Beyond Meat: A Comparison of the Dietary Intakes of Vegetarian and Non-vegetarian Adolescents.
ABSTRACT: Dietary intake of adult vegetarians from large prospective studies has been well-characterized but is rarely reported in vegetarian adolescents. Our objective was to describe and compare the dietary intake of vegetarian adolescents with their non-vegetarian counterparts in a population known to espouse healthy living. Adolescents (n = 534) aged 12-18 years old from middle and high schools near major Adventist universities in Michigan and Southern California provided dietary, demographic, and anthropometric data. Dietary intake was measured with a validated 151-item self-administered web-based food frequency questionnaire; weight and height were measured during school visits. Vegetarian was defined as the combined intake of meat, meat derivatives, poultry, and fish of <1 serving per week. Descriptive statistics and ANCOVA were used to compare the intake of vegetarians and non-vegetarians. Vegetarians significantly ate more fruits, vegetables, and other plant-based foods, but significantly less foods of animal origin, sugar-sweetened beverages, and coffee/tea compared to non-vegetarians. Vegetarians had significantly higher intakes of carbohydrates and total protein but lower intakes of fats, animal protein, and zinc compared to their counterparts. A majority (75% or more) of both groups met the 2015 Dietary Guidelines' age-and-gender-specific recommendations for most nutrients but only 16-18% of vegetarians/non-vegetarians did not exceed the upper limit for sodium. More vegetarians (49%) than non-vegetarians (25%) had <10% of their caloric intake from SFA. More than 90% of both groups met dairy recommendations, but greater proportions of vegetarians met recommendations for vegetables, fruits, nuts/soy products, and legumes than non-vegetarians. Of the non-vegetarians, only 7% and 44% met the fish and meats/poultry/eggs recommendation, respectively, which none of the vegetarians met. Compared to the general US adolescent population, both diet groups ate more fruits, vegetables, dairy and protein foods, and also consumed more micronutrients but less macronutrients. Overall, vegetarian adolescents have a more favorable dietary intake profile than non-vegetarians, but both vegetarians and non-vegetarians in this study population have a more adequate diet than the general US adolescent population. The influence of the Adventist plant-based diet culture that is translated both at home and at school is evident in our findings.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Differences in food composition, nutrient intake, and various health outcomes have been reported for vegetarians and non-vegetarians in the Adventist Health Study-2 (AHS-2) cohort. OBJECTIVE:We sought to determine whether biomarkers of dietary intake also differed between individuals classified as vegetarian (vegan, lacto-ovo-vegetarian, pesco-vegetarian, semi-vegetarian) and non-vegetarians based on patterns of consumption of meat, dairy, and eggs. METHODS:Fasting plasma, overnight urine, and adipose tissue samples were collected from a representative subset of AHS-2 participants classified into 5 diet groups (vegan, lacto-ovo-vegetarian, pesco-vegetarian, semi-vegetarian, non-vegetarian) who also completed food-frequency questionnaires. Diet-related biomarkers including carotenoids, isoflavones, enterolactone, saturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids, and vitamins were analyzed in 840 male and female participants. Multiple linear regression was used to examine the association between diet pattern and biomarker abundance, comparing each of 4 vegetarian dietary groups to non-vegetarians, and adjusted mean values were calculated. Bonferroni correction was applied to control for multiple testing. RESULTS:Vegans had higher plasma total carotenoid concentrations (1.6-fold, P < 0.0001), and higher excretion of urinary isoflavones (6-fold, P < 0.0001) and enterolactone (4.4-fold) compared with non-vegetarians. Vegans had lower relative abundance of saturated fatty acids including myristic, pentadecanoic, palmitic, and stearic acids (P < 0.0001). Vegans had higher linoleic acid (18:2?-6) relative to non-vegetarians (23.3% compared with 19.1%) (P < 0.0001), and a higher proportion of total ?-3 fatty acids (2.1% compared with 1.6%) (P < 0.0001). Results overall were similar but less robust for lacto-ovo- and pesco-vegetarians. 1-Methylhistidine was 92% lower in vegans, and lower in lacto-ovo- and pesco-vegetarians by 90% and 80%, respectively, relative to non-vegetarians (P < 0.0001). CONCLUSION:AHS-2 participants following vegan, and lacto-ovo- or pesco-vegetarian diet patterns have significant differences in plasma, urine, and adipose tissue biomarkers associated with dietary intakes compared with those who consume a non-vegetarian diet. These findings provide some validation for the prior classification of dietary groups within the AHS-2 cohort.
