Ethnobotanical Study of Indigenous Medicinal Plants of Jazan Region, Saudi Arabia.
ABSTRACT: For a long time, the people of Saudi Arabia have been using medicinal plants (MPs) as conventional medicine to heal diverse human and livestock diseases. The present work is the first study on ethnobotanical uses of 124 MPs species used by the local tribal communities of Jazan province in the Southwest of Saudi Arabia. Ethnobotanical data were collected by interviewing 174 local informants using semistructured interviews. Informants of different ages, from several settlements belonging to several tribal communities, were interviewed. It is worth noticing that the age of informants and their knowledge of MPs were positively correlated, whereas the educational level and MP knowledge of participants were negatively correlated. To find out if there was agreement in the use of certain plants in the treatment of given ailments, we used Informant Consensus Factor (ICF). To determine the most frequently used plant species for treating a particular ailment category by local people we used the fidelity level (FL%). The Relative Frequency of Citation (RFC) was used to indicate the local importance of a species and the relative importance (RI) level was used to check the therapeutic potentials of the cited plants. A total of 124 MPs belonging to 103 genera and 48 families were collected and identified. The majority of these plants were shrubs (45%), perennial herbs (21%), annual herbs (19%), or trees (18%). The Asteraceae (10.48%), Fabaceae (7.25%), and Apocynaceae (7.25%) families were the most represented. Leaves, fruits, and whole plant (24%, 18%, and 16%, respectively) were the most used plant parts in formulating traditional medicines. Ziziphus spina-christi and Calotropis procera with the highest RI level (2.0) were found to have the highest range of therapeutic uses. They were followed by Datura stramonium (1.86), Withania somnifera, and Aloe vera (1.81). The ICF ranged from 0.02 to 0.42 covering 12 disease categories with a prevalence of disease categories related to skin and hair problems (ICF=0.42) having 75 species cited, while 73 species were cited for gastrointestinal tract (GIT) disorders (ICF = 0.40). Senna alexandrina (67%), Tribulus terrestris (64%), Pulicaria undulata (60%), Leptadenia pyrotechnica (55%), and Rumex nervosus (55%) had the highest FL which indicates their good healing potential against specific diseases. The high-FL species are the most promising candidate plants for in-depth pharmacological screening and merit further consideration. Accordingly, Jazan flora has good ethnobotanical potential. Unfortunately, many MP species are endangered by drought, overgrazing, and overexploitation. Some protection measures should be undertaken to prevent these species from becoming extinct. Natural reserves and wild nurseries are typical settings to retain medically important plants in their natural habitats, while botanic gardens and seed banks are important paradigms for ex situ conservation.
Project description:Present paper offers considerable information on traditional uses of medicinal plants by the inhabitants of Hafizabad district, Punjab-Pakistan. This is the first quantitative ethnobotanical study from the area comprising popularity level of medicinal plant species intendedby using relative popularity level (RPL) and rank order priority (ROP) indices.Ethnobotanical data were collected by interviewing 166 local informants and 35 traditional health practioners (THPs) from different localities of Hafizabad district. Demographic features of informants; life form, part used, methods of preparation, modes of application and ethnomedicinal uses were documented. Ethnobotanical data were analyzed using quantitative tools, i.e. Relative frequency citation (RFC), use value (UV), informant consensus factor (ICF) fidelity level (FL), RPL and ROP indices. A total of 85 species belonging to 71 genera and 34 families were documented along with ethnomedicinal uses. Solanum surattense, Withania somnifera, Cyperus rotundus, Solanum nigrum and Melia azedarach were the most utilized medicinal plant species with highest used value. The reported ailments were classified into 11 disease categories based on ICF values and highest number of plant species was reported to treat dermatological and gastrointestinal disorders. Withania somnifera and Ranunculus sceleratus with maximum FL (100%), were used against gastrointestinal and urinary disorders, respectively. The RPL and ROP values were calculated to recognize the folk medicinal plant wealth; six out of 32 plant species (19%) were found popular, based on citation by more than half of the maximum number of informant viz. 26. Consequently, the ROP value for these species was more than 75. The comparative assessment with reported literature revealed 15% resemblance and 6% variation to previous data;however79% uses of the reported species were recorded for the first time. The diversity of medicinal plant species and associated traditional knowledge is significant in primary health care system. Medicinal plant species with high RPL values should be screened for comprehensive phytochemical and pharmacological studies. This could be useful in novel drug discovery and to validate the ethomendicinal knowledge.