Identification and Characterization of Trimethylamine-N-oxide Uptake and Efflux Transporters.
ABSTRACT: Trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) is a recently identified predictor of cardiovascular and chronic kidney disease. TMAO is primarily generated through gut-microbiome mediated conversion of dietary choline and carnitine to TMA, which is converted to TMAO by hepatic flavin monooxygenase 3 (FMO3) and subsequently undergoes renal elimination. We investigated the role of uptake and efflux drug transporters in TMAO disposition in vitro and in vivo. After screening a large array of uptake transporters, we show organic cation transporter 2 (OCT2) is the key transporter for TMAO cellular uptake. In Oct1/2 knockout mice, we observed increased plasma TMAO levels with reduced renal retention, suggesting the importance of Oct2 in facilitating the uptake of TMAO into renal tubular cells in vivo. Multiple transporters of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) family, including ABCG2 (BCRP) and ABCB1 (MDR1), were capable of TMAO efflux. In human subjects, clinical, dietary, and pharmacogenetic covariates were evaluated for contribution to TMAO levels in a cohort of dyslipidemic patients (n = 405). Interestingly, genetic variation in ABCG2, but not other transporters, appeared to play a role in modulating TMAO exposure.
Project description:To study the role of drug transporters in central nervous system (CNS) penetration and cellular accumulation of erlotinib and its metabolite, OSI-420.After oral erlotinib administration to wild-type and ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter-knockout mice (Mdr1a/b(-/-), Abcg2(-/-), Mdr1a/b(-/-)Abcg2(-/-), and Abcc4(-/-)), plasma was collected and brain extracellular fluid (ECF) was sampled using intracerebral microdialysis. A pharmacokinetic model was fit to erlotinib and OSI-420 concentration-time data, and brain penetration (P(Brain)) was estimated by the ratio of ECF-to-unbound plasma area under concentration-time curves. Intracellular accumulation of erlotinib was assessed in cells overexpressing human ABC transporters or SLC22A solute carriers.P(Brain) in wild-type mice was 0.27 ± 0.11 and 0.07 ± 0.02 (mean ± SD) for erlotinib and OSI-420, respectively. Erlotinib and OSI-420 P(Brain) in Abcg2(-/-) and Mdr1a/b(-/-)Abcg2(-/-) mice were significantly higher than in wild-type mice. Mdr1a/b(-/-) mice showed similar brain ECF penetration as wild-type mice (0.49 ± 0.37 and 0.04 ± 0.02 for erlotinib and OSI-420, respectively). In vitro, erlotinib and OSI-420 accumulation was significantly lower in cells overexpressing breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) than in control cells. Only OSI-420, not erlotinib, showed lower accumulation in cells overexpressing P-glycoprotein (P-gp) than in control cells. The P-gp/BCRP inhibitor elacridar increased erlotinib and OSI-420 accumulation in BCRP-overexpressing cells. Erlotinib uptake was higher in OAT3- and OCT2-transfected cells than in empty vector control cells.Abcg2 is the main efflux transporter preventing erlotinib and OSI-420 penetration in mouse brain. Erlotinib and OSI-420 are substrates for SLC22A family members OAT3 and OCT2. Our findings provide a mechanistic basis for erlotinib CNS penetration, cellular uptake, and efflux mechanisms.
Project description:Circulating trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) levels are strongly associated with atherosclerosis. We now examine genetic, dietary, and hormonal factors regulating TMAO levels. We demonstrate that two flavin mono-oxygenase family members, FMO1 and FMO3, oxidize trimethylamine (TMA), derived from gut flora metabolism of choline, to TMAO. Further, we show that FMO3 exhibits 10-fold higher specific activity than FMO1. FMO3 overexpression in mice significantly increases plasma TMAO levels while silencing FMO3 decreases TMAO levels. In both humans and mice, hepatic FMO3 expression is reduced in males compared to females. In mice, this reduction in FMO3 expression is due primarily to downregulation by androgens. FMO3 expression is induced by dietary bile acids by a mechanism that involves the farnesoid X receptor (FXR), a bile acid-activated nuclear receptor. Analysis of natural genetic variation among inbred strains of mice indicates that FMO3 and TMAO are significantly correlated, and TMAO levels explain 11% of the variation in atherosclerosis.
