Impact of Intracellular Concentrations on Metabolic Drug-Drug Interaction Studies.
ABSTRACT: Accurate prediction of drug-drug interactions (DDI) is a challenging task in drug discovery and development. It requires determination of enzyme inhibition in vitro which is highly system-dependent for many compounds. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the determination of intracellular unbound concentrations in primary human hepatocytes can be used to bridge discrepancies between results obtained using human liver microsomes and hepatocytes. Specifically, we investigated if Kpuu could reconcile differences in CYP enzyme inhibition values (Ki or IC50). Firstly, our methodology for determination of Kpuu was optimized for human hepatocytes, using four well-studied reference compounds. Secondly, the methodology was applied to a series of structurally related CYP2C9 inhibitors from a Roche discovery project. Lastly, the Kpuu values of three commonly used CYP3A4 inhibitors-ketoconazole, itraconazole, and posaconazole-were determined and compared to compound-specific hepatic enrichment factors obtained from physiologically based modeling of clinical DDI studies with these three compounds. Kpuu obtained in suspended human hepatocytes gave good predictions of system-dependent differences in vitro. The Kpuu was also in fair agreement with the compound-specific hepatic enrichment factors in DDI models and can therefore be used to improve estimations of enrichment factors in physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling.
Project description:AIMS:Oprozomib is an oral, second-generation, irreversible proteasome inhibitor currently in clinical development for haematologic malignancies, including multiple myeloma and other malignancies. Oprozomib is a rare example of a small molecule drug that demonstrates cytochrome P450 (CYP) mRNA suppression. This unusual property elicits uncertainty regarding the optimal approach for predicting its drug-drug interaction (DDI) risk. The current study aims to understand DDI potential during early clinical development of oprozomib. METHODS:To support early development of oprozomib (e.g. inclusion/exclusion criteria, combination study design), we used human hepatocyte data and physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modelling to predict its CYP3A4-mediated DDI potential. Subsequently, a clinical DDI study using midazolam as the substrate was conducted in patients with advanced malignancies. RESULTS:The clinical DDI study enrolled a total of 21 patients, 18 with advanced solid tumours. No patient discontinued oprozomib due to a treatment-related adverse event. The PBPK model prospectively predicted oprozomib 300 mg would not cause a clinically relevant change in exposure to CYP3A4 substrates (?30%), which was confirmed by the results of this clinical DDI study. CONCLUSIONS:These results indicate oprozomib has a low potential to inhibit the metabolism of CYP3A4 substrates in humans. The study shows that cultured human hepatocytes are a more reliable system for DDI prediction than human liver microsomes for studying this class of compounds. Developing a PBPK model prior to a clinical DDI study has been valuable in supporting clinical development of oprozomib.
Project description:Induction of cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) expression is often implicated in clinically relevant drug-drug interactions (DDI), as metabolism catalyzed by this enzyme is the dominant route of elimination for many drugs. Although several DDI models have been proposed, none have comprehensively considered the effects of enzyme transcription/translation dynamics on induction-based DDI. Rifampicin is a well-known CYP3A4 inducer, and is commonly used as a positive control for evaluating the CYP3A4 induction potential of test compounds. Herein, we report the compilation of in vitro induction data for CYP3A4 by rifampicin in human hepatocytes, and the transcription/translation model developed for this enzyme using an extended least squares method that can account for inherent inter-individual variability. We also developed physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models for the CYP3A4 inducer and CYP3A4 substrates. Finally, we demonstrated that rifampicin-induced DDI can be predicted with reasonable accuracy, and that a static model can be used to simulate DDI once the blood concentration of the inducer reaches a steady state following repeated dosing. This dynamic PBPK-based DDI model was implemented on a new multi-hierarchical physiology simulation platform named PhysioDesigner.
Project description:<h4>Purpose of review</h4>This review gives a perspective on the current "state of the art" in metabolic drug-drug interaction (DDI) prediction. We highlight areas of successful prediction and illustrate progress in areas where limits in scientific knowledge or technologies prevent us from having full confidence.<h4>Recent findings</h4>Several examples of success are highlighted. Work done for bitopertin shows how in vitro and clinical data can be integrated to give a model-based understanding of pharmacokinetics and drug interactions. The use of interpolative predictions to derive explicit dosage recommendations for untested DDIs is discussed using the example of ibrutinib, and the use of DDI predictions in lieu of clinical studies in new drug application packages is exemplified with eliglustat and alectinib. Alectinib is also an interesting case where dose adjustment is unnecessary as the activity of a major metabolite compensates sufficiently for changes in parent drug exposure. Examples where "unusual" cytochrome P450 (CYP) and non-CYP enzymes are responsible for metabolic clearance have shown the importance of continuing to develop our repertoire of in vitro regents and techniques. The time-dependent inhibition assay using human hepatocytes suspended in full plasma allowed improved DDI predictions, illustrating the importance of continued in vitro assay development and refinement.<h4>Summary</h4>During the past 10 years, a highly mechanistic understanding has been developed in the area of CYP-mediated metabolic DDIs enabling the prediction of clinical outcome based on preclinical studies. The combination of good quality in vitro data and physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling may now be used to evaluate DDI risk prospectively and are increasingly accepted in lieu of dedicated clinical studies.
Project description:Evofosfamide is a cytotoxic small-molecule prodrug preferentially activated under hypoxic conditions. The cytotoxicity of evofosfamide impacted the generation of in vitro drug-drug interaction (DDI) data, especially in vitro induction results. Therefore, a novel physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) approach was used, which involved available in vitro and clinical data of evofosfamide and combined it with induction data from the prototypical cytochrome P450 (CYP)3A inducer rifampicin. The area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) ratios of midazolam were above 0.80, indicating that induction of CYP3A by evofosfamide administered weekly is unlikely to occur in humans. Moreover, static and PBPK modeling showed no clinically relevant inhibition via CYP2B6, CYP2D6, and CYP3A4. In conclusion, PBPK models were used to supplement in vitro information of a cytotoxic compound. This approach may set a precedent for future studies of cytotoxic drugs, potentially reducing the need for clinical DDI studies and providing more confidence in the clinical use of approved cytotoxic compounds for which DDI information is sparse.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:Drugs metabolically eliminated by several enzymes are less vulnerable to variable compound exposure in patients due to drug-drug interactions (DDI) or if a polymorphic enzyme is involved in their elimination. Therefore, it is vital in drug discovery to accurately and efficiently estimate and optimize the metabolic elimination profile. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH:CYP3A and/or CYP2D6 substrates with well described variability in vivo in humans due to CYP3A DDI and CYP2D6 polymorphism were selected for assessment of fraction metabolized by each enzyme (fmCYP ) in two in vitro systems: (i) human recombinant P450s (hrP450s) and (ii) human hepatocytes combined with selective P450 inhibitors. Increases in compound exposure in poor versus extensive CYP2D6 metabolizers and by the strong CYP3A inhibitor ketoconazole were mathematically modelled and predicted changes in exposure were compared with in vivo data. KEY RESULTS:Predicted changes in exposure were within twofold of reported in vivo values using fmCYP estimated in human hepatocytes and there was a strong linear correlation between predicted and observed changes in exposure (r2 = 0.83 for CYP3A, r2 = 0.82 for CYP2D6). Predictions using fmCYP in hrP450s were not as accurate (r2 = 0.55 for CYP3A, r2 = 0.20 for CYP2D6). CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS:The results suggest that variability in human drug exposure due to DDI and enzyme polymorphism can be accurately predicted using fmCYP from human hepatocytes and CYP-selective inhibitors. This approach can be efficiently applied in drug discovery to aid optimization of candidate drugs with a favourable metabolic elimination profile and limited variability in patients.
Project description:This study provides whole-body physiologically-based pharmacokinetic models of the strong index cytochrome P450 (CYP)1A2 inhibitor and moderate CYP3A4 inhibitor fluvoxamine and of the sensitive CYP1A2 substrate theophylline. Both models were built and thoroughly evaluated for their application in drug-drug interaction (DDI) prediction in a network of perpetrator and victim drugs, combining them with previously developed models of caffeine (sensitive index CYP1A2 substrate), rifampicin (moderate CYP1A2 inducer), and midazolam (sensitive index CYP3A4 substrate). Simulation of all reported clinical DDI studies for combinations of these five drugs shows that the presented models reliably predict the observed drug concentrations, resulting in seven of eight of the predicted DDI area under the plasma curve (AUC) ratios (AUC during DDI/AUC control) and seven of seven of the predicted DDI peak plasma concentration (Cmax ) ratios (Cmax during DDI/Cmax control) within twofold of the observed values. Therefore, the models are considered qualified for DDI prediction. All models are comprehensively documented and publicly available, as tools to support the drug development and clinical research community.
Project description:Many drug-drug interactions (DDIs) are based on alterations of the plasma concentrations of a victim drug due to another drug causing inhibition and/or induction of the metabolism or transporter-mediated disposition of the victim drug. In the worst case, such interactions cause more than tenfold increases or decreases in victim drug exposure, with potentially life-threatening consequences. There has been tremendous progress in the predictability and modeling of DDIs. Accordingly, the combination of modeling approaches and clinical studies is the current mainstay in evaluation of the pharmacokinetic DDI risks of drugs. In this paper, we focus on the methodology of clinical studies on DDIs involving drug metabolism or transport. We specifically present considerations related to general DDI study designs, recommended enzyme and transporter index substrates and inhibitors, pharmacogenetic perspectives, index drug cocktails, endogenous substrates, limited sampling strategies, physiologically-based pharmacokinetic modeling, complex DDIs, methodological pitfalls, and interpretation of DDI information.
Project description:We predicted the drug-drug interaction (DDI) potential of siponimod in presence of cytochrome P450 (CYP)2C9/CYP3A4 inhibitors/inducers in subjects with different CYP2C9 genotypes by physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PK) modeling. The model was established using in vitro and clinical PK data and verified by adequately predicting siponimod PK when coadministered with rifampin. With strong and moderate CYP3A4 inhibitors, an increased DDI risk for siponimod was predicted for CYP2C9*3/*3 genotype vs. other genotypes area under the curve ratio (AUCR): 3.03-4.20 vs. ? 1.49 for strong; 2.42 vs. 1.14-1.30 for moderate. AUCRs increased with moderate (2.13-2.49) and weak (1.12-1.42) CYP3A4/CYP2C9 inhibitors to the same extent for all genotypes. With strong CYP3A4/moderate CYP2C9 inducers and moderate CYP3A4 inducers, predicted AUCRs were 0.21-0.32 and 0.35-0.71, respectively. This complementary analysis to the clinical PK-DDI studies confirmed the relevant influence of CYP2C9 polymorphism on the DDI behavior of siponimod and represented the basis for the DDI labeling recommendations.
Project description:Fenebrutinib is a CYP3A substrate and time-dependent inhibitor, as well as a BCRP and OATP1B transporter inhibitor in vitro. Physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling strategies with the ultimate goal of understanding complex drug-drug interactions (DDIs) and proposing doses for untested scenarios were developed. The consistency in the results of two independent approaches, PBPK simulation and endogenous biomarker measurement, supported that the observed transporter DDI is primarily due to fenebrutinib inhibition of intestinal BCRP, rather than hepatic OATP1B. A mechanistic-absorption model accounting for the effects of excipient complexation with fenebrutinib was used to rationalize the unexpected observation of itraconazole-fenebrutinib DDI (maximum plasma concentration (Cmax ) decreased, and area under the curve (AUC) increased). The totality of the evidence from sensitivity analysis and clinical and nonclinical data suggested that fenebrutinib is likely a sensitive CYP3A substrate. This advanced PBPK application allowed the use of model-informed approach to facilitate the development of concomitant medication recommendations for fenebrutinib without requiring additional clinical DDI studies.
Project description:Drug-drug interaction (DDI) is becoming a serious issue in clinical pharmacy as the use of multiple medications is more common. The PubMed database is one of the biggest literature resources for DDI studies. It contains over 150,000 journal articles related to DDI and is still expanding at a rapid pace. The extraction of DDI-related information, including compounds and proteins from PubMed, is an essential step for DDI research. In this paper, we introduce a tool, CuDDI (compute unified device architecture-based DDI searching), for identification of DDI-related terms (including compounds and proteins) from PubMed. There are three modules in this application, including the automatic retrieval of substances from PubMed, the identification of DDI-related terms, and the display of relationship of DDI-related terms. For DDI term identification, a speedup of 30⁻105 times was observed for the compute unified device architecture (CUDA)-based version compared with the implementation with a CPU-based Python version. CuDDI can be used to discover DDI-related terms and relationships of these terms, which has the potential to help clinicians and pharmacists better understand the mechanism of DDIs. CuDDI is available at: https://github.com/chengusf/CuDDI.