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Ethiopia is one of the species-rich countries in the world and the center of origin with regard to the diversity of many plant species. Ethnobotanical studies are vital to investigate these diverse biological resources for medicinal purposes. The aim of this study was to document the indigenous knowledge of the Sidama people regarding the use of medicinal plants to treat human and livestock diseases in the Hawassa Zuria district of Southern Ethiopia. METHODS:A total of 150 informants (118 men and 32 women) were selected to collect ethnobotanical information from ten kebeles by means of a stratified purposive sampling method. Among the informants, 30 key informants were selected purposefully. Ethnobotanical data were collected through semi-structured interviews and group discussions and were analyzed by descriptive statistics, informant consensus factor (ICF), fidelity level (FL), and ranking methods. RESULTS:A total of 105 medicinal plants distributed across 52 families and 96 genera were collected. Fabaceae (11 species) was represented by the highest number of plant species, followed by Lamiaceae (7 species). Herbs (34%) were the dominant growth habits, followed by trees (33%). Leaves (56%) were the dominant plant part used in the preparation of remedies, followed by fruit (15%). The most common method of remedy preparation was grinding (39%) followed by chewing and boiling (11% each). Oral (74%) was the major routes of administration, followed by dermal (20%). There was a significant knowledge difference (p < 0.05) between social groups regarding the use of traditional medicinal plants. Insects and ectoparasites disease category (0.95) had higher informant consensus factor value followed by fever disease category (0.91). Eucalyptus globulus Labill. (100%) had a higher fidelity level to treat stomachache, followed by Ensete ventricosum (Welw.) Cheesman. (87.27%) to treat placenta delay. Ensete ventricosum (total score = 73) was ranked highest as the most preferable medicinal plant for various purposes by local people, followed by Olea welwitschii (Knobl.) Gilg (total score = 72). CONCLUSION:The present study revealed the existence of indigenous knowledge of medicinal plants to treat human and livestock ailments. However, agricultural expansion, firewood collection, environmental degradation, and deforestation are the main threats to medicinal plants. Therefore, there should be mentoring for the local people in the study area to conserve their indigenous knowledge resources and prevent the extinction of medicinal plants.
Project description:Traditional knowledge about the use of medicinal plants for herbal drinks (HDs) is not well documented in the Azad Kashmir region despite their widespread use. This study highlights the taxonomic diversity and traditional knowledge on medicinal plants used for HDs while examining the diversity of diseases treated with HDs in the study area.Individual discussions were conducted with 255 informants (84 women and 171 men). Data gathered included (i) informant age and gender, (ii) HD species and respective plant parts used, (iii) health disorders treated, and (iv) mode of preparation and utilizations. Quantitative ethnobotanical indices including relative frequency of citation (RFC), informant consensus factor (ICF), and use value (UV) were used for data analyses.Altogether, 73 medicinal plants belonging to 40 families and 66 genera were reported to be used in HD preparations, with Asteraceae being the richest family. The average number of HD species cited was 9.09?±?0.17 per informant and did not vary either by age or gender. In addition, men and women, and adults and the young used the same pool of species (dissimilarity nearly zero). The most used plant parts were leaves (20.00%), roots (17.25%), and fruits (16.47%). Based on UV, the top five most used species were Valeriana jatamansi, Isodon rugosus, Onopordum acanthium, Acacia nilotica, and Viola canescens; and the UV was similar among gender and age categories too. The most utilized herbal preparation forms included decoctions, infusions, and tea. One hundred and eleven diseases grouped into 13 ailment categories were reported to be cured using HDs. The main category of disease treated with HDs was gastrointestinal (GIT) disorders (RFC?=?17.43%). Relatively few species were used by a large proportion of informants for each category of ailment (ICF???0.60). Only one species was used for "glandular disorders" and "eye diseases" (ICF?=?1). A novelty of about 22% (16 species) was recorded for HD species in the present work.The diversity of medicinal plant species used as HDs and the associated traditional knowledge are of considerable value to the indigenous communities of the Azad Kashmir region. Therefore, there is a need for conservation and preservation of medicinal HD species as well as the wealth of indigenous knowledge. The conservation effort should be high for species in the ailments categories glandular disorders and eye diseases. The therapeutic uses of HDs have provided basic data for further research focused on phytochemical and pharmacological studies and conservation of the most important species.
