Association Between Oxygen Saturation Targeting and Death or Disability in Extremely Preterm Infants in the Neonatal Oxygenation Prospective Meta-analysis Collaboration.
ABSTRACT: Importance:There are potential benefits and harms of hyperoxemia and hypoxemia for extremely preterm infants receiving more vs less supplemental oxygen. Objective:To compare the effects of different target ranges for oxygen saturation as measured by pulse oximetry (Spo2) on death or major morbidity. Design, Setting, and Participants:Prospectively planned meta-analysis of individual participant data from 5 randomized clinical trials (conducted from 2005-2014) enrolling infants born before 28 weeks' gestation. Exposures:Spo2 target range that was lower (85%-89%) vs higher (91%-95%). Main Outcomes and Measures:The primary outcome was a composite of death or major disability (bilateral blindness, deafness, cerebral palsy diagnosed as ≥2 level on the Gross Motor Function Classification System, or Bayley-III cognitive or language score <85) at a corrected age of 18 to 24 months. There were 16 secondary outcomes including the components of the primary outcome and other major morbidities. Results:A total of 4965 infants were randomized (2480 to the lower Spo2 target range and 2485 to the higher Spo2 range) and had a median gestational age of 26 weeks (interquartile range, 25-27 weeks) and a mean birth weight of 832 g (SD, 190 g). The primary outcome occurred in 1191 of 2228 infants (53.5%) in the lower Spo2 target group and 1150 of 2229 infants (51.6%) in the higher Spo2 target group (risk difference, 1.7% [95% CI, -1.3% to 4.6%]; relative risk [RR], 1.04 [95% CI, 0.98 to 1.09], P = .21). Of the 16 secondary outcomes, 11 were null, 2 significantly favored the lower Spo2 target group, and 3 significantly favored the higher Spo2 target group. Death occurred in 484 of 2433 infants (19.9%) in the lower Spo2 target group and 418 of 2440 infants (17.1%) in the higher Spo2 target group (risk difference, 2.8% [95% CI, 0.6% to 5.0%]; RR, 1.17 [95% CI, 1.04 to 1.31], P = .01). Treatment for retinopathy of prematurity was administered to 220 of 2020 infants (10.9%) in the lower Spo2 target group and 308 of 2065 infants (14.9%) in the higher Spo2 target group (risk difference, -4.0% [95% CI, -6.1% to -2.0%]; RR, 0.74 [95% CI, 0.63 to 0.86], P < .001). Severe necrotizing enterocolitis occurred in 227 of 2464 infants (9.2%) in the lower Spo2 target group and 170 of 2465 infants (6.9%) in the higher Spo2 target group (risk difference, 2.3% [95% CI, 0.8% to 3.8%]; RR, 1.33 [95% CI, 1.10 to 1.61], P = .003). Conclusions and Relevance:In this prospectively planned meta-analysis of individual participant data from extremely preterm infants, there was no significant difference between a lower Spo2 target range compared with a higher Spo2 target range on the primary composite outcome of death or major disability at a corrected age of 18 to 24 months. The lower Spo2 target range was associated with a higher risk of death and necrotizing enterocolitis, but a lower risk of retinopathy of prematurity treatment.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To test whether infants randomized to a lower oxygen saturation (peripheral capillary oxygen saturation [SpO2]) target range while on supplemental oxygen from birth will have better growth velocity from birth to 36 weeks postmenstrual age (PMA) and less growth failure at 36 weeks PMA and 18-22 months corrected age. STUDY DESIGN:We evaluated a subgroup of 810 preterm infants from the Surfactant, Positive Pressure, and Oxygenation Randomized Trial, randomized at birth to lower (85%-89%, n = 402, PMA 26 ± 1 weeks, birth weight 839 ± 186 g) or higher (91%-95%, n = 408, PMA 26 ± 1 weeks, birth weight 840 ± 191 g) SpO2 target ranges. Anthropometric measures were obtained at birth, postnatal days 7, 14, 21, and 28; then at 32 and 36 weeks PMA; and 18-22 months corrected age. Growth velocities were estimated with the exponential method and analyzed with linear mixed models. Poor growth outcome, defined as weight <10th percentile at 36 weeks PMA and 18-22 months corrected age, was compared across the 2 treatment groups by the use of robust Poisson regression. RESULTS:Growth outcomes including growth at 36 weeks PMA and 18-22 months corrected age, as well as growth velocity were similar in the lower and higher SpO2 target groups. CONCLUSION:Targeting different oxygen saturation ranges between 85% and 95% from birth did not impact growth velocity or reduce growth failure in preterm infants.