25-45) reports. To distinguish directional disagreement (i.e., differences in child- and parent-reported means) from nondirectional disagreement (i.e., the association between child- and parent-reported measures), while accounting for absolute levels of closeness, we estimated log-linear models.<h4>Results</h4>All types of parents tend to report higher levels of closeness than their children. Whereas parental overreport is more prevalent among biological father-child dyads than among biological mother-child dyads, we found no differences between biological dyads and stepdyads. The association between children's and parents' reports is higher among dyads involving stepmothers or married mothers than among those involving separated mothers and (step)fathers.<h4>Discussion</h4>The intergenerational stake (i.e., parental overreport) is not unique to biological parent-child relations. Instead, patterns of disagreement seem most strongly stratified by gender.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:The proportion of older adults who are unpartnered has increased significantly over the past 25 years. Unpartnered older adults often rely on their adult children for support. Most previous studies have focused on proximal factors associated with adult children's support of their parents, while few have examined distal factors, such as parent-child relationships formed during childhood. This study fills the gap by investigating the direct and indirect associations between early-life parent-child relationships and adult children's upward transfers to unpartnered parents. METHOD:Data came from two supplements to the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, in which respondents were asked about their relationships with mothers and fathers before age 17 and their transfers of time and money to parents in 2013. Path models were estimated for unpartnered mother-adult child dyads and father-adult child dyads separately. RESULTS:For adult children of unpartnered mothers, psychological closeness has a direct, positive association with time transfer, while physical violence has an indirect association with time transfer through adult children's marital status. For adult children of unpartnered fathers, psychological closeness has neither a direct nor an indirect association with time or money transfer, but physical violence has a direct, negative association with time transfer. DISCUSSION:Early-life parent-child relationships play a pivotal role in influencing adult children's caregiving behavior, both directly and indirectly. Our findings suggest that by improving their relationships with children early in life, parents may be able to increase the amount of time transfer that they receive in late life.
Project description:<h4>Objectives</h4>Parents often provide advice to their adult children during their everyday interactions. This study investigated young adult children's daily experiences with parental advice in U.S. families. Specifically, the study examined how receiving advice and evaluations of parental advice were associated with children's life problems, parent-child relationship quality, and daily mood.<h4>Method</h4>Young adult children (aged 18-30; participant N = 152) reported whether they received any advice and perceived any unwanted advice from each parent (parent N = 235) for seven days using a daily diary design (participant-day N = 948). Adult children also reported their positive and negative mood on each interview day.<h4>Results</h4>Results from multilevel models revealed that adult children who reported a more positive relationship with their parents were more likely to receive advice from the parent, whereas adult children who had a more strained relationship with their parents were more likely to perceive advice from the parent as unwanted. Receiving advice from mother was associated with increased positive mood, whereas unwanted advice from any parent was associated with increased negative mood. Further, the link between unwanted advice and negative mood varied by children's life problems and parent-child relationship quality.<h4>Discussion</h4>Indeed, parental advice is not "the more the better," especially when the advice is unsolicited. This study highlights the importance of perceptions of family support for emerging adults' well-being.
Project description:Objective:Many older adults in Indonesia live with their children. This study examined the relationship between the quality of the relationship that elderly parents may have with their children living with them and any effects on psychological well-being. Methods:Relationship quality encompasses positive and negative aspects. This study employed convenience sampling and to reach 102 elderly participants. A measure of positive and negative social exchanges was used to measure the relationship between elderly parents and their children. Ryff's Scale of Psychological Well-Being was utilized to measure the psychological well-being of the subjects. We used descriptive statistics, Pearson correlation coefficient, an independent t-test, and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) to assess the statistics produced. Results:The primary results showed no correlation between the positive qualities of the relationship and psychological well-being (r?=?0.092, p?>?0.01). However, the negative qualities of the relationship were negatively correlated with psychological well-being (r?=?-0.335, p?<?0.01). Conclusion:Thus, negative qualities of relationships with their children were found to be more impactful on psychological well-being than positive qualities in elderly parents who maintain coresidence with their children. This means that the greater the lack of sympathy, intrusion, failure to provide needed help, and rejection/neglect from the child, the worse the psychological well-being of the elderly parent.
Project description:<h4>Objectives</h4>When adult children incur life problems (e.g., divorce, job loss, health problems), aging parents generally report providing more frequent support and experiencing poorer well-being. Yet, it is unclear how adult children's problems may influence aging parents' daily support exchanges with these children or the parents' daily mood.<h4>Methods</h4>Aging parents from the Family Exchanges Study Wave 2 (N = 207, Mage = 79.86) reported providing and receiving emotional support, practical support, and advice from each adult child each day for 7 days. Parents also rated daily positive and negative mood.<h4>Results</h4>Multilevel models showed that aging parents were more likely to provide emotional and practical support to adult children incurring life problems than children not suffering problems. Parents were also more likely to receive emotional support and advice from these children with problems. Further, parents reported less negative mood on days when providing practical support to children with problems.<h4>Discussion</h4>Examining daily support exchanges adds to our understanding of how children's problems influence parent-child ties in late life. Prior research suggests that children's problems upset parents. In this study, however, it appears that supporting adult children who suffer problems may alleviate aging parents' distress regarding such children.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:To (1) describe the epidemiology of child and adult telomere length, and (2) investigate parent-child telomere length concordance. DESIGN:Population-based cross-sectional study within the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children. SETTING:Assessment centres in seven major Australian cities and eight selected regional towns; February 2015 to March 2016. PARTICIPANTS:Of 1874 participating families, telomere data were available for analysis for 1206 children and 1343 parents, of whom 1143 were parent-child pairs. There were 589 boys and 617 girls; 175 fathers and 1168 mothers. OUTCOME MEASURES:Relative telomere length (T/S ratio), calculated by comparing telomeric DNA (T) level with the single copy (S) beta-globin gene in venous blood-derived genomic DNA by quantitative real-time PCR. RESULTS:Mean T/S ratio for all children, boys and girls was 1.09 (SD 0.56), 1.05 (SD 0.53) and 1.13 (SD 0.59), respectively. Mean T/S ratio for all parents, fathers and mothers was 0.81 (SD 0.37), 0.82 (SD 0.36) and 0.81 (SD 0.38), respectively. Parent-child T/S ratio concordance was moderate (correlation 0.24). In adjusted regression models, one unit higher parent T/S ratio was associated with 0.36 (estimated linear regression coefficient (?); 95%?CI 0.28 to 0.45) higher child T/S ratio. Concordance was higher in the youngest parent-age tertile (? 0.49; 95%?CI 0.34 to 0.64) compared with the middle (? 0.35; 95%?CI 0.21 to 0.48) and oldest tertile (? 0.26; 95%?CI 0.11 to 0.41; p-trend 0.04). Father-child concordance was 0.34 (95% CI 0.18 to 0.48), while mother-child was 0.22 (95% CI 0.17 to 0.28). CONCLUSIONS:We provide telomere length population values for children aged 11-12 years and their mid-life parents. Relative telomere length was shorter in adults than children, as expected. There was modest evidence of parent-child concordance, which diminished with increasing parent age.