Concomitant Sjogren's Syndrome Was Not Associated with a Poorer Response or Outcomes in Ursodeoxycholic Acid-Treated Patients with Primary Biliary Cholangitis.
ABSTRACT: Aim:Patients with primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) have at least 60% probability of having an autoimmune extrahepatic condition, with the most common being Sjögren's syndrome (SS). The impacts of SS on the response and outcomes in ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA)-treated patients with PBC, however, remain unclear. The aim of this study was to document the biochemical responses and clinical outcomes of UDCA-treated patients with concomitant SS and to compare the findings to those of patients with PBC alone. Methods:Data from consecutive patients with PBC who visited West China Hospital affiliated with Sichuan University between October 2013 and October 2017 were reviewed retrospectively. Results:The study populations consisted of 226 patients with PBC alone and 56 with PBC/SS. The median ages, proportions of female patients, Fib-4 scores, and aspartate aminotransferase (AST)/platelet ratio index (APRI) at baseline in the two cohorts were similar. At presentation, patients with PBC/SS had higher serum IgG levels and positive rates for serum antinuclear antibody (ANA) than patients with PBC alone (all P < 0.05). There was no statistically significant difference between the rate of biochemical response to UDCA at 1 year in the PBC/SS and PBC alone groups. The UK-PBC risk scores and GLOBE scores in UDCA-treated patients in the two cohorts were also similar. During the follow-up period, the differences in the liver enzyme levels, Fib-4 scores, APRI, and incidence of liver-related adverse events were not significant. Conclusions:The results of this retrospective, single-center study suggest that the response and clinical outcomes of UDCA-treated patients with PBC are not adversely affected by concomitant SS.
Project description:UNLABELLED:The biochemical response to ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA)--so-called "treatment response"--strongly predicts long-term outcome in primary biliary cholangitis (PBC). Several long-term prognostic models based solely on the treatment response have been developed that are widely used to risk stratify PBC patients and guide their management. However, they do not take other prognostic variables into account, such as the stage of the liver disease. We sought to improve existing long-term prognostic models of PBC using data from the UK-PBC Research Cohort. We performed Cox's proportional hazards regression analysis of diverse explanatory variables in a derivation cohort of 1,916 UDCA-treated participants. We used nonautomatic backward selection to derive the best-fitting Cox model, from which we derived a multivariable fractional polynomial model. We combined linear predictors and baseline survivor functions in equations to score the risk of a liver transplant or liver-related death occurring within 5, 10, or 15 years. We validated these risk scores in an independent cohort of 1,249 UDCA-treated participants. The best-fitting model consisted of the baseline albumin and platelet count, as well as the bilirubin, transaminases, and alkaline phosphatase, after 12 months of UDCA. In the validation cohort, the 5-, 10-, and 15-year risk scores were highly accurate (areas under the curve: >0.90). CONCLUSIONS:The prognosis of PBC patients can be accurately evaluated using the UK-PBC risk scores. They may be used to identify high-risk patients for closer monitoring and second-line therapies, as well as low-risk patients who could potentially be followed up in primary care.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Health care costs are growing faster than the rest of the global economy, according to the World Health Organization (WHO). Countries' health expenditures include paying for general medicine, diagnostic procedures, hospitalizations and surgeries, as well as medications and prescribed treatment. Primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) is a rare autoimmune liver disease and the first line available treatment is ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA), however, direct and indirect treatment costs are expensive. Main aim of this trial was to assess if the therapeutic efficacy of UDCA manufactured by the university hospital is equivalent to that of standard UDCA and treatment cost reduction in patients with PBC. METHODS:It is a prospective, interventional, randomized, and crossover study in patients diagnosed with PBC. UDCA 300?mg tablets and capsules were developed and manufactured by the university hospital. Thirty patients under treatment with standard UDCA, in stable doses were randomized in sequence A and B, 15 patients in each arm. The groups were treated for 12?weeks and after, the UDCA formulation was changed, following for another 12?weeks of continuous therapy (tablets and capsules / capsules and tablets). Laboratory tests were performed at time T0 (beginning of treatment), T1 (at the 12?week-therapy, before the crossing-over) and T2 (end of treatment). The evaluation was done by comparing the hepatic parameters ALP, GGT, ALT, AST and total bilirubin, also considering the adverse events. The comparison of costs was based on price of the manufactured UDCA and standard UDCA price of the hospital. RESULTS:Hospital reduced 66.1% the PBC treatment costs using manufactured UDCA. There were no differences in the biochemical parameters between sequence (A and B) and tablets or capsules of UDCA formulations applied in the treatment of PBC. CONCLUSIONS:The study showed that there was no significant difference between manufactured UDCA (capsule and tablet) and standard UDCA. Hospital reduced the PBC treatment costs using the manufactured UDCA by the university hospital. TRIAL REGISTRATION:ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT03489889 retrospectively registered on January 12th, 2018; Ethics Committee approved the study (ID: 1.790.088) on October 25th, 2016.