Project description:The cardiovascular and other health benefits and potential harms of protein and micronutrient deficiency of vegetarian diets continue to be debated.Study participants included urban migrants, their rural siblings and urban residents (n = 6555, mean age - 40.9 yrs) of the Indian Migration Study from Lucknow, Nagpur, Hyderabad and Bangalore. Information on diet (validated interviewer-administered semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire), tobacco, alcohol, physical activity, medical histories, as well as blood pressure, fasting blood and anthropometric measurements were collected. Nutrient databases were used to calculate nutrient content of regional recipes. Vegetarians ate no eggs, fish, poultry and meat. Using multivariate linear regression with robust standard error model, we compared the macro- and micro-nutrient profile of vegetarian and non-vegetarian diets.Vegetarians, (32.8% of the population), consumed greater amounts of legumes, vegetables, roots and tubers, dairy and sugar, while non-vegetarians had a greater intake of cereals, fruits, spices, salt (p?<?0.01), fats and oils. Vegetarians had a higher socioeconomic status, and were less likely to smoke, drink alcohol (p?<?0.0001) and engage in less physical activity (p?=?0.04). On multivariate analysis, vegetarians consumed more carbohydrates (??=?7.0 g/day (95% CI: 9.9 to 4.0), p?<?0.0001), vitamin C (??=?8.7 mg/day (95% CI: 4.3 to13.0), p?<?0.0001) and folate (??=?8.0 mcg/day (95% CI: 3.3 to 12.7), p?=?0.001) and lower levels of fat (??=?-1.6 g/day (95% CI: -0.62 to -2.7), p?=?0.002), protein (??=?-6.4 g/day (95% CI: -5.8 to -7.0), p?<?0.0001), vitamin B12 (??=?-1.4 mcg/day (95% CI: -1.2 to -1.5), p?<?0.0001) and zinc (??=?-0.6 mg/day (95% CI: -0.4 to -0.7), p?<?0.0001).Overall, Indian vegetarian diets were found to be adequate to sustain nutritional demands according to recommended dietary allowances with less fat. Lower vitamin B12 bio-availability remains a concern and requires exploration of acceptable dietary sources for vegetarians.
Project description:Poor dietary intake during pregnancy remains a significant public health concern, affecting the health of the mother and fetus. This study examines the adequacy of energy, macronutrient, and micronutrient intakes among self-declared lacto-vegetarian and non-vegetarian pregnant women. We analyzed dietary data from 627 pregnant women in Uttar Pradesh, India, using a multiple-pass 24 h diet recall. Compared to non-vegetarians, lacto-vegetarians (~46%) were less likely to report excessive carbohydrate (78% vs. 63%) and inadequate fat intakes (70% vs. 52%). In unadjusted analyses, lacto-vegetarians had a slightly higher mean PA for micronutrients (20% vs. 17%), but these differences were no longer significant after controlling for caste, education, and other demographic characteristics. In both groups, the median intake of 9 out of 11 micronutrients was below the Estimated Average Requirement. In conclusion, the energy and micronutrient intakes were inadequate, and the macronutrient intakes were imbalanced, regardless of stated dietary preferences. Since diets are poor across the board, a range of policies and interventions that address the household food environment, nutrition counseling, behavior change, and supplementation are needed in order to achieve adequate nutrient intake for pregnant women in this population.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:We assessed the prevalence of type 2 diabetes in people following different types of vegetarian diets compared with that in nonvegetarians. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS:The study population comprised 22,434 men and 38,469 women who participated in the Adventist Health Study-2 conducted in 2002-2006. We collected self-reported demographic, anthropometric, medical history, and lifestyle data from Seventh-Day Adventist church members across North America. The type of vegetarian diet was categorized based on a food-frequency questionnaire. We calculated odds ratios (ORs) and 95% CIs using multivariate-adjusted logistic regression. RESULTS:Mean BMI was lowest in vegans (23.6 kg/m(2)) and incrementally higher in lacto-ovo vegetarians (25.7 kg/m(2)), pesco-vegetarians (26.3 kg/m(2)), semi-vegetarians (27.3 kg/m(2)), and nonvegetarians (28.8 kg/m(2)). Prevalence of type 2 diabetes increased from 2.9% in vegans to 7.6% in nonvegetarians; the prevalence was intermediate in participants consuming lacto-ovo (3.2%), pesco (4.8%), or semi-vegetarian (6.1%) diets. After adjustment for age, sex, ethnicity, education, income, physical activity, television watching, sleep habits, alcohol use, and BMI, vegans (OR 0.51 [95% CI 0.40-0.66]), lacto-ovo vegetarians (0.54 [0.49-0.60]), pesco-vegetarians (0.70 [0.61-0.80]), and semi-vegetarians (0.76 [0.65-0.90]) had a lower risk of type 2 diabetes than nonvegetarians. CONCLUSIONS:The 5-unit BMI difference between vegans and nonvegetarians indicates a substantial potential of vegetarianism to protect against obesity. Increased conformity to vegetarian diets protected against risk of type 2 diabetes after lifestyle characteristics and BMI were taken into account. Pesco- and semi-vegetarian diets afforded intermediate protection.
Project description:Background: Sub-inflammation and insulin resistance characterize women with PCOS. Data on dietary modulation of inflammation among PCOS women is scant, particularly from Indian subcontinent. The present study aimed to assess the effect of plant based vs. animal origin diets on serum markers of inflammation (primary outcome measure). Methods: This observational case-control study compared age and BMI matched PCOS and apparently healthy women from two populations following different dietary practices. The vegetarian women from New-Delhi (n = 82 PCOS and n = 179 healthy) and non-vegetarian women from Srinagar (n = 62 PCOS and n = 141 healthy) formed the groups. Using a uniform methodology, detailed clinical, biochemical, hormonal, and inflammatory marker assessment was undertaken. Results: The mean age of the overall cohort was 26.23 ± 4.59 years with a mean BMI of 24.39 ± 3.72 kg/m2. Overall pro-inflammatory markers (TNF-?, IL-6, IL-1?, hs-CRP and serum resistin) were significantly higher (p ? 0.05) and anti-inflammatory markers (IL-10 and adiponectin) were lower among women with PCOS than healthy subjects. On comparing vegetarian women with non-vegetarians, higher daily calorie intake (1895.46 ± 258.19 vs. 1860.13 ± 323.96 Kcal) with a higher protein and fat and lower carbohydrate intake was recorded in the latter, although the percent energy derived from carbohydrates was higher among vegetarians. Clinical and biochemical parameters were comparable among the groups except mFG score, total serum testosterone and serum lipid levels which were higher among non-vegetarian women as compared to their vegetarian counterparts from both categories (PCOS and healthy). Interestingly, vegetarian women with PCOS and healthy women had higher serum pro-inflammatory and lower anti-inflammatory markers compared to their non-vegetarian counterparts. Conclusion: Women with PCOS consuming Indian vegetarian diet have higher pro-inflammatory and lower anti-inflammatory marker levels than their age and BMI matched healthy non-vegetarian counterparts. This interesting observation can be attributed to the dietary composition, among other factors and needs confirmation from well-designed randomized studies on a larger cohort. Clinical Trial Registration: The study was registered with CTRI database under registration number CTRI/2013/09/003996.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To determine how a vegetarian diet affects stroke incidence in 2 prospective cohorts and to explore whether the association is modified by dietary vitamin B12 intake. METHODS:Participants without stroke in the Tzu Chi Health Study (cohort 1, n = 5,050, recruited in 2007-2009) and the Tzu Chi Vegetarian Study (cohort 2, n = 8,302, recruited in 2005) were followed until the end of 2014. Diet was assessed through food frequency questionnaires in both cohorts at baseline. Stroke events and baseline comorbidities were identified through the National Health Insurance Research Database. A subgroup of 1,528 participants in cohort 1 were assessed for serum homocysteine, vitamin B12, and folate. Associations between vegetarian diet and stroke incidences were estimated by Cox regression with age as time scale, adjusted for