Racial/ethnic differences in multimorbidity development and chronic disease accumulation for middle-aged adults.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Multimorbidity-having two or more coexisting chronic conditions-is highly prevalent, costly, and disabling to older adults. Questions remain regarding chronic diseases accumulation over time and whether this differs by racial and ethnic background. Answering this knowledge gap, this study identifies differences in rates of chronic disease accumulation and multimorbidity development among non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, and Hispanic study participants starting in middle-age and followed up to 16 years. METHODS AND FINDINGS:We analyzed data from the Health and Retirement Study (HRS), a biennial, ongoing, publicly-available, longitudinal nationally-representative study of middle-aged and older adults in the United States. We assessed the change in chronic disease burden among 8,872 non-Hispanic black, non-Hispanic white, and Hispanic participants who were 51-55 years of age at their first interview any time during the study period (1998-2014) and all subsequent follow-up observations until 2014. Multimorbidity was defined as having two or more of seven somatic chronic diseases: arthritis, cancer, heart disease (myocardial infarction, coronary heart disease, angina, congestive heart failure, or other heart problems), diabetes, hypertension, lung disease, and stroke. We used negative binomial generalized estimating equation models to assess the trajectories of multimorbidity burden over time for non-Hispanic black, non-Hispanic white, and Hispanic participants. In covariate-adjusted models non-Hispanic black respondents had initial chronic disease counts that were 28% higher than non-Hispanic white respondents (IRR 1.279, 95% CI 1.201, 1.361), while Hispanic respondents had initial chronic disease counts that were 15% lower than non-Hispanic white respondents (IRR 0.852, 95% CI 0.775, 0.938). Non-Hispanic black respondents had rates of chronic disease accumulation that were 1.1% slower than non-Hispanic whites (IRR 0.989, 95% CI 0.981, 0.998) and Hispanic respondents had rates of chronic disease accumulation that were 1.5% faster than non-Hispanic white respondents (IRR 1.015, 95% CI 1.002, 1.028). Using marginal effects commands, this translates to predicted values of chronic disease for white respondents who begin the study period with 0.98 chronic diseases and end with 2.8 chronic diseases; black respondents who begin the study period with 1.3 chronic diseases and end with 3.3 chronic diseases; and Hispanic respondents who begin the study period with 0.84 chronic diseases and end with 2.7 chronic diseases. CONCLUSIONS:Middle-aged non-Hispanic black adults start at a higher level of chronic disease burden and develop multimorbidity at an earlier age, on average, than their non-Hispanic white counterparts. Hispanics, on the other hand, accumulate chronic disease at a faster rate relative to non-Hispanic white adults. Our findings have important implications for improving primary and secondary chronic disease prevention efforts among non-Hispanic black and Hispanic Americans to stave off greater multimorbidity-related health impacts.
