Safety and Efficacy of Antithrombotic Strategies in Patients With Atrial Fibrillation Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Intervention: A Network Meta-analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.
ABSTRACT: Importance:The antithrombotic treatment of patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) and coronary artery disease, in particular with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and/or percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), poses a significant treatment dilemma in clinical practice. Objective:To study the safety and efficacy of different antithrombotic regimens using a network meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials in this population. Data Sources:PubMed, EMBASE, EBSCO, and Cochrane databases were searched to identify randomized controlled trials comparing antithrombotic regimens. Study Selection:Four randomized studies were included (n?=?10?026; WOEST, PIONEER AF-PCI, RE-DUAL PCI, and AUGUSTUS). Data Extraction and Synthesis:The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines were used in this systematic review and network meta-analysis between 4 regimens using a Bayesian random-effects model. A pre hoc statistical analysis plan was written, and the review protocol was registered at PROSPERO. Data were analyzed between November 2018 and February 2019. Main Outcomes and Measures:The primary safety outcome was Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) major bleeding; secondary safety outcomes were combined TIMI major and minor bleeding, trial-defined primary bleeding events, intracranial hemorrhage, and hospitalization. The primary efficacy outcome was trial-defined major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE); secondary efficacy outcomes were individual components of MACE. Results:The overall prevalence of ACS varied from 28% to 61%. The mean age ranged from 70 to 72 years; 20% to 29% of the trial population were women; and most patients were at high risk for thromboembolic and bleeding events. Compared with a regimen of vitamin K antagonist (VKA) plus dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT; P2Y12 inhibitor plus aspirin), the odds ratios (ORs) for TIMI major bleeding were 0.58 (95% CI, 0.31-1.08) for VKA plus P2Y12 inhibitor, 0.49 (95% CI, 0.30-0.82) for non-VKA oral anticoagulant (NOAC) plus P2Y12 inhibitor, and 0.70 (95% CI, 0.38-1.23) for NOAC plus DAPT. Compared with VKA plus DAPT, the ORs for MACE were 0.96 (95% CI, 0.60-1.46) for VKA plus P2Y12 inhibitor, 1.02 (95% CI, 0.71-1.47) for NOAC plus P2Y12 inhibitor, and 0.94 (95% CI, 0.60-1.45) for NOAC plus DAPT. Conclusions and Relevance:A regimen of NOACs plus P2Y12 inhibitor was associated with less bleeding compared with VKAs plus DAPT. Strategies omitting aspirin caused less bleeding, including intracranial bleeding, without significant difference in MACE, compared with strategies including aspirin. Our results support the use of NOAC plus P2Y12 inhibitor as the preferred regimen post-percutaneous coronary intervention for these high-risk patients with AF. A regimen of VKA plus DAPT should generally be avoided.
Project description:We performed a network meta-analysis to investigate the optimal antithrombotic regime by indirectly comparing new antithrombotic regimes (new P2Y12 inhibitors plus aspirin or novel oral anticoagulants on top of traditional dual antiplatelet therapy [DAPT]) in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS).A systematic search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane databases was performed to identify all phase 3 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) involving novel oral anticoagulants or oral P2Y12 inhibitors in patients with ACS. Major adverse cardiac events (MACE) were regarded as the efficacy endpoint, and thrombolysis in myocardial infarction (TIMI) major bleeding events were used as the safety endpoint. The net clinical benefit was calculated as the sum of MACE and TIMI major bleeding events.Five phase 3 RCTs with 64,476 ACS patients were included. Although there were no significant differences among new antithrombotic regimes, rivaroxaban 5 mg twice daily plus traditional DAPT might be the most effective in reducing the incidence of MACE, accompanying the highest risk of TIMI major bleeding. Ticagrelor plus aspirin presented slight advantage on the net clinical benefit over other new antithrombotic regimes, with the highest probability of being the best regimes for net clinical benefit (35.0%), followed by prasugrel plus aspirin (28.0%), and rivaroxaban 2.5 mg twice daily plus traditional DAPT (19.5%).Novel antithrombotic regime with ticagrelor plus aspirin brings a larger clinical benefit in comparison with other regimes, suggesting that it may be the optimal antithrombotic regime for patients with ACS.