Project description:BCRP/ABCG2 emerged as an important multidrug resistance protein, because it confers resistance to several classes of cancer chemotherapeutic agents and to a number of novel molecularly-targeted therapeutics such as tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Gefitinib is an orally active, selective EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor used in the treatment of patients with advanced non small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) carrying activating EGFR mutations. Membrane transporters may affect the distribution and accumulation of gefitinib in tumour cells; in particular a reduced intracellular level of the drug may result from poor uptake, enhanced efflux or increased metabolism.The present study, performed in a panel of NSCLC cell lines expressing different ABCG2 plasma membrane levels, was designed to investigate the effect of the efflux transporter ABCG2 on intracellular gefitinib accumulation, by dissecting the contribution of uptake and efflux processes.Our findings indicate that gefitinib, in lung cancer cells, inhibits ABCG2 activity, as previously reported. In addition, we suggest that ABCG2 silencing or overexpression affects intracellular gefitinib content by modulating the uptake rather than the efflux. Similarly, overexpression of ABCG2 affected the expression of a number of drug transporters, altering the functional activities of nutrient and drug transport systems, in particular inhibiting MPP, glucose and glutamine uptake.Therefore, we conclude that gefitinib is an inhibitor but not a substrate for ABCG2 and that ABCG2 overexpression may modulate the expression and activity of other transporters involved in the uptake of different substrates into the cells.
Project description:The effects of hyperuricemia on the expression of kidney drug transporters and on the pharmacokinetics of several substrate drugs were examined. We first established a rat model of hyperuricemia without marked symptoms of chronic kidney failure by 10-day co-administration of oxonic acid (uricase inhibitor) and adenine (biosynthetic precursor of uric acid). These hyperuricemic rats showed plasma uric acid concentrations of up to 6 mg/dL, which is similar to the serum uric acid level in hyperuricemic humans, with little change of inulin clearance. The mRNA levels of multidrug and toxin extrusion 1 (Mate1, Slc47a1), organic anion transporter 1 (Oat1, Slc22a6), organic cation transporter 2 (Oct2, Slc22a2), urate transporter 1 (Urat1, Slc22a12) and peptide transporter 1 (Pept1, Slc15a1) were significantly decreased in kidney of hyperuricemic rats. Since Oct2, Mate1 and Oat1 are important for renal drug elimination, we next investigated whether the pharmacokinetics of their substrates, metformin, cephalexin and creatinine, were altered. The plasma concentration of metformin was not affected, while its kidney tissue accumulation was significantly increased. The plasma concentration and kidney tissue accumulation of cephalexin and the plasma concentration of creatinine were also increased. Furthermore, the protein expression of kidney Mate1 was decreased in hyperuricemic rats. Accordingly, although multiple factors may influence renal handling of these drugs, these observations can be accounted for, at least in part, by downregulation of Mate1-mediated apical efflux from tubular cells and Oct2-mediated basolateral uptake. Our results suggest that hyperuricemia could alter the disposition of drugs that are substrates of Mate1 and/or Oct2.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Enalapril is often used in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Clinical data suggest that the urinary excretion of enalaprilat, the active metabolite of enalapril, is mediated by renal transporters. We aimed to identify enalaprilat specificity for renal proximal tubular transporters. METHODS:Baculovirus-transduced HEK293 cells overexpressing proximal tubular transporters were used to study enalaprilat cellular uptake. Uptake into cells overexpressing the basolateral transporters OCT2, OAT1, OAT2, or OAT3 and apical transporters OAT4, PEPT1, PEPT2, OCTN1, OCTN2, MATE1, MATE2k, and URAT1 was compared with mock-transduced control cells. Transport by renal efflux transporters MRP2, MPR4, P-gp, and BCRP was tested using a vesicular assay. Enalaprilat concentrations were measured using LC-MS/MS. RESULTS:Uptake of enalaprilat into cells expressing OAT3 as well as OAT4 was significantly higher compared to control cells. The enalaprilat affinity for OAT3 was 640 (95% CI: 520-770) µM. For OAT4, no reliable affinity constant could be determined using concentrations up to 3 mM. No transport was observed for other transporters. CONCLUSION:The affinity of enalaprilat for OAT3 and OAT4 was notably low compared to other substrates. Taking this affinity and clinically relevant plasma concentrations of enalaprilat and other OAT3 substrates into account, we believe that drug-drug interactions on a transporter level do not have a therapeutic consequence and will not require dose adjustments of enalaprilat itself or other OAT3 substrates.