Project description:Importance:Generating robust and timely evidence about the respiratory health risks of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) is critical for informing state and federal regulatory standards for product safety. Objective:To examine the association of e-cigarette use with incident respiratory conditions, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), emphysema, chronic bronchitis, and asthma. Design, Setting, and Participants:This prospective cohort study used data from the nationally representative cohort of US adults from the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health (PATH) study, including wave 1 from 2013 to 2014, wave 2 from 2014 to 2015, wave 3 from 2015 to 2016, and wave 4 from 2016 to 2018. Individuals aged 18 years and older at baseline with no prevalent respiratory conditions were included in the analyses. Analyses were conducted from February to July 2020. Exposures:e-Cigarette use was assessed by self-reported current use status (never, former, or current) at baseline. Main Outcomes and Measures:Incident respiratory conditions, including COPD, emphysema, chronic bronchitis, and asthma, as well as a composite respiratory disease encompassing all 4 conditions. Results:Among 21?618 respondents included in the analyses, 11?017 (491%) were men and 12?969 (65.2%) were non-Hispanic White. A total of 14?213 respondents were never e-cigarette users, 5076 respondents (11.6%) were former e-cigarette users, and 2329 respondents (5.2%) were current e-cigarette users. Adjusted for cigarette and other combustible tobacco product use, demographic characteristics, and chronic health conditions, there was an increased risk of respiratory disease among former e-cigarette uses (incidence rate ratio [IRR], 1.28; 95% CI, 1.09-1.50) and current e-cigarette users (IRR, 1.31; 95% CI, 1.08-1.59). Among respondents with good self-rated health, the IRR for former e-cigarette users was 1.21 (95%CI, 1.00-1.46) and the IRR for current e-cigarette users was 1.43 (95% CI, 1.14-1.79). For specific respiratory diseases among current e-cigarette users, the IRR was 1.33 (95% CI, 1.06-1.67) for chronic bronchitis, 1.69 (95% CI, 1.15-2.49) for emphysema, 1.57 (95% CI, 1.15-2.13) for COPD, and 1.31 (95% CI, 1.01-1.71) for asthma. Conclusions and Relevance:This cohort study found that e-cigarette use was associated with an increased risk of developing respiratory disease independent of cigarette smoking. These findings add important evidence on the risk profile of novel tobacco products.
Project description:Racial/ethnic groups appear to differ on quit success and withdrawal is a key factor in cessation failure, yet little is known about racial/ethnic differences in withdrawal symptoms. This study of US adults examined racial/ethnic differences in current smokers' report of withdrawal symptoms and the relationship between withdrawal symptoms and quitting smoking 3 years later.Using data from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (Wave 1, 2001-2001; Wave 2, 2004-2005), analyses were conducted on participants who identified as non-Hispanic White, non-Hispanic Black, or Hispanic; reported current cigarette smoking at Wave 1; and provided smoking status information at Wave 2 (n = 7981). Withdrawal symptoms during past quit attempts were assessed at Wave 1.Among Wave 1 current smoking adults, non-Hispanic White respondents were more likely than non-Hispanic Black and Hispanic respondents to report experiencing at least one withdrawal symptom, seven out of eight withdrawal symptoms, withdrawal-related discomfort, and withdrawal-related distress (ps < .0001). While withdrawal symptoms were associated with a lower odds of quitting smoking for all groups, a stronger relationship between number of symptoms and lower odds of quitting was evident among non-Hispanic White compared to non-Hispanic Black respondents (interaction β = 0.065, p = .0001). For non-Hispanic White participants, each additional withdrawal symptom was associated with a 6% decrease in the odds of quitting.Withdrawal symptoms were more commonly reported by non-Hispanic White adults than non-Hispanic Black and Hispanic adults and appeared to have a greater impact on failure to quit smoking for non-Hispanic White compared to non-Hispanic Black adults.To our knowledge, this is the first study to use prospective, longitudinal data to examine the relationship between race and withdrawal symptoms and the impact of withdrawal symptoms on quitting smoking among adults in the United States. Non-Hispanic White adults were more likely to report withdrawal symptoms and there was a stronger relationship between greater number of withdrawal symptoms and lower odds of quitting for non-Hispanic White adults compared to non-Hispanic Black adults. Developing a better understanding of racial/ethnic differences in withdrawal and cessation can help to tailor efforts to improve outcomes for smokers in various racial/ethnic groups.