Project description:Up to 10% of patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) undergo percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). A systematic review and network meta-analysis were conducted by searching PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane database of systematic reviews for randomized control trials that studied the safety and efficacy of different antithrombotic strategies in these patients. Six studies, including 12,158 patients were included. Compared to that in the triple antithrombotic therapy group (vitamin K antagonist (VKA) plus P2Y12 inhibitor and aspirin), thrombolysis in myocardial infarction (TIMI) major bleeding was significantly reduced in the dual antithrombotic therapy (non-vitamin K oral anticoagulants (NOACs) plus P2Y12 inhibitor) group by 47% (Odds ratio (OR), 0.53; 95% credible interval [CrI], 0.35-0.78; I2 = 0%). Besides, NOAC plus a P2Y12 inhibitor was associated with less intracranial hemorrhage compared to VKA plus single antiplatelet therapy (OR: 0.20, 95% CrI: 0.05-0.77). There was no significant difference in the trial-defined major adverse cardiac events or the individual outcomes of all-cause mortality, cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, stroke or stent thrombosis among all antithrombotic strategies. In conclusion, antithrombotic strategy of NOACs plus P2Y12 inhibitor is safer than, and as effective as, the strategies including aspirin when used in AF patients undergoing PCI.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Our study aims to perform a meta-analysis of benefits and risks associated with the use of non-vitamin K oral anticoagulants (NOAC) versus vitamin K antagonists (VKA) in patients with a percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with a particular focus on the combination type: dual vs. dual antithrombotic therapy (DAT: NOAC + single antiplatelet therapy (SAPT) vs. DAT: VKA + SAPT), dual vs. triple antithrombotic therapy (DAT: NOAC + SAPT vs. TAT: VKA + dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT)) or triple vs. triple antithrombotic therapy (TAT: NOAC+DAPT vs. TAT: VKA+DAPT). METHODS:PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases were searched to identify randomized controlled trials comparing antithrombotic regimens. Four randomized studies (n = 10.969; PIONEER AF-PCI, RE-DUAL PCI, AUGUSTUS, and ENTRUST-AF PCI) were included. The primary outcome was the composite of major bleeding defined by the International Society on Thrombosis and Hemostasis (ISTH) and clinically relevant bleeding requiring medical intervention (CRNM). Secondary outcomes included all-cause mortality, major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE), myocardial infarction (MI), stroke, and stent thrombosis (ST). RESULTS:Combination strategies with NOACs were associated with reduced risk of major bleeding events across different combination strategies as compared to VKA, with the most significant risk reduction when DAT was compared with TAT, namely DAT with NOAC + SAPT was associated with a 37% relative risk reduction (RRR) of major bleeding events as compared to TAT with VKA + DAPT (RR 0.63; 95% CI, 0.50-0.80). The reduction of major bleeding risks is a class effect of NOACs. Combination strategies of NOACs vs. VKAs resulted in a comparable risk of MACE, MI, stroke, ST, or death. CONCLUSIONS:Antithrombotic combinations of NOACs (as DAT or TAT) are safer than VKAs with respect to bleeding risk and result in a satisfactory efficacy with no increase of ischemic or thrombotic events in patients undergoing PCI.
Project description:Background The optimal antithrombotic therapy for patients with atrial fibrillation undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention is a topic of debate. We aimed at defining the efficacy and safety of double antithrombotic therapy with single antiplatelet therapy (SAPT) plus a non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulant (NOAC) against triple antithrombotic therapy with dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) added to a vitamin K antagonist (VKA), illustrating the pooled cumulative distribution of events, the ranking of different NOACs tested in NOAC+SAPT combination strategies, and the state of the current evidence in the field. Methods and Results Randomized controlled trials meeting the inclusion criteria were identified. The primary efficacy end point was the composite of trial-defined major adverse cardiac events. The primary safety end point was clinically significant bleeding. Secondary end points were the components of primary end points. Trial-level pairwise and Bayesian network meta-analyses, reconstructed Kaplan-Meier analyses, and trial sequential analysis were performed. Four randomized controlled trials (10 969 patients) were included. No differences were found in terms of major adverse cardiac events (hazard ratio [HR], 1.07; 95% CI, 0.94-1.22), and the NOAC+SAPT strategy showed a lower rate of clinically significant bleeding compared with VKA + DAPT (HR, 0.56; 95% CI, 0.39-0.80). These results were consistent in reconstructed Kaplan-Meier analyses. In the Bayesian network meta-analysis, different NOACs displayed diverse risk-benefit profiles. Trial sequential analyses suggest that the evidence for the similarity in major adverse cardiac events compared with VKA + DAPT and the bleeding risk reduction observed with NOAC+SAPT is likely to be conclusive. Conclusions NOAC+SAPT does not increase the risk of major adverse cardiac events and reduces the risk of bleeding compared with VKA + DAPT in AF patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention. Various NOACs may have different risk-benefit profiles in combination strategies. Registration URL: https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero/; Unique identifier: CRD42020151089.