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To determine the impact of policy changes for pulse oximetry oxygen saturation (SpO2) alarm limits on neonatal mortality and morbidity among infants born very preterm. STUDY DESIGN:This was a retrospective cohort study of infants born very preterm in the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Neonatal Research Network. Infants were classified based on treatment at a hospital with an SpO2 alarm policy change and study epoch (before vs after policy change). We used a generalized linear mixed model to determine the effect of hospital group and epoch on the primary outcomes of mortality and severe retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) and secondary outcomes of necrotizing enterocolitis, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, and any ROP. RESULTS:There were 3809 infants in 10 hospitals with an SpO2 alarm policy change and 3685 infants in 9 hospitals without a policy change. The nature of most policy changes was to narrow the SpO2 alarm settings. Mortality was lower in hospitals without a policy change (aOR 0.63; 95% CI 0.50-0.80) but did not differ between epochs in policy change hospitals. The odds of bronchopulmonary dysplasia were greater for hospitals with a policy change (aOR 1.65; 95% CI 1.36-2.00) but did not differ for hospitals without a policy change. Severe ROP and necrotizing enterocolitis did not differ between epochs for either group. The adjusted odds of any ROP were lower in recent years in both hospital groups. CONCLUSIONS:Changing SpO2 alarm policies was not associated with reduced mortality or increased severe ROP among infants born very preterm.
Project description:Randomized controlled trials evaluating low-target oxygen saturation (SpO2:85% to 89%) vs high-target SpO2 (91% to 95%) have shown variable results regarding mortality and morbidity in extremely preterm infants. Because of the variation inherent to the accuracy of pulse oximeters, the unspecified location of probe placement, the intrinsic relationship between SpO2 and arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2) and between SaO2 and partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2) (differences in oxygen dissociation curves for fetal and adult hemoglobin), the two comparison groups could have been more similar than dissimilar. The SpO2 values were in the target range for a shorter period of time than intended due to practical and methodological constraints. So the studies did not truly compare 'target SpO2 ranges'. In spite of this overlap, some of the studies did find significant differences in mortality prior to discharge, necrotizing enterocolitis and severe retinopathy of prematurity. These differences could potentially be secondary to time spent beyond the target range (SpO2 <85 or >95%) and could be avoided with an intermediate but wider target SpO2 range (87% to 93%). In conclusion, significant uncertainty persists about the desired target range of SpO2 in extremely preterm infants. Further studies should focus on studying newer methods of assessing oxygenation and strategies to limit hypoxemia (<85% SpO2) and hyperoxemia (>95% SpO2).
Project description:The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends a permissive hypoxaemic target for an oxygen saturation of 90% for children with bronchiolitis, which is consistent with the WHO recommendations for targets in children with lower respiratory tract infections. No evidence exists to support this threshold. We aimed to assess whether the 90% or higher target for management of oxygen supplementation was equivalent to a normoxic 94% or higher target for infants admitted to hospital with viral bronchiolitis.We did a parallel-group, randomised, controlled, equivalence trial of infants aged 6 weeks to 12 months of age with physician-diagnosed bronchiolitis newly admitted into eight paediatric hospital units in the UK (the Bronchiolitis of Infancy Discharge Study [BIDS]). A central computer randomly allocated (1:1) infants, in varying length blocks of four and six and without stratification, to be clipped to standard oximeters (patients treated with oxygen if pulse oxygen saturation [SpO2] <94%) or modified oximeters (displayed a measured value of 90% as 94%, therefore oxygen not given until SpO2 <90%). All parents, clinical staff, and outcome assessors were masked to allocation. The primary outcome was time to resolution of cough (prespecified equivalence limits of plus or minus 2 days) in the intention-to-treat population. This trial is registered with ISRCTN, number ISRCTN28405428.Between Oct 3, and March 30, 2012, and Oct 1, and March 29, 2013, we randomly assigned 308 infants to standard oximeters and 307 infants to modified oximeters. Cough resolved by 15·0 days (median) in both groups (95% CI for difference -1 to 2) and so oxygen thresholds were equivalent. We recorded 35 serious adverse events in 32 infants in the standard care group and 25 serious