Project description:To compare the associations between socioeconomic factors and tooth loss among White, Black, and Mexican-American people.Analyses were conducted on 16,821 adults, using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey-III. Age- and multivariate-adjusted negative binomial regressions were used to explore the relation of socioeconomic factors, region of residence, gender, and foreign birth with the number of missing teeth. Effect modification by race/ethnicity was assessed by the inclusion of interaction terms.In multivariate-adjusted analyses, non-Hispanic White people with 9-12 years of education exhibited 71% higher mean number of missing teeth than those with >12 years of education [incidence rate ratio (IRR) = 1.71, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.52-1.92]. Education was unrelated to the number of teeth among non-Hispanic Black people (IRR = 1.16; 95% CI: 1.00-1.35) or Mexican-Americans (IRR = 1.10, 95% CI: 0.93-1.31). The poorest White people exhibited 39% more missing teeth, on average, than the most affluent White people, but no association between poverty and number of teeth was observed among Black or Mexican-American people.The associations between socioeconomic factors and tooth loss vary across race/ethnicity. This suggests that the health benefits associated with high socioeconomic status are not equally shared across racial/ethnic groups.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Although there are racial/ethnic differences in cigarette use, little is known about how non-cigarette tobacco use differs among racial/ethnic groups. This study investigated trends in cigar use from 2002 to 2016, by racial/ethnic group, in nationally representative US data. METHODS:Data were drawn from the 2002-2016 National Survey on Drug Use and Health public use data files (total analytic sample n = 630 547 including 54 060 past-month cigar users). Linear time trends of past-month cigar use were examined by racial/ethnic group (Non-Hispanic [NH] White, NH Black, Hispanic, NH Other/Mixed Race/Ethnicity) using logistic regression models. RESULTS:In 2016, the prevalence of past-month cigar use was significantly higher among NH Black respondents than among other racial/ethnic groups (ps < .001). Cigar use was also higher among NH White respondents than among Hispanic and NH Other/Mixed Race/Ethnicity respondents. The year by racial/ethnic group interaction was significant (p < .001). Past-month cigar use decreased significantly from 2002 to 2016 among NH White and Hispanic respondents (ps = .001), whereas no change in prevalence was observed among NH Black (p = .779) and NH Other/Mixed Race/Ethnicity respondents (p = .152). Cigar use decreased for NH White men (p < .001) and did not change for NH White women (p = .884). Conversely, cigar use increased for NH Black women (p < .001) and did not change for NH Black men (p = .546). CONCLUSIONS:Cigar use remains significantly more common among NH Black individuals in the United States and is not declining among NH Black and NH Other/Mixed Race/Ethnicity individuals over time, in contrast to declines among NH White and Hispanic individuals. IMPLICATIONS:This study identified racial/ethnic differences in trends in past-month cigar use over 15 years among annual cross-sectional samples of US individuals. The highest prevalence of cigar use in 2016 was found among NH Black individuals. In addition, cigar use prevalence did not decline from 2002 to 2016 among NH Black and NH Other/Mixed Race/Ethnicity groups over time, in contrast to NH White and Hispanic groups. Further, cigar use increased over time for NH Black women. Targeted public health and clinical efforts may be needed to decrease the prevalence of cigar use, especially for NH Black individuals.
Project description:Background and Objectives:Adverse childhood events (ACEs) have been associated with increased health risks later in life. However, it is unclear whether ACEs may be associated with multimorbidity among diverse racial/ethnic middle-aged and older adults. We evaluated whether there were racial and ethnic differences in the association between ACEs and the number of somatic and psychiatric multimorbidity in a sample of U.S. middle-aged and older adults. Research Design and Methods:Data from the 2012-2013 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (N = 10,727; ?55 years) were used to test whether the number of self-reported somatic conditions (i.e., heart disease, hypertension, stroke, diabetes, arthritis, cancer, osteoporosis, and chronic lung problems) as well as DSM-5 psychiatric disorders (i.e., depression) during the past 12 months differed by history of ACEs while