Project description:The aim of this systematic review and network meta-analysis was to evaluate the comparative efficacy and safety of antiplatelet agents, vitamin K antagonist (VKA) and non-VKA oral anticoagulants (NOACs) in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched to identify clinical trials comparing antiplatelet drugs with VKA and NOACs or their combination in AF patients undergoing PCI with a mean/median follow-up of at least 12 months. A network meta-analysis was conducted to directly and indirectly compare the efficacy and safety of competitive antithrombotic regimens with a Bayesian random-effects model. Results were presented as relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs).A total of 15 studies enrolling 13,104 patients were included. Among 5 regimens, rivaroxaban 15 mg daily plus P2Y12 inhibitor treatment demonstrated significant superiority over dual- and triple-antiplatelet therapies (DAPT, TT) in reducing thromboembolic events (0.64 [0.38, 0.95] and 0.68 [0.43, 0.98], respectively) but showed the maximum possibility of major bleeding risk, while VKA plus single antiplatelet therapy (SAPT) seemed the safest. Significantly less risk of major bleeding was seen in DAPT group than that in TT group (0.63 [0.39, 0.99]).The present study suggests that combination of VKA and SAPT is the best choice for AF patients undergoing PCI considering both efficacy and safety. Rivaroxaban 2.5 mg twice daily plus DAPT treatment owns the highest probability to be the optimal alternative to VKA plus SAPT for these patients.
Project description:Patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) require long-term antithrombotic intervention to reduce the risk of further ischemic events; dual antiplatelet therapy with a P2Y12 inhibitor and acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) is the current standard of care. However, pivotal clinical trials report that patients receiving this treatment have a residual risk of approximately 10% for further ischemic events. The development of non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs) has renewed interest in a 'dual pathway' strategy, targeting both the coagulation cascade and platelet component of thrombus formation. In the phase III ATLAS ACS 2 TIMI 51 trial, a 'triple therapy' approach (NOAC plus dual antiplatelet therapy) showed reduced ischemic events with rivaroxaban 2.5 mg twice daily, albeit at an increased risk of bleeding. Two studies have investigated the role of NOACs in combination with a P2Y12 inhibitor, with or without ASA, in reducing bleeding risk in patients with atrial fibrillation undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention; two further studies are underway. Although these trials will help to inform optimal treatment protocols for secondary prevention of ACS, an individualized approach to treatment will be needed, taking account of the high frequency of co-morbid conditions found in this patient population.
Project description:Despite dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) including potent P2Y12 inhibitors, recurrent ischaemic events occur in a significant number of patients after acute coronary syndrome (ACS), warranting new antithrombotic strategies. Combinations of non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulant (NOAC) with antiplatelet therapy have been tested in several large phases II and III randomised trials. Overall, current evidence suggests that the use of NOACs on top of DAPT after ACS reduces the rate of recurrent ischaemic events, albeit at the price of increased risk for major bleeding. In the particular field of patients with ACS and atrial fibrillation, NOACs may be associated with reduced bleeding complications compared with vitamin K antagonist. Further randomised trials evaluating low-dose NOAC combined with single antiplatelet therapy are warranted.
