Lived Experience in New Models of Care for Substance Use Disorder: A Systematic Review of Peer Recovery Support Services and Recovery Coaching.
ABSTRACT: Peer recovery support services (PRSS) are increasingly being employed in a range of clinical settings to assist individuals with substance use disorder (SUD) and co-occurring psychological disorders. PRSS are peer-driven mentoring, education, and support ministrations delivered by individuals who, because of their own experience with SUD and SUD recovery, are experientially qualified to support peers currently experiencing SUD and associated problems. This systematic review characterizes the existing experimental, quasi-experimental, single- and multi-group prospective and retrospective, and cross-sectional research on PRSS. Findings to date tentatively speak to the potential of peer supports across a number of SUD treatment settings, as evidenced by positive findings on measures including reduced substance use and SUD relapse rates, improved relationships with treatment providers and social supports, increased treatment retention, and greater treatment satisfaction. These findings, however, should be viewed in light of many null findings to date, as well as significant methodological limitations of the existing literature, including inability to distinguish the effects of peer recovery support from other recovery support activities, heterogeneous populations, inconsistency in the definitions of peer workers and recovery coaches, and lack of any, or appropriate comparison groups. Further, role definitions for PRSS and the complexity of clinical boundaries for peers working in the field represent important implementation challenges presented by this novel class of approaches for SUD management. There remains a need for further rigorous investigation to establish the efficacy, effectiveness, and cost-benefits of PRSS. Ultimately, such research may also help solidify PRSS role definitions, identify optimal training guidelines for peers, and establish for whom and under what conditions PRSS are most effective.
Project description:<h4>Introduction</h4>Central Appalachia has been disproportionately affected by the opioid epidemic and overdose fatalities. We developed West Virginia Peers Enhancing Education, Recovery, and Survival (WV PEERS), a program based on peer recovery support, to engