Bioorthogonal Fluorescence Turn-On Labeling Based on Bicyclononyne-Tetrazine Cycloaddition Reactions that Form Pyridazine Products.
ABSTRACT: Fluorogenic bioorthogonal reactions enable visualization of biomolecules with excellent signal-to-noise ratio. A bicyclononyne-tetrazine ligation that produces fluorescent pyridazine products has been developed. In stark contrast to previous approaches, the formation of the dye is an inherent result of the chemical reaction and no additional fluorophores are needed in the reagents. The crucial structural elements that determine dye formation are electron-donating groups present in the starting tetrazine unit. The newly formed pyridazine fluorophores show interesting photophysical properties the fluorescence intensity increase in the reaction can reach an excellent 900-fold. Model imaging experiments demonstrate the application potential of this new fluorogenic bioorthogonal reaction.
Project description:Fluorescent probes that light-up upon reaction with complementary bioorthogonal reagents are superior tools for no-wash fluorogenic bioimaging applications. In this work, a thorough study is presented on a set of seventeen structurally diverse coumarin-tetrazine probes that produce fluorescent dyes with exceptional turn-on ratios when reacted with trans-cyclooctene (TCO) and bicyclononyne (BCN) dienophiles. In general, formation of the fully aromatic pyridazine-containing dyes resulting from the reaction with BCN was found superior in terms of fluorogenicity. However, evaluation of the probes in cellular imaging experiments revealed that other factors, such as reaction kinetics and good cell permeability, prevail over the fluorescence turn-on properties. The best compound identified in this study showed excellent performance in live cell-labeling experiments and enabled no-wash fluorogenic imaging on a timescale of seconds.
Project description:Fluorogenic probes for bioorthogonal labeling chemistry are highly beneficial to reduce background signal in fluorescence microscopy imaging. 1,2,4,5-Tetrazines are known substrates for the bioorthogonal inverse electron demand Diels-Alder reaction (DA<sub>inv</sub>) and tetrazine substituted fluorophores can exhibit fluorogenic properties. Herein, we report the synthesis of a palette of novel fluorogenic tetrazine dyes derived from widely-used fluorophores that cover the entire emission range from green to far-red. We demonstrate the power of the new fluorogenic probes in fixed and live cell labeling experiments and present the first example of intracellular live cell protein imaging using tetrazine-based probes under no-wash conditions.
Project description:Template driven chemical ligation of fluorogenic probes represents a powerful method for DNA and RNA detection and imaging. Unfortunately, previous techniques have been hampered by requiring chemistry with sluggish kinetics and background side reactions. We have developed fluorescent DNA probes containing quenched fluorophore-tetrazine and methyl-cyclopropene groups that rapidly react by bioorthogonal cycloaddition in the presence of complementary DNA or RNA templates. Ligation increases fluorescence with negligible background signal in the absence of hybridization template. Reaction kinetics depend heavily on template length and linker structure. Using this technique, we demonstrate rapid discrimination between single template mismatches both in buffer and cell media. Fluorogenic bioorthogonal ligations offer a promising route towards the fast and robust fluorescent detection of specific DNA or RNA sequences.
Project description:Tetrazine ligations have proven to be a powerful bioorthogonal technique for the detection of many labeled biomolecules, but the ligating nature of these reactions can limit reaction turnover in templated chemistry. We have developed a transfer reaction between 7-azabenzonorbornadiene derivatives and fluorogenic tetrazines that facilitates turnover amplification of the fluorogenic response in nucleic acid-templated reactions. Fluorogenic tetrazine-mediated transfer (TMT) reaction probes can be used to detect DNA and microRNA (miRNA) templates to 0.5 and 5 pM concentrations, respectively. The endogenous oncogenic miRNA target mir-21 could be detected in crude cell lysates and detected by imaging in live cells. Remarkably, the technique is also able to differentiate between miRNA templates bearing a single mismatch with high signal to background. We imagine that TMT reactions could find wide application for amplified fluorescent detection of clinically relevant nucleic acid templates.
Project description:Light-activated fluorescence affords a powerful tool for monitoring subcellular structures and dynamics with enhanced temporal and spatial control of the fluorescence signal. Here, we demonstrate a general and straightforward strategy for using a tetrazine phototrigger to design photoactivatable fluorophores that emit across the visible spectrum. Tetrazine is known to efficiently quench the fluorescence of various fluorophores <i>via</i> a mechanism referred to as through-bond energy transfer. Upon light irradiation, restricted tetrazine moieties undergo a photolysis reaction that generates two nitriles and molecular nitrogen, thus restoring the fluorescence of fluorophores. Significantly, we find that this strategy can be successfully translated and generalized to a wide range of fluorophore scaffolds. Based on these results, we have used this mechanism to design photoactivatable fluorophores targeting cellular organelles and proteins. Compared to widely used phototriggers (<i>e.g.</i>, <i>o</i>-nitrobenzyl and nitrophenethyl groups), this study affords a new photoactivation mechanism, in which the quencher is photodecomposed to restore the fluorescence upon light irradiation. Because of the exclusive use of tetrazine as a photoquencher in the design of fluorogenic probes, we anticipate that our current study will significantly facilitate the development of novel photoactivatable fluorophores.