adverse events in 24 infants in the modified care group. In the standard care group, eight infants transferred to a high-dependency unit, 23 were readmitted, and one had a prolonged hospital stay. In the modified care group, 12 infants were transferred to a high-dependency unit and 12 were readmitted to hospital. Recorded adverse events did not differ significantly.Management of infants with bronchiolitis to an oxygen saturation target of 90% or higher is as safe and clinically effective as one of 94% or higher. Future research should assess the benefits and risks of different oxygen saturation targets in acute respiratory infection in older children, particularly in developing nations where resources are scarce.National Institute for Health Research, Health Technology Assessment programme.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Previous results from our trial of early treatment with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) versus early surfactant treatment in infants showed no significant difference in the outcome of death or bronchopulmonary dysplasia. A lower (vs. higher) target range of oxygen saturation was associated with a lower rate of severe retinopathy but higher mortality. We now report longer-term results from our prespecified hypotheses. METHODS:Using a 2-by-2 factorial design, we randomly assigned infants born between 24 weeks 0 days and 27 weeks 6 days of gestation to early CPAP with a limited ventilation strategy or early surfactant administration and to lower or higher target ranges of oxygen saturation (85 to 89% or 91 to 95%). The primary composite outcome for the longer-term analysis was death before assessment at 18 to 22 months or neurodevelopmental impairment at 18 to 22 months of corrected age. RESULTS:The primary outcome was determined for 1234 of 1316 enrolled infants (93.8%); 990 of the 1058 surviving infants (93.6%) were evaluated at 18 to 22 months of corrected age. Death or neurodevelopmental impairment occurred in 27.9% of the infants in the CPAP group (173 of 621 infants), versus 29.9% of those in the surfactant group (183 of 613) (relative risk, 0.93; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.78 to 1.10; P=0.38), and in 30.2% of the infants in the lower-oxygen-saturation group (185 of 612), versus 27.5% of those in the higher-oxygen-saturation group (171 of 622) (relative risk, 1.12; 95% CI, 0.94 to 1.32; P=0.21). Mortality was increased with the lower-oxygen-saturation target (22.1%, vs. 18.2% with the higher-oxygen-saturation target; relative risk, 1.25; 95% CI, 1.00 to 1.55; P=0.046). CONCLUSIONS:We found no significant differences in the composite outcome of death or neurodevelopmental impairment among extremely premature infants randomly assigned to early CPAP or early surfactant administration and to a lower or higher target range of oxygen saturation. (Funded by the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development and the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; SUPPORT ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00233324.).
Project description:OBJECTIVE:This meta-analysis aimed to investigate the efficacy and safety of plastic wrap applied after birth and during NICU in preterm infants for prevention of heat loss in preterm infants. STUDY METHODS:The Medline (1950 to August 2015), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, Issue 7, 2015), CINAHL (1982 to August 2015) and the Embase (1974 to August 2015) databases were searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) or quasi-RCTs with main outcomes related to the core temperature (baseline temperature and/or post-stabilization temperature), hypothermia, mortality rate and hyperthermia. RESULT:The included studies were of low to moderate quality. Compared with unwrapped infants, plastic wrap was associated with a significantly higher baseline temperature and post-stabilization temperature both in infants < 28 weeks of gestation (mean difference [MD] = 0.62, 95% CI 0.38 to 0.85; MD = 0.41, 95% CI 0.33 to 0.50, respectively), and in infants between 28 to 34 weeks of gestation (MD = 0.54, 95% CI 0.21 to 0.87; MD = 0.64, 95% CI 0.45 to 0.82, respectively). Use of plastic wrap was associated with lower incidence of hypothermia (relative risk [RR] = 0.70, 95% CI 0.63 to 0.78). However, use of plastic wrap in preterm infants was not associated with decrease in mortality (RR: 0.88, 95% CI 0.70 to 1.12, P = 0.31). Incidence of hyperthermia was significantly higher in the plastic wrap group as compared to that in the control group (RR = 2.55, 95% CI: 1.56 to 4.15, P = 0.0002). Hyperthermia in the plastic wrap group was resolved within one or two hours after unwrapping the babies. CONCLUSION:Plastic wrap can be considered an effective and safe additional intervention to prevent hypothermia in preterm infants. However, its cost-effectiveness and long-term effect on mortality needs to be ascertained by conducting well-designed studies with longer follow-up period.