Project description:Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) is a cholestatic disease associated with autoimmune phenomena and alterations in both biliary bicarbonate excretion and expression of the bicarbonate carrier AE2. The bile acid ursodeoxycholic acid (UCDA) is currently used in treatment of cholestatic liver diseases and is the treatment of choice in PBC; however, a subset of PBC patients respond poorly to UDCA monotherapy. In these patients, a combination of UDCA and glucocorticoid therapy appears to be beneficial. To address the mechanism of this benefit, we analyzed the effects of UDCA and dexamethasone on AE2 gene expression in human liver cells from hepatocyte and cholangiocyte lineages. The combination of UDCA and dexamethasone, but not UDCA or dexamethasone alone, increased the expression of liver-enriched alternative mRNA isoforms AE2b1 and AE2b2 and enhanced AE2 activity. Similar effects were obtained after replacing UDCA with UDCA conjugates. In in vitro and in vivo reporter assays, we found that a UDCA/dexamethasone combination upregulated human AE2 alternate overlapping promoter sequences from which AE2b1 and AE2b2 are expressed. In chromatin immunoprecipitation assays, we demonstrated that combination UCDA/dexamethasone treatment induced p300-related interactions between HNF1 and glucocorticoid receptor on the AE2 alternate promoter. Our data provide a potential molecular explanation for the beneficial effects of the combination of UDCA and glucocorticoids in PBC patients with inadequate response to UDCA monotherapy.
Project description:Primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) is an autoimmune inflammatory liver disease of the interlobular bile ducts that can lead to cirrhosis and liver failure. Until recently, the only effective treatment was ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA). However, up to 40% of PBC patients have an inadequate response to UDCA and may continue to have disease progression. Several models have been developed, including the UK-PBC and GLOBE scores, to assist in identifying patients who may benefit from second-line therapies, such as the farnesoid X receptor (FXR) agonist obeticholic acid (OCA). The addition of OCA can significantly improve serum alkaline phosphatase and total bilirubin, which are strong surrogate markers of clinical outcomes in PBC. Other alternatives, including the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-? agonists fenofibrate and bezafibrate, may also improve liver biochemistries in PBC patients with an inadequate response to UDCA, but further study is needed to demonstrate their safety and long-term efficacy. Other novel agents, including those targeting the FXR pathway and PPAR-? agonists, have shown promising results and may alter the therapeutic landscape of PBC in the near future. For now, OCA remains the only approved second-line agent for PBC patients with an inadequate response to UDCA while results of long-term studies of its safety and clinical benefit are awaited.
Project description:We aimed to validate the prognostic models for primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) in Chinese patients receiving ursodeoxycholic acid (UCDA), and to compare their performances in predicting the long-term survival.Chinese patients with PBC from a tertiary center were identified via electronic search of hospital medical registry. Risk factors associated with adverse events (liver transplantation or death from liver-related causes including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and liver decompensation) were determined. Transplant-free survival was defined as survival free of liver-related death or transplantation.Of the 144 patients, 41 (28.5%) had baseline cirrhosis. The median age at diagnosis was 57.8 years. During a median follow-up of 7.0 years, 40 patients died (21 liver-related; 19 non-liver-related), 12 developed HCC, and 10 underwent transplantations. The 5-, 10-, and 15-year transplant-free survival probabilities were 91.0%, 78.1%, and 58.9%, respectively. Independent risk factors for adverse events were increasing age (hazard ratio (HR) 1.05), cirrhosis (HR 8.53), and suboptimal treatment response (HR 3.06). Aspartate aminotransferase/platelet ratio index at 1 year (APRI-r1) in combination with treatment response optimized the risk stratification. The performances of the GLOBE, UK-PBC scores, Rotterdam criteria, and APRI-r1 were comparable in predicting adverse events. The area under receiver operating curves within 5, 10, and 15 years were as follows-GLOBE score: 0.83, 0.85, and 0.85, respectively; UK-PBC score: 0.89, 0.83, and 0.79, respectively; Rotterdam criteria: 0.82, 0.76, and 0.80, respectively; APRI-r1: 0.80, 0.83, and 0.77, respectively.The UK-PBC, GLOBE scores, Rotterdam criteria, and APRI-r1 had good and comparable prognostic prediction values for Chinese PBC patients receiving UCDA.