Project description:<b>Background:</b> The in-depth traditional knowledge of medicinal plants is at risk of extinction due to the dependency on oral transmission, and as such, there is an urgent need to document such knowledge. This study aimed to document indigenous uses of medicinal plants among community members in the Ejisu-Juaben Municipality. <b>Methods:</b> Data was collected in 2016 from community members and local herbalists in the Ejisu-Juaben Municipality through a semi-structured questionnaire. Statistical tools and ethnobotanical indices, i.e., informant consensus factor (ICF), fidelity level (FL), and use value (UV) were used to analyse the data. <b>Results:</b> One hundred and six medicinal plants belonging to 45 families were reported to cure 68 different human diseases. The most frequently used plant part in this study was the leaves (52%). Decoction (57.5%) and oral administration (58.3%) were the most utilised herbal preparation and administration route respectively. <i>Cleistopholis patens</i> had the highest UV (0.54) with pain & fevers and skin diseases having the highest ICF values (0.88 and 0.85 respectively). Furthermore, new medicinal uses of <i>Hilleria latifolia</i> and ten other species were recorded for the treatment of the traditional local disease, <i>aseram</i>. <b>Conclusions</b>: The current knowledge and uses of medicinal plants are still high in the study area based on the high degree of consensus among informants. This study could allow for the preservation of knowledge and biodiversity of medicinal plants, both of which are threatened with extinction.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Ankober District has long been inhabited by people who have a long tradition of using medicinal plants to treat human ailments. Overexploitation of medicinal plants coupled with an ever-increasing population growth, deforestation and agricultural land expansion threatens plants in the area. Hence, this study aimed at documenting and analyzing the plant-based ethnomedicinal knowledge of the people in order to preserve the dwindling indigenous knowledge. METHODS: Ethnobotanical data were collected using semi-structured interviews, focus group discussions, participant observation and walk-in-the-woods. Quantitative approaches were used to determine Informant Consensus Factor (ICF) and Fidelity level (FL) values. Statistical tests were used to compare the indigenous knowledge on medicinal plants among different informant categories. RESULTS: A total of 135 medicinal plant species belonging to 128 genera and 71 botanical families were reported to treat human diseases in the District. Families Asteraceae (12 species, 9%) and Fabaceae (10, 7.4%) were found to be best represented in the area. About 44% of preparations were reported to be obtained from roots. Significant difference (P?<?0.05) was observed on the mean number of medicinal plants reported by groups of respondents compared within age, literacy level and experience parameters. Highest ICF values were recorded for gastro-intestinal & parasitic and dermatological disease categories (0.70 each) indicating best agreement among informants knowledge on medicinal plants used to treat aliments in these categories. Highest fidelity level values were recorded for Zehneria scabra (95%) and Hagenia abyssinica (93.75%) showing conformity of knowledge on species of best healing potential. Podocarpus falcatus was ranked first in a direct matrix ranking exercise of multipurpose medicinal plants. The output of preference ranking exercise indicated that Olea europaea subsp. cuspidata was the most preferred species to treat atopic eczema. CONCLUSION: The study revealed that Ankober District is rich in medicinal plant diversity and associated indigenous knowledge. However, anthropogenic factors coupled with acculturation and very poor conservation efforts threaten medicinal plant survival in the area. Promoting a complementary in situ and ex situ conservation strategy for medicinal plants of the District is highly recommended.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Starting from the ancient time, the people of Ethiopia use medicinal plants as traditional medicine to heal different human and livestock ailments. This ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants was carried out in Ganta Afeshum District, Eastern Zone of Tigray, Northern Ethiopia, to identify medicinal plant species used by the local community to treat various human and livestock ailments. METHODS:A total of 78 informants (54 men and 24 women) were selected to collect ethnobotanical information from four study sites. Among the 78 informants, 20 key informants were selected purposefully; the other 58 informants were selected randomly by lottery method. Ethnobotanical data were collected using semi-structured interviews, field observations, guided field walks, and group discussions and were analyzed by preference ranking, paired comparison, direct matrix ranking, informant consensus factor, fidelity level (FL), use-value, independent samples t test, and Pearson correlation coefficients. RESULTS:A total of 173 medicinal