sex, education, smoking, alcohol, physical activities, body mass index (only in cohort 1), hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, and ischemic heart diseases. RESULTS:Vegetarians had lower serum vitamin B12 and higher folate and homocysteine than nonvegetarians. In cohort 1, 54 events occurred in 30,797 person-years follow-up. Vegetarians (vs nonvegetarians) experienced lower risk of ischemic stroke (hazard ratio [HR], 0.26; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.08-0.88). In cohort 2, 121 events occurred in 76,797 person-years follow-up. Vegetarians (vs nonvegetarians) experienced lower risk of overall stroke (HR, 0.52; 95% CI, 0.33-0.82), ischemic stroke (HR, 0.41; 95% CI, 0.19-0.88), and hemorrhagic stroke (HR, 034; 95% CI, 0.12-1.00). Our explorative analysis showed that vitamin B12 intake may modify the association between vegetarian diet and overall stroke (p interaction = 0.046). CONCLUSION:Taiwanese vegetarian diet is associated with a lower risk of ischemic and hemorrhagic strokes.
Project description:Vegetarian diets are defined by the absence of meat and fish, but differences in the intake of other foods between meat-eaters and low or non-meat eaters are also important to document. We examined intakes of high-protein foods (meat, poultry, fish, legumes, nuts, vegetarian protein alternatives, dairy products, and eggs) and other major food groups (fruit, vegetables, bread, pasta, rice, snack foods, and beverages) in regular meat-eaters, low meat-eaters, poultry-eaters, fish-eaters, vegetarians, and vegans of white ethnicity participating in UK Biobank who had completed at least one web-based 24-h dietary assessment (n = 199,944). In regular meat-eaters, around 25% of total energy came from meat, fish, dairy and plant milk, cheese, yogurt, and eggs. In vegetarians, around 20% of energy came from dairy and plant milk, cheese, yoghurt, eggs, legumes, nuts, and vegetarian protein alternatives, and in vegans around 15% came from plant milk, legumes, vegetarian alternatives, and nuts. Low and non-meat eaters had higher intakes of fruit and vegetables and lower intakes of roast or fried potatoes compared to regular meat-eaters. The differences in the intakes of meat, plant-based high-protein foods, and other foods between meat-eaters and low and non-meat eaters in UK Biobank may contribute to differences in health outcomes.
Project description:There are a significant number of studies on cognitive restraint among individuals with varying dietary patterns. Although most research has found that vegetarians report higher levels of cognitive restraint compared to non-vegetarians, many studies have contributed inconsistent results. The aim of the current study, therefore, was to assess any differences between groups with varying dietary patterns on cognitive restraint and other disordered eating pattern. The second objective was to examine determinants of cognitive restraint in individuals adhering to a vegan diet, a vegetarian diet and an omnivore diet. Two-hundred and fifty-four participants with varying dietary patterns completed the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire, the Perseverative Thinking Questionnaire and the Eating Habits Questionnaire. Our results indicated that both vegetarian and vegan groups showed a significantly lower cognitive restraint, lower emotional eating and lower uncontrolled eating than those who followed an omnivorous diet. In addition, these both groups following a plant-based diet have shown more cognitions, behaviours and feelings related to an extreme focus on healthy eating (orthorexia nervosa) than group following an omnivorous diet. There were no significant differences between the groups in perseverative thinking. Core characteristics of repetitive negative thinking was a significant predictor of cognitive restraint in vegans. Feeling positively about healthy eating predicted cognitive restraint among vegetarians. Problems associated with healthy eating and feeling positively about healthy eating predicted cognitive restraint among individuals following an omnivorous diet. Knowledge of predictors of cognitive restraint may serve as a psychological intervention goal or psychoeducation goal among individuals with varying dietary patterns.