Project description:BACKGROUND & AIMS:Elastography point quantification is a convenient method for measuring liver stiffness. It can be performed simultaneously with conventional ultrasonography. This study aimed to evaluate its diagnostic performance for assessing hepatic fibrosis in patients with autoimmune liver disease (AILD), including autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) and primary biliary cholangitis (PBC). METHODS:The diagnostic performance of elastography point quantification (ElastPQ) was evaluated and compared with that of serum fibrosis markers, including the aspartate aminotransferase to platelet ratio index (APRI) and fibrosis-4 (FIB-4), using the receiver operating characteristics analysis with histologic evaluation as the reference standard. RESULTS:In 49 AIH patients, sensitivity and specificity of ElastPQ were 93.6% and 44.4%, respectively, for significant fibrosis (? F2, cutoff 4.47 kPa), and 63.6% and 86.8% for cirrhosis (F4, cutoff 9.28 kPa). In 41 PBC patients, they were 81.8% and 73.3%, respectively, for significant fibrosis (? F2, cutoff 5.56 kPa), and 100% and 81.6%, respectively, for advanced fibrosis (? F3, cutoff 6.04 kPa). The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves of ElastPQ for significant fibrosis (0.77, 95% CI 0.67-0.86) and cirrhosis (0.81, 95% CI 0.65-0.96) were higher than those of APRI and FIB-4 in AILD patients. According to the multivariable analysis, histological activity, steatosis, and body max index (BMI) were not significant factors that influenced the result of ElastPQ. CONCLUSIONS:ElastPQ exhibited better diagnostic performance-without the influence of confounding factors-for assessing hepatic fibrosis in AILD patients than serum fibrosis markers.
Project description:To compare on-treatment and off-treatment parameters acquired using acoustic radiation force impulse elastography, the Fibrosis-4 (FIB-4) index, and aspartate aminotransferase-to-platelet ratio index (APRI) in patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC).Patients received therapies based on pegylated interferon or direct-acting antiviral agents. The changes in paired patient parameters, including liver stiffness (LS) values, the FIB-4 index, and APRI, from baseline to sustained virologic response (SVR) visit (24 weeks after the end of treatment) were compared. Multiple regression models were used to identify significant factors that explained the correlations with LS, FIB-4, and APRI values and SVR.A total of 256 patients were included, of which 219 (85.5%) achieved SVR. The paired LS values declined significantly from baseline to SVR visit in all groups and subgroups except the nonresponder subgroup (n = 10). Body mass index (P = 0.0062) and baseline LS (P < 0.0001) were identified as independent factors that explained the LS declines. Likewise, the baseline FIB-4 (P < 0.0001) and APRI (P < 0.0001) values independently explained the declines in the FIB-4 index and APRI, respectively. Moreover, interleukin-28B polymorphisms, baseline LS, and rapid virologic response were identified as independent correlates with SVR.Paired LS measurements in patients treated for CHC exhibited significant declines comparable to those in FIB-4 and APRI values. These declines may have correlated with the resolution of necroinflammation. Baseline LS values predicted SVR.