stratifying by age (i.e., 55-64 or ?65) and racial/ethnic group (i.e., non-Hispanic White [NHW; n = 7,457], non-Hispanic Black [NHB; n = 1,995], and Hispanic [n=1275]). Results:The prevalence of reporting more than two somatic conditions and psychiatric disorders was 48.8% and 11.4% for those with a history of ACEs, and 41.1% and 3.3% for those without a history of ACEs. Adjusting for sociodemographic and other health risk factors, ACEs was significantly associated with greater numbers of somatic multimorbidity among racial and ethnic middle-aged adults but this was not the case for older adults. Discussion and Implications:Our findings suggest that middle-aged adults with a history of ACEs are more likely to suffer from somatic and psychiatric multimorbidity, highlighting the importance of screening for ACEs in promoting healthy aging.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Few population-based data on the prevalence of eating disorders exist, and such data are especially needed because of changes to diagnoses in the DSM-5. This study aimed to provide lifetime and 12-month prevalence estimates of DSM-5-defined anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), and binge-eating disorder (BED) from the 2012-2013 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. METHODS:A national sample of 36,306 U.S. adults completed structured diagnostic interviews (Alcohol Use Disorder and Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule-5). RESULTS:Prevalence estimates of lifetime AN, BN, and BED were 0.80% (SE 0.07%), 0.28% (SE 0.03%), and 0.85% (SE 0.05%), respectively. Twelve-month estimates for AN, BN, and BED were 0.05% (SE 0.02%), 0.14% (SE 0.02%), and 0.44% (SE 0.04%). The odds of lifetime and 12-month diagnoses of all three eating disorders were significantly greater for women than for men after adjusting for age, race and/or ethnicity, education, and income. Adjusted odds ratios (AORs) of lifetime AN diagnosis were significantly lower for non-Hispanic black and Hispanic respondents than for white respondents. AORs of lifetime and 12-month BN diagnoses did not differ significantly by race and/or ethnicity. The AOR of lifetime, but not 12-month, BED diagnosis was significantly lower for non-Hispanic black respondents relative to that of non-Hispanic white respondents; AORs of BED for Hispanic and non-Hispanic white respondents did not differ significantly. AN, BN, and BED were characterized by significant differences in age of onset, persistence and duration of episodes, and rates of current obesity and psychosocial impairment. CONCLUSIONS:These findings for DSM-5-defined eating disorders, based on the largest national sample of U.S. adults studied to date, indicate some important similarities to and differences from earlier, smaller nationally representative studies.
Project description:We compared the cost-effectiveness of hypertension treatment in non-Hispanic blacks and non-Hispanic whites according to 2014 US hypertension treatment guidelines.The cardiovascular disease (CVD) policy model simulated CVD events, quality-adjusted life years (QALYs), and treatment costs in 35- to 74-year-old adults with untreated hypertension. CVD incidence, mortality, and risk factor levels were obtained from cohort studies, hospital registries, vital statistics, and national surveys. Stage 1 hypertension was defined as blood pressure 140-149/90-99mm Hg; stage 2 hypertension as ?150/100mm Hg. Probabilistic input distribution sampling informed 95% uncertainty intervals (UIs). Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) < $50,000/QALY gained were considered cost-effective.Treating 0.7 million hypertensive non-Hispanic black adults would prevent about 8,000 CVD events annually; treating 3.4 million non-Hispanic whites would prevent about 35,000 events. Overall 2014 guideline implementation would be cost saving in both groups compared with no treatment. For stage 1 hypertension but without diabetes or chronic kidney disease, cost savings extended to non-Hispanic black males ages 35-44 but not same-aged non-Hispanic white males (ICER $57,000/QALY; 95% UI $15,000-$100,000) and cost-effectiveness extended to non-Hispanic black females ages 35-44 (ICER $46,000/QALY; $17,000-$76,000) but not same-aged non-Hispanic white females (ICER $181,000/QALY; $111,000-$235,000).Compared with non-Hispanic whites, cost-effectiveness of implementing hypertension guidelines would extend to a larger proportion of non-Hispanic black hypertensive patients.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Age-related chronic conditions are becoming more concerning for people with human immunodeficiency virus (PWH). We aimed to identify characteristics associated with multimorbidity and evaluate for association between multimorbidity and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) outcomes.