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Previous studies have suggested that the incidence of retinopathy is lower in preterm infants with exposure to reduced levels of oxygenation than in those exposed to higher levels of oxygenation. However, it is unclear what range of oxygen saturation is appropriate to minimize retinopathy without increasing adverse outcomes. METHODS:We performed a randomized trial with a 2-by-2 factorial design to compare target ranges of oxygen saturation of 85 to 89% or 91 to 95% among 1316 infants who were born between 24 weeks 0 days and 27 weeks 6 days of gestation. The primary outcome was a composite of severe retinopathy of prematurity (defined as the presence of threshold retinopathy, the need for surgical ophthalmologic intervention, or the use of bevacizumab), death before discharge from the hospital, or both. All infants were also randomly assigned to continuous positive airway pressure or intubation and surfactant. RESULTS:The rates of severe retinopathy or death did not differ significantly between the lower-oxygen-saturation group and the higher-oxygen-saturation group (28.3% and 32.1%, respectively; relative risk with lower oxygen saturation, 0.90; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.76 to 1.06; P=0.21). Death before discharge occurred more frequently in the lower-oxygen-saturation group (in 19.9% of infants vs. 16.2%; relative risk, 1.27; 95% CI, 1.01 to 1.60; P=0.04), whereas severe retinopathy among survivors occurred less often in this group (8.6% vs. 17.9%; relative risk, 0.52; 95% CI, 0.37 to 0.73; P<0.001). There were no significant differences in the rates of other adverse events. CONCLUSIONS:A lower target range of oxygenation (85 to 89%), as compared with a higher range (91 to 95%), did not significantly decrease the composite outcome of severe retinopathy or death, but it resulted in an increase in mortality and a substantial decrease in severe retinopathy among survivors. The increase in mortality is a major concern, since a lower target range of oxygen saturation is increasingly being advocated to prevent retinopathy of prematurity. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00233324.)
Project description:BACKGROUND:Changes in oxygen saturation (SpO2) exposure have been shown to have a marked impact on neonatal outcomes and therefore careful titration of inspired oxygen is essential. In routine use, however, the frequency of SpO2 alarms not requiring intervention results in alarm fatigue and its corresponding risk. SpO2 control systems that automate oxygen adjustments (Auto-FiO2) have been shown to be safe and effective. We speculated that when using Auto-FiO2, alarm settings could be refined to reduce unnecessary alarms, without compromising safety. METHODS:An unblinded randomized crossover study was conducted in a single NICU among infants routinely managed with Auto-FiO2. During the first 6 days of respiratory support a tight and a loose alarm strategy were switched each 24 h. A balanced block randomization was used. The tight strategy set the alarms at the prescribed SpO2 target range, with a 30-s delay. The loose strategy set the alarms 2 wider, with a 90-s delay. The effectiveness outcome was the frequency of SpO2 alarms, and the safety outcomes were time at SpO2 extremes (< 80, > 98%). We hypothesized that the loose strategy would result in a marked decrease in the frequency of SpO2 alarms, and no increases at SpO2 extremes with 20 subjects. Within subject differences between alarm strategies for the primary outcomes were evaluated with Wilcoxon signed-rank test. RESULTS:During a 13-month period 26 neonates were randomized. The analysis included 21 subjects with 49 days of both tight and loose intervention. The loose alarm strategy resulted in a reduction in the median rate of SpO2 alarms from 5.2 to 1.6 per hour (p < 0.001, 95%-CI difference 1.6-3.7). The incidence of hypoxemia and hyperoxemia were very low (less than 0.1%-time) with no difference associated with the alarm strategy (95%-CI difference less than 0.0-0.2%). CONCLUSIONS:In this group of infants we found a marked advantage of the looser alarm strategy. We conclude that the paradigms of alarm strategies used for manual titration of oxygen need to be reconsidered when using Auto-FiO2. We speculate that with optimal settings false positive SpO2 alarms can be minimized, with better vigilance of clinically relevant alarms. TRIAL REGISTRATION:Retrospectively registered 15 May 2018 at ISRCTN ( 49239883 ).
Project description:This study compared predictors of breastfeeding non-initiation between infants who were and were not admitted to the NICU so that interventions can target high-risk mothers whose infants desperately need breastmilk. This was a population-based retrospective cohort study of singleton Ohio live births using birth certificates, 2006-2015. In babies who were and were not admitted to the NICU, a multivariable logistic regression model assessed the association between breastfeeding non-initiation and predictors relating to the mother, neonate, and labour and delivery events while adjusting for covariables. Of 1,463,506 births, 76,855 infants were admitted to the NICU (5.8% of study population), and breastfeeding was not initiated in 39.4% of them, compared with 31.5% of infants in the newborn nursery, p < 0.001. Apart from abnormal newborn conditions, smoking during pregnancy was the most significant risk factor for not breastfeeding in the NICU (RR 1.91 [95% CI 1.82-2.02]) and newborn nursery (RR 2.10 [95% CI 2.08-2.13]), followed by socioeconomic factors and multiparity. Limited prenatal visits (?5) were a significantly higher risk factor in the NICU (RR 1.41 [95% CI 1.34-1.49]) than in the newborn nursery (RR 1.24 [95% CI 1.22-1.26]). Intentional home birth and use of infertility treatment were associated with breastfeeding initiation. The rate of breastfeeding initiation is lower in infants admitted to the NICU than those who are not, especially among mothers with limited prenatal care. Interventions should target mothers who smoke because they are least likely to breastfeed, and their babies, who are prone to serious health conditions, could especially benefit from breastmilk.
Project description:Importance:Although screening examinations for retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) prevent blindness, they are physiologically stressful for infants. Photosensitivity during mydriasis may contribute to postexamination stress, and reducing light stimulation may make infants more comfortable. Objective:To determine the effect of a phototherapy mask worn during mydriasis on infant stress in the 12-hour period following ROP screening. Design, Setting, and Participants:The Effect of Eyemasks on Neonatal Stress Following Dilated Retinal Examination (MASK-ROP) randomized clinical trial with patient recruitment from April 2016 to June 2017 at neonatal intensive care units at St Michael's Hospital and Sunnybrook Health Sciences Center in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. A consecutive series of infants with birth weight of less than 1500 g and/or gestational age of less than 32 weeks undergoing their first ROP screening were analyzed beginning in July 2017. Analysis was intention to treat. Interventions:Patients were randomized to wear a phototherapy mask for a minimum of 4 hours after dilating drop instillation in addition to standard comfort measures. Main Outcomes and Measures:Number of desaturation, bradycardic, or apneic events during the 12-hour postexamination period. Results:Of 51 infants who were examined, 28 (54.9%) were randomized to the treatment group (ie, used a mask) and 23 (45.1%) to the control group. Overall, 10 (35.7%) and 13 infants (56.5%) received ventilator support at the time of examination in the treatment and control groups, respectively. The mean (SD) gestational age was 27.9 (2.4) weeks, 32 (63%) were boys, and the mean (SD) birth weight was 1058.6 (312.0) g. The number of all stressful events were lower in the treatment group compared with controls in the 12-hour postexamination period, adjusted for events prior to examination and ventilation status (mean [95% CI] events,?1.0 [0.6-1.8] vs 1.7 [1.0-1.7]; rate ratio [RR],?0.57; 95% CI, 0.3-1.2; P?=?.12). Risk factors associated with increased stress included younger gestational age (RR,?1.32; 95% CI, 1.2-1.5 per week), lower birth weight (RR,?1.39; 95% CI, 1.2-1.5 per 100 g), ventilator support around the time of examination (RR,?2.67; 95% CI, 1.3-5.6), intraventricular hemorrhage (RR,?3.78; 95% CI, 1.9-7.3), and hyponatremia (RR,?3.42; 95% CI, 1.8-6.6). No adverse events occurred while using eye masks. Conclusions and Relevance:This randomized clinical trial found that light sensitivity may play a role in stress observed in the late postexamination period. However, unequal distribution of infants receiving ventilator support placed certain neonates at higher risk of stress, and the clinical significance of this intervention's benefit could not be concluded with confidence. Trial Registration:ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT03824782.