Project description:In primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC), biochemical criteria at 1 year are considered surrogates of response to ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA). However, due to the slow natural history of PBC, evaluation at 1 year may be suboptimal to assess the therapeutic response, particularly in early disease.To determine whether evaluation of biochemical criteria at 1 year is a reliable surrogate of UDCA response in early PBC.We analysed the prospectively collected data of 215 patients (untreated = 129; UDCA-treated = 86) with early PBC (normal baseline bilirubin/albumin) and a median follow-up of 8 years (range: 1-29.1). The 1-year attainment rates of the Barcelona, Paris-I, Paris-II and Toronto definitions, and their predictive relevance for a poor outcome (death, transplantation, complications of cirrhosis), were assessed either as a result of UDCA or no treatment. Independent associations with attaining each UDCA response definition were identified by multivariate analysis.Untreated patients displayed 1-year biochemical features compatible with 'treatment response' at rates (Barcelona: 36.4%, Paris-I: 66.7%, Toronto: 59.7%, Paris-II: 40.3%) similar to those obtained under UDCA. Depending on the definition, baseline ALP?3xULN (OR: 4.80-35.90), AST?2xULN (OR: 5.63-9.34) and early histological stage (OR: 3.67-3.87) were the stronger predictors for attaining the criteria. UDCA treatment was associated with attaining Barcelona (OR = 2.16) and Paris-II (OR = 2.84), but not Paris-I, and not Toronto definition when excluding late histological cases. Paris-I criteria were significantly predictive of long-term outcomes (HR = 2.83) in untreated patients.In early PBC, biochemical criteria at 1 year reflect severity of the disease rather than the therapeutic response to UDCA.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To longitudinally characterize noninvasive markers of liver disease in HIV-infected youth. DESIGN:HIV infection, without viral hepatitis coinfection, may contribute to liver disease. Noninvasive markers of liver disease [FIB-4 (Fibrosis-4) and APRI (aspartate aminotransferase-to-platelet ratio index)] have been evaluated in adults with concomitant HIV and hepatitis C, but are less studied in children. METHODS:In prospective cohorts of HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected youth, we used linear regression models to compare log-transformed FIB-4 and APRI measures by HIV status based on a single visit at ages 15-20 years. We also longitudinally modeled trends in these measures in HIV-infected youth with two or more visits to compare those with behavioral vs. perinatal HIV infection (PHIV) using mixed effect linear regression, adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, and race/ethnicity. RESULTS:Of 1785 participants, 41% were men, 57% black non-Hispanic, and 27% Hispanic. More HIV-infected than uninfected youth had an APRI score more than 0.5 (13 vs. 3%, P?<?0.001). Among 1307 HIV-infected participants with longitudinal measures, FIB-4 scores increased 6% per year (P?<?0.001) among all HIV-infected youth, whereas APRI scores increased 2% per year (P?=?0.007) only among PHIV youth. The incidence rates (95% confidence interval) of progression of APRI to more than 0.5 and more than 1.5 were 7.5 (6.5-8.7) and 1.4 (1.0-1.9) cases per 100 person-years of follow-up, respectively. The incidence of progression of FIB-4 to more than 1.5 and more than 3.25 were 1.6 (1.2-2.2) and 0.3 (0.2-0.6) cases per 100 person-years, respectively. CONCLUSION:APRI and FIB-4 scores were higher among HIV-infected youth. Progression to scores suggesting subclinical fibrosis or worse was common.
Project description:BACKGROUND & AIMS:Non-invasive biomarkers are needed for monitoring changes in liver histology in patients with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Obeticholic acid (OCA) was shown to improve fibrosis in patients with NASH in the FLINT trial; a post hoc analysis of these data was performed to determine the relationship between 3 non-invasive fibrosis markers and liver fibrosis improvement. METHODS:In the Phase 2b FLINT trial, patients were randomised (1:1) to receive 25 mg OCA or placebo once daily for 72 weeks. Aspartate aminotransferase:platelet ratio index (APRI), fibrosis-4 (FIB-4) index and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease fibrosis score (NFS) were evaluated in serum at baseline and weeks 24, 48, 72 and 96. Liver biopsies were obtained at baseline and 72 weeks. RESULTS:In patients with fibrosis improvement at week 24, scores were reduced by a median of 34% for APRI, 10% for FIB-4 and 4% for NFS. Reductions in APRI (P = 0.015) and FIB-4 (P = 0.036), but not NFS (P = 0.201) at week 24, significantly correlated with ?1-stage improvement in histologic fibrosis at week 72. Reductions in APRI at week 72 were significantly correlated with fibrosis improvement at week 72 (P = 0.012). Patients receiving OCA had significant reductions in all markers compared with patients receiving placebo at week 72 [APRI and FIB-4 (P < 0.0001); NFS (P < 0.05)]. CONCLUSIONS:Readily available non-invasive markers may predict improvement in liver fibrosis in patients with NASH. Upon external confirmation and further refinement in larger populations, these markers may serve as surrogate endpoints in NASH clinical trials.