Project description:Inadequate iodine intake has been identified in populations considered iodine replete for decades. The objective of the current study is to evaluate urinary iodine concentration (UIC) and the probability of adequate iodine intake in subgroups of the Norwegian population defined by age, life stage and vegetarian dietary practice. In a cross-sectional survey, we assessed the probability of adequate iodine intake by two 24-h food diaries and UIC from two fasting morning spot urine samples in 276 participants. The participants included children (n = 47), adolescents (n = 46), adults (n = 71), the elderly (n = 23), pregnant women (n = 45), ovo-lacto vegetarians (n = 25), and vegans (n = 19). In all participants combined, the median (95% CI) UIC was 101 (90, 110) µg/L, median (25th, 75th percentile) calculated iodine intake was 112 (77, 175) µg/day and median (25th, 75th percentile) estimated usual iodine intake was 101 (75, 150) µg/day. According to WHOs criteria for evaluation of median UIC, iodine intake was inadequate in the elderly, pregnant women, vegans and non-pregnant women of childbearing age. Children had the highest (82%) and vegans the lowest (14%) probability of adequate iodine intake according to reported food and supplement intakes. This study confirms the need for monitoring iodine intake and status in nationally representative study samples in Norway.
Project description:Cardiometabolic diseases are increasing disproportionately in South Asia compared with other regions of the world despite high levels of vegetarianism. This unexpected discordance may be explained by differences in the healthfulness of vegetarian and non-vegetarian diets in South Asia compared with the United States. The aim of this study was to compare the food group intake of vegetarians with non-vegetarians in South Asia and the United States and to evaluate associations between vegetarianism and cardiometabolic disease risk factors (overweight/obesity, central obesity, diabetes, hypertension, high triacylglycerols, high low-density lipoprotein, low high-density lipoprotein, and high Framingham Heart Score).Using cross-sectional data from adults (age 20-69 y) in South Asia (Centre for Cardiometabolic Risk Reduction in South-Asia [CARRS] 2010-2011; N = 15 665) and the United States (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2006; N = 2159), adherence to a vegetarian diet was assessed using food propensity questionnaires. Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios and predicted margins (e.g., adjusted prevalence of the outcomes).One-third (33%; n = 4968) of adults in the South Asian sample were vegetarian compared with only 2.4% (n = 59) in the US sample. Among South Asians, vegetarians more frequently ate dairy, legumes, vegetables, fruit, desserts, and fried foods than non-vegitarians (all P < 0.05). Among Americans, vegetarians more frequently ate legumes, fruit, and whole grains, and less frequently ate refined cereals, desserts, fried foods, fruit juice, and soft drinks than non-vegetarians (all P < 0.05). After adjustment for confounders (age, sex, education, tobacco, alcohol, and also city in CARRS), South Asian vegetarians were slightly less frequently overweight/obese compared with non-vegetarians: 49% (95% confidence interval [CI], 45%-53%) versus 53% (95% CI, 51%-56%), respectively; whereas US vegetarians were considerably less frequently overweight/obese compared with non-vegetarians: 48% (95% CI, 32%-63%) versus 68% (95% CI, 65%-70%), respectively. Furthermore, US vegetarians were less likely to exhibit central obesity than non-vegetarians: 62% (95% CI, 43%-78%) versus 78% (95% CI, 76%-80%), respectively.There is greater divergence between vegetarian and non-vegetarian diets in the United States than in South Asia, and US vegetarians have more consistently healthier food group intakes than South Asian vegetarians. Vegetarians in both populations have a lower probability of overweight/obesity compared with non-vegetarians. The strength of this association may be stronger for US vegetarian diets, which were also protective against central obesity.