Project description:The goal of this study was to identify alterations in mRNA and protein expression of various xenobiotic transport proteins in mouse kidney during cisplatin-induced acute renal failure. For this purpose, male C57BL/6J mice received a single dose of cisplatin (18 mg/kg, i.p.) or vehicle. Four days later, tissues were collected for assessment of plasma BUN, histopathological analysis of renal lesions, and mRNA and Western blot analysis of renal transporters including organic anion and cation transporters (Oat, Oct), organic anion transporting polypeptides (Oatp), multidrug resistance-associated proteins (Mrp), multidrug resistance proteins (Mdr), breast cancer resistance protein (Bcrp) and multidrug and toxin extrusion proteins (Mate). Cisplatin treatment caused necrosis of renal proximal tubules along with elevated plasma BUN and renal kidney injury molecule-1 mRNA expression. Cisplatin-induced renal injury increased mRNA and protein levels of the efflux transporters Mrp2, Mrp4, Mrp5, Mdr1a and Mdr1b. Uptake transporters Oatp2a1 and Oatp2b1 mRNA were also up-regulated following cisplatin. By contrast, expression of Oat1, Oat2, Oct2 and Oatp1a1 mRNA was reduced in cisplatin-treated mice. Expression of several uptake and efflux transporters was unchanged in cisplatin-treated mice. Apical staining of Mrp2 and Mrp4 proteins was enhanced in proximal tubules from cisplatin-treated mice. Collectively, these expression patterns suggest coordinated regulation of uptake and efflux pathways during cisplatin-induced renal injury. Reduced expression of basolateral and apical uptake transporters along with enhanced transcription of export transporters likely represents an adaptation to lower intracellular accumulation of chemicals, prevent their reabsorption and enhance urinary clearance.
Project description:Many xenobiotics including the pharmacoenhancer cobicistat increase serum creatinine by inhibiting its renal active tubular secretion without affecting the glomerular filtration rate. This study aimed to define the transporters involved in creatinine secretion, applying that knowledge to establish the mechanism for xenobiotic-induced effects. The basolateral uptake transporters organic anion transporter OAT2 and organic cation transporters OCT2 and OCT3 were found to transport creatinine. At physiologic creatinine concentrations, the specific activity of OAT2 transport was over twofold higher than OCT2 or OCT3, establishing OAT2 as a likely relevant creatinine transporter and further challenging the traditional view that creatinine is solely transported by a cationic pathway. The apical multidrug and toxin extrusion transporters MATE1 and MATE2-K demonstrated low-affinity and high-capacity transport. All drugs known to affect creatinine inhibited OCT2 and MATE1. Similar to cimetidine and ritonavir, cobicistat had the greatest effect on MATE1 with a 50% inhibition constant of 0.99??M for creatinine transport. Trimethoprim potently inhibited MATE2-K, whereas dolutegravir preferentially inhibited OCT2. Cimetidine was unique, inhibiting all transporters that interact with creatinine. Thus, the clinical observation of elevated serum creatinine in patients taking cobicistat is likely a result of OCT2 transport, facilitating intracellular accumulation, and MATE1 inhibition.