Project description:The significance of adding new oral anticoagulants (NOACs) to antiplatelet therapy in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is unclear. We conducted a meta-analysis to assess the safety and efficacy of adding NOACs (apixaban, rivaroxaban, and dabigatran) to single antiplatelet agent (SAP) or dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) in patients with ACS. Seven randomized controlled trials were selected using PubMed or MEDLINE, Scopus, and Cochrane library (inception to August 2017). The summary measure was random effects hazard ratio (HR) with 95% confidence interval (CI). The primary safety outcome was clinically significant bleeding. The secondary efficacy outcome was major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE; composite of myocardial infarction, stroke, and all-cause mortality). In 31,574 patients, addition of NOAC to SAP did not increase the risk of clinically significant bleeding (HR 0.82, 95% CI 0.56 to 1.20, p?=?0.31); however, the risk of clinically significant bleeding was significantly increased with NOAC plus DAPT (HR 2.24, 95% CI 1.75 to 2.87, p?<?0.001). NOACs had no statistically beneficial effect on MACE when used with SAP (HR 0.82, 95% CI 0.66 to 1.04, p?=?0.10); however, a modest reduction in MACE was observed when NOACs were combined with DAPT (HR 0.86, 95% CI 0.78 to 0.93, p?<?0.001). In conclusion, in patients with ACS, the addition of NOAC to DAPT resulted in increased risk of clinically significant bleeding, whereas only a modest reduction in MACE was achieved. The addition of NOACs to SAP did not result in significant reduction of MACE or increase in clinically significant bleeding.
Project description:Background: There is limited data evaluating the prescription practices for antithrombotic therapy in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) following elective percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Objective: This single-center, single-operator, retrospective cohort study aimed to evaluate trends of antithrombotic treatment strategies in patients with AF undergoing elective PCI. Methods: Patients with AF who electively underwent PCI performed by a single interventionalist between April 2013 and May 2018 were identified. The primary outcome was the antithrombotic therapy at discharge assessed by chart review: triple (TAT, triple antithrombotic therapy) or dual (DAT, dual antithrombotic therapy) antithrombotic therapy and vitamin K antagonist (VKA) or non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulant (NOAC), respectively. Results: Of 6,135 screened patients, 259 met the inclusion criteria. Among these, 133 (51%) patients received NOAC- and 126 (49%) VKA-therapy. Compared with patients on NOAC therapy, patients treated with VKA had higher bleeding risk (mean HAS-BLED-Score; 2.3 vs. 2.0; p = 0.02) and more co-morbidities (estimated glomerular filtration rate <30 ml/min, 11 vs. 4%; p = 0.04; diabetes mellitus, 33 vs. 20%; p = 0.03; history of previous PCI, 37 vs. 21%; p < 0.01). TAT was prescribed more frequently if the prescription included VKA compared with NOAC (61 vs. 41%; p < 0.01). Prescription of TAT and VKA decreased throughout the observed period (2013: 100% vs. 2018: 6%; p < 0.01 and 2013: 91% vs. 2018: 28%; p < 0.01). Conclusion: These observational data from a single center registry show a decrease of TAT- and VKA- prescription in favor of DAT with NOAC. Whether these observations are consistent with national or global trends should to be evaluated in further studies.
Project description:Dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) combining aspirin and a P2Y12 receptor inhibitor has been consistently shown to reduce recurrent major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) or undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for stable coronary artery disease (CAD) compared with aspirin monotherapy, but at the expense of an increased risk of major bleeding. Nevertheless, the optimal duration of DAPT for secondary prevention of CAD remains uncertain, owing to the conflicting results of several large randomised trials. Among patients with stable CAD undergoing PCI with drug-eluting stents (DES), shorter durations of DAPT (3-6 months) were shown non-inferior to 12 or 24 months duration with respect to MACE, but reduced the rates of major bleeding. Contrariwise, prolonged DAPT durations (18-48 months) reduced the incidence of myocardial infarction and stent thrombosis, but at a cost of an increased risk of major bleeding and all-cause mortality. Until more evidence becomes available, the choice of optimal DAPT regimen and duration for patients with CAD requires a tailored approach based on the patient clinical presentation, baseline risk profile and management strategy. Future studies are however needed to identify patients who may derive benefit from shortened or extended DAPT courses for secondary prevention of CAD based on their individual ischaemic and bleeding risk. Based on limited evidence, 12 months duration of DAPT is currently recommended in patients with ACS irrespective of their management strategy, but large ongoing randomised trials are currently assessing the efficacy and safety of a short-term DAPT strategy (3-6 months) for patients with ACS undergoing PCI with newer generation DES. Finally, several ongoing, large-scale, randomised trials are challenging the current concept of DAPT by investigating P2Y12 receptor inhibitors as single antiplatelet therapy and may potentially shift the paradigm of antiplatelet therapy after PCI in the near future. This article provides a contemporary state-of-the-art review of the current evidence on DAPT for secondary prevention of patients with CAD and its future perspectives.