Project description:The inverse electron demand Diels-Alder pyridazine elimination reaction between tetrazines and allylic substituted trans-cyclooctenes (TCOs) is a key player in bioorthogonal bond cleavage reactions. Determining the rate of elimination of alkylamine substrates has so far proven difficult. Here, we report a fluorogenic tool consisting of a TCO-linked EDANS fluorophore and a DABCYL quencher for accurate determination of both the click and release rate constants for any tetrazine at physiologically relevant concentrations.
Project description:We have developed a series of new ultrafluorogenic probes in the blue-green region of the visible-light spectrum that display fluorescence enhancement exceeding 11,000-fold. These fluorogenic dyes integrate a coumarin fluorochrome with the bioorthogonal trans-cyclooctene(TCO)-tetrazine chemistry platform. By exploiting highly efficient through-bond energy transfer (TBET), these probes exhibit the highest brightness enhancements reported for any bioorthogonal fluorogenic dyes. No-wash, fluorogenic imaging of diverse targets including cell-surface receptors in cancer cells, mitochondria, and the actin cytoskeleton is possible within seconds, with minimal background signal and no appreciable nonspecific binding, opening the possibility for in?vivo sensing.
Project description:The bioorthogonal inverse-electron-demand Diels-Alder (IEDDA) cleavage reaction between tetrazine and trans-cyclooctene (TCO) is a powerful way to control the release of bioactive agents and imaging probes. In this study, a pretargeted activation strategy using single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) that bear tetrazines (TZ@SWCNTs) and a TCO-caged molecule was used to deliver active effector molecules. To optimize a turn-on signal by using in?vivo fluorescence imaging, we developed a new fluorogenic near-infrared probe that can be activated by bioorthogonal chemistry and image tumours in mice by caging hemicyanine with TCO (tHCA). With our pretargeting strategy, we have shown selective doxorubicin prodrug activation and instantaneous fluorescence imaging in living cells. By combining a tHCA probe and a pretargeted bioorthogonal approach, real-time, non-invasive tumour visualization with a high target-to-background ratio was achieved in a xenograft mice tumour model. The combined advantages of enhanced stability, kinetics and biocompatibility, and the superior pharmacokinetics of tetrazine-functionalised SWCNTs could allow application of targeted bioorthogonal decaging approaches with minimal off-site activation of fluorophore/drug.
Project description:Bioorthogonal chemistry can be used for the selective modification of biomolecules without interfering with any other functionality present in the cell. The tetrazine ligation is very suitable as a bioorthogonal reaction because of its selectivity and high reaction rates with several alkenes and alkynes. Recently, we described vinylboronic acids (VBAs) as novel hydrophilic bioorthogonal moieties that react efficiently with dipyridyl- s-tetrazines and used them for protein modification in cell lysate. It is not clear, however, whether VBAs are suitable for labeling experiments in living cells because of the possible coordination with, for example, vicinal carbohydrate diols. Here, we evaluated VBAs as bioorthogonal reactants for labeling of proteins in living cells using an irreversible inhibitor of the proteasome and compared the reactivity to that of an inhibitor containing norbornene, a widely used reactant for the tetrazine ligation. No large differences were observed between the VBA and norbornene probes in a two-step labeling approach with a cell-penetrable fluorescent tetrazine, indicating that the VBA gives little or no side reactions with diols and can be used efficiently for protein labeling in living cells.
Project description:In vivo compatible reactions have a broad range of possible applications in chemical biology and the pharmaceutical sciences. Here we report tetrazines that can be removed by exposure to isonitriles under very mild conditions. Tetrazylmethyl derivatives are easily accessible protecting groups for amines and phenols. The isonitrile-induced removal is rapid and near-quantitative. Intriguingly, the deprotection is especially effective with (trimethylsilyl)methyl isocyanide, and serum albumin can catalyze the elimination under physiological conditions. NMR and computational studies revealed that an imine-tautomerization step is often rate limiting, and the unexpected cleavage of the Si-C bond accelerates this step in the case with (trimethylsilyl)methyl isocyanide. Tetrazylmethyl-removal is compatible with use on biomacromolecules, in cellular environments, and in living organisms as demonstrated by cytotoxicity experiments and fluorophore-release studies on proteins and in zebrafish embryos. By combining tetrazylmethyl derivatives with previously reported tetrazine-responsive 3-isocyanopropyl groups, it was possible to liberate two fluorophores in vertebrates from a single bioorthogonal reaction. This chemistry will open new opportunities towards applications involving multiplexed release schemes and is a valuable asset to the growing toolbox of bioorthogonal dissociative reactions.