Project description:Cisplatin is among the most widely used anticancer drugs and known to cause a dose-limiting nephrotoxicity, which is partially dependent on the renal uptake carrier OCT2. We here report a previously unrecognized, OCT2-independent pathway of cisplatin-induced renal injury that is mediated by the organic anion transporters OAT1 and OAT3. Using transporter-deficient mouse models, we found that this mechanism regulates renal uptake of a mercapturic acid metabolite of cisplatin that acts as a precursor of a potent nephrotoxin. The function of these two transport systems can be simultaneously inhibited by the tyrosine kinase inhibitor nilotinib through noncompetitive mechanisms, without compromising the anticancer properties of cisplatin. Collectively, our findings reveal a novel pathway that explains the fundamental basis of cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity, with potential implications for its therapeutic management.
Project description:Membrane transporters play an important role in the absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion of drugs. The cellular accumulation of many drugs is the result of the net function of efflux and influx transporters. Efflux transporters such as P-glycoprotein/ABCB1 have been shown to confer multidrug resistance in cancer. Although expression of uptake transporters has been confirmed in cancer cells, their role in chemotherapy response has not been systematically investigated. In the present study we have adapted a fluorescence-based cytotoxic assay to characterize the influence of key drug-transporters on the toxicity of approved anticancer drugs. Co-cultures of fluorescently labeled parental and transporter-expressing cells (expressing ABCB1, ABCG2 or OATP2B1) were screened against 101 FDA-approved anticancer drugs, using a novel, automated, triple fluorescence-based cytotoxicity assay. By measuring the survival of parental and transporter-expressing cells in co-cultures, we identify those FDA-approved anticancer drugs, whose toxicity is influenced by ABCB1, ABCG2 or OATP2B1. In addition to confirming known substrates of ABCB1 and ABCG2, the fluorescence-based cytotoxicity assays identified anticancer agents whose toxicity was increased in OATP2B1 expressing cells. Interaction of these compounds with OATP2B1 was verified in dedicated transport assays using cell-impermeant fluorescent substrates. Understanding drug-transporter interactions is needed to increase the efficacy of chemotherapeutic agents. Our results highlight the potential of the fluorescence-based HT screening system for identifying transporter substrates, opening the way for the design of therapeutic approaches based on the inhibition or even the exploitation of transporters in cancer cells.
Project description:AIM: Statin disposition and response are greatly determined by the activities of drug metabolizing enzymes and efflux/ uptake transporters. There is little information on the regulation of these proteins in human cells after statin therapy. In this study, the effects of atorvastatin and simvastatin on mRNA expression of efflux (ABCB1, ABCG2 and ABCC2) and uptake (SLCO1B1, SLCO2B1 and SLC22A1) drug transporters in Caco-2 and HepG2 cells were investigated. METHODS: Quantitative real-time PCR was used to measure mRNA levels after exposure of HepG2 and Caco-2 cells to statins. RESULTS: Differences in mRNA basal levels of the transporters were as follows: ABCC2>ABCG2>ABCB1>SLCO1B1>>>SLC22A1>SLC O2B1 for HepG2 cells, and SLCO2B1>>ABCC2>ABCB1>ABCG2>>>SLC22A1 for Caco-2 cells. While for HepG2 cells, ABCC2, ABCG2 and SLCO2B1 mRNA levels were significantly up-regulated at 1, 10 and 20 micromol/L after 12 or 24 h treatment, in Caco-2 cells, only the efflux transporter ABCB1 was significantly down-regulated by two-fold following a 12 h treatment with atorvastatin. Interestingly, whereas treatment with simvastatin had no effect on mRNA levels of the transporters in HepG2 cells, in Caco-2 cells the statin significantly down-regulated ABCB1, ABCC2, SLC22A1, and SLCO2B1 mRNA levels after 12 or 24 h treatment. CONCLUSION: These findings reveal that statins exhibits differential effects on mRNA expression of drug transporters, and this effect depends on the cell type. Furthermore, alterations in the expression levels of drug transporters in the liver and/or intestine may contribute to the variability in oral disposition of statins.Acta Pharmacologica Sinica (2009) 30: 956-964; doi: 10.1038/aps.2009.85; published online 22 June 2009.