plants were collected and identified that were distributed across 77 families and 156 genera. The family Fabaceae stood first by contributing 17 (9.8%) species followed by Lamiaceae and Solanaceae with 9 (5.2%) species each. Rhamnus prinoides was reported for the treatment of many of the described diseases. One hundred sixteen (67.1%) medicinal plant species were collected from natural vegetation, 34 (19.7) were from home gardens, 13 (7.5%) from farmland, and 10 (5.8%) were from natural vegetation and home gardens. The most widely used life form was herbs (69 species, 39.9%) followed by shrubs (58 species, 33.5%). The most commonly used part of the medicinal plants was the leaves followed by roots. The plants were prepared by grinding, powdering, squeezing, roasting, and burning and were administered through oral, dermal, nasal, anal, ocular, and vaginal, and on the surface of the teeth. The most commonly used applications were by drinking, smearing, eating, fumigation, and chewing. There was no difference between men and women informants, showing that the two sexes had similar knowledge in the use of traditional medicinal plants. Educational level and medicinal plant knowledge of informants were negatively correlated; whereas age and medicinal plant knowledge of informants were positively correlated. CONCLUSIONS:Ganta Afeshum District is relatively rich in diversity of medicinal plant resources accompanied with a rich indigenous knowledge within the local communities to harvest and effectively use to prevent different human and livestock ailments. However, nowadays, deforestation, agricultural expansion, overgrazing, drought, and overexploitation are threatening these properties. Therefore, people of the study area should apply complementary conservation approaches (in situ and ex situ) for sustainable use of these resources and to prevent species extinction.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Ethnobotanical studies are recognized as effective methods of finding locally important plants for discovery of crude drugs. Siddha medicinal system is prevailed in south Indian states principally in Tamil Nadu and gaining recognition as alternative medicine among the indigenous communities for their primary healthcare needs. OBJECTIVES:The study was aimed to explore and document folk medicinal plant knowledge among the local people in Puliyankudi village of Thiruvarur District, Tamil Nadu, India. MATERIALS AND METHODS:An ethnobotanical study was carried out during February 2016 to January 2017 among the local people in study area. Traditional healers, traders, local vendors and local people who are practicing herbal medicines were approached for documentation of folk medicinal uses. Acquired results were further analyzed with descriptive statistical methods such as use value (UV) and informant consensus factor (ICF). RESULTS:During the survey, a total 116 plant species from 49 families and 103 genera were recorded to treat 73 types of ailments. Among the plant parts used for preparation of medicine, leaves (73 reports) are often used and predominant method of preparation of medicine is paste (56 reports). Limonia acidissima was reported by all the interviewed informants with an UV of 0.98 and kidney problems have highest ICF value of 0.91. CONCLUSION:Plants with highest use values in the study indicates possible occurrence of valuable metabolites and should be investigated for associated pharmacological activities which leads to development of potential new drugs to treat various ailments.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>The phytotherapeutic knowledge of the Kongo people in the territories of Kisantu and Mbanza-Ngungu in Kongo-Central Province (DR Congo) is rapidly eroding. To document the remaining knowledge, we conducted an ethnobotanical survey on the most important medicinal plant species and diseases treated with them, as well as plants with therapeutic potential. We also checked for the cultural similarity in medicinal plant knowledge between the two territories and how knowledge about Kongo medicinal plants differs between different social groups.<h4>Methods</h4>From June 2017 until February 2018 and from February 2019 until April 2019, we conducted a survey with 188 phytotherapists, selected using the snowball method and surveyed using semi-structured interviews. Voucher specimens were taken for identification. Ethnobotanical data were analyzed using medicinal use value (UVs), informant agreement ratio (IARs), informant consensus factor (ICF), and species therapeutic potential (STP). Rahman's similarity index was used for ethno-cultural comparison of medicinal plant knowledge between the two communities. Medicinal knowledge between different social groups was analyzed using non-parametric tests and Poisson regression.