<h4>Methods</h4>Cohorts included PWH aged 45-89 with ?1 medical visit at one Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program (RWHAP) Southeastern HIV clinic in 2006 (Cohort 1) or 2016 (Cohort 2). Multimorbidity was defined as ?2 chronic diseases. We used multivariable logistic regression to assess for associations between characteristics and multimorbidity and between multimorbidity and HIV outcomes.<h4>Results</h4>Multimorbidity increased from Cohort 1 (n = 149) to Cohort 2 (n = 323) (18.8% vs 29.7%, <i>P</i> < .001). Private insurance was associated with less multimorbidity than Medicare (Cohort 1: adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 0.15, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.02-0.63; Cohort 2: aOR = 0.53, 95% CI = 0.27-1.00). In Cohort 2, multimorbidity was associated with female gender (aOR, 2.57; 95% CI, 1.22-5.58). In Cohort 1, black participants were less likely to be engaged in care compared with non-black participants (aOR, 0.72; 95% CI, 0.61-0.87). In Cohort 2, participants with rural residences were more likely to be engaged in care compared with those with urban residences (aOR, 1.23; 95% CI, 1.10-1.38). Multimorbidity was not associated with differences in HIV outcomes.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Although PWH have access to RWHAP HIV care, PWH with private insurance had lower rates of multimorbidity, which may reflect better access to preventative non-HIV care. In 2016, multimorbidity was higher for women. The RWHAP and RWHAP Part D could invest in addressing these disparities related to insurance and gender.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:The objective of this study was to answer three questions: (1) Is perceived discrimination adversely related to self-rated stress via the social capital and health care system distrust pathways? (2) Does the relationship between perceived discrimination and self-rated stress vary across race/ethnicity groups? and (3) Do the two pathways differ by one's race/ethnicity background? DESIGN:Using the Philadelphia Health Management Corporation's Southeastern Pennsylvania Household Survey, we classified 9831 respondents into 4 race/ethnicity groups: non-Hispanic White (n?=?6621), non-Hispanic Black (n?=?2359), Hispanic (n?=?505), and non-Hispanic other races (n?=?346). Structural equation modeling was employed to simultaneously estimate five sets of equations, including the confirmatory factor analysis for both social capital and health care distrust and both direct and indirect effects from perceived discrimination to self-rated stress. RESULTS:The key findings drawn from the analysis include the following: (1) in general, people who experienced racial discrimination have higher distrust and weaker social capital than those without perceived discrimination and both distrust and social capital are ultimately related to self-rated stress. (2) The direct relationship between perceived discrimination and self-rated stress is found for all race/ethnicity groups (except non-Hispanic other races) and it does not vary across groups. (3) The two pathways can be applied to non-Hispanic White and Black, but for Hispanic and non-Hispanic other races, we found little evidence for the social capital pathway. CONCLUSIONS:For non-Hispanic White, non-Hispanic Black, and Hispanic, perceived discrimination is negatively related to self-rated stress. This finding highlights the importance of reducing interpersonal discriminatory behavior even for non-Hispanic White. The health care system distrust pathway can be used to address the racial health disparity in stress as it holds true for all four race/ethnicity groups. On the other hand, the social capital pathway seems to better help non-Hispanic White and Black to mediate the adverse effect of perceived discrimination on stress.
Project description:Racial and ethnic disparities exist in HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) awareness and care. We evaluated how racial and ethnic disparities in PrEP awareness among MSM presenting to a sexually transmitted disease clinic changed from 2013 to 2016. Among 1243 MSM (68% non-Hispanic White, 22% Hispanic, and 10% non-Hispanic Black), PrEP awareness increased overall, but awareness was lower among Hispanic and non-Hispanic Black MSM relative to non-Hispanic White MSM. Awareness converged among non-Hispanic Black and White MSM by 2016, but remained consistently lower among Hispanic MSM. Improved efforts are needed to address disparities in PrEP awareness.