<h4>Results</h4>A total of 231 plants (i.e., 227 botanical species, representing 192 genera and 79 families) were reportedly used to treat 103 diseases. Most abundant taxa were reported for the Fabaceae family (including 11.9% of species and 10.9% of genera). Most reported species (45.0%) were from anthropized areas. Leaves (39.4%), herbs (37.1%), decoction (41.7%), and oral ingestion (72%) were the most frequently cited plant part, botanical form, preparation, and administration method, respectively. Four of all inventoried species showed high UV<sub>S</sub> (> 0.05), whereas eight had an IAR of one. According to ICF, 31 diseases were mentioned. Highest ICF (? 0.4) was observed for hemorrhoids (0.44), amoebiasis (0.43), and itchy rash (0.42). Fifty-four plant species were identified as likely possessing an interesting therapeutic potential. Low ethno-cultural similarity in medicinal knowledge (RSI = 16.6%) was found between the two territories. Analysis of the Kongo medicinal plant knowledge showed that the mean number of reported species and diseases vary considerably depending on gender, type, and residence of therapists (P < 0.05).<h4>Conclusion</h4>Results prove that the Kongo phytopharmacopeia makes use of interesting medicinal plant species that could be further studied for conservation and pharmacological applications.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The usage of medicinal plants as a key component of complementary and alternative medicine, has acquired renewed interest in developed countries. The current situation of medicinal plants in Spain is very limited. This paper provides new insights and greater knowledge about current trends and consumption patterns of medicinal plants in the Autonomous Community of Madrid (Spain) for health benefits. METHODS:A descriptive cross-sectional study was designed for a population-based survey on medicinal plants. The data were collected (May 2018 to May 2019) using semi-structured face-to-face interviews in independent pharmacies, hospital centers and primary care health centers in the Autonomous Community of Madrid. The survey had 18 multiple choice and open-ended questions. Quantitative indices were calculated: Fidelity Level (FL), Use Value (UV) and Informants Consensus Factor (ICF). Chi-square test was used for data analysis. RESULTS:Five hundred forty-three people were interviewed. The majority of the participants (89.6%) have used medicinal plants to treat health disorders in the past 12?months, mainly for digestive problems, sleep disorders and central nervous system diseases. A total of 78 plants were recorded, being Matricaria recutita, Valeriana officinalis, Tilia spp. and Aloe vera the most used. The highest UV was found for Mentha pulegium (UV 0.130) followed by Aloe vera (UV 0.097) and Vaccinium macrocarpon. (UV 0.080). The highest FL values were for Eucalyptus spp. (FL 90.47%) for respiratory conditions and, Matricaria recutita (85.55%) and Mentha pulegium (84.09%) for digestive problems. The highest ICF corresponded to metabolism and depression (ICF?=?1), pain (ICF?=?0.97), insomnia (ICF?=?0.96) and anxiety (ICF?=?0.95). Participants mostly acquired herbal medicines from pharmacies, herbal shops and supermarkets. Some side effects (tachycardia, dizziness and gastrointestinal symptoms) and potential interactions medicinal plants-drugs (V. officinalis and benzodiazepines) were reported. CONCLUSION:Many inhabitants of the Autonomous Community of Madrid currently use herbal products to treat minor health problems. The most common consumer pattern are young women between 18 and 44?years of age with higher education. In order to confirm the pattern, further research should be focused to investigate current uses of medicinal plants in other Spanish regions.
Project description:BACKGROUND:To best of our knowledge, this is the first quantitative ethnobotanical study with the aim of documenting the local knowledge and practices of using plants for curing diseases in the Cava de' Tirreni area, Salerno Province, Campania Region, Italy. The present ethnobotanical field study, carried out during 2016-2017, documents the local uses of 119 plant species for medicinal, food and domestic purposes. METHODS:Ethnobotanical data were documented from 70 informants: field data were collected and information on the uses of plants was gathered through semi-structured and structured interviews with persons who still retain traditional ethnobotanical knowledge. Documented data were evaluated using the quantitative ethnobotanical index of use value (UV). RESULTS:Overall, the informants native of the area were interviewed and 277 use-reports have been recorded. The scientific names, local names, plant part used, preparation and administration processes are reported and compared with practices in other Southern Italian regions. In total, 101 species are documented as medicinal, 36 as food or food aromatizer, 29 for domestic and handicraft uses, 10 in veterinary medicine. More or less 64% of all species have more uses and over half of the food plants (23 species) are also used for medicinal purposes. CONCLUSIONS:The comparison of the documented species and their uses with ethnobotanical literature of other Italian regions reveals that the traditional plant knowledge in this area shows strong similarities with adjacent Southern Italian areas. Some of the recorded species and administration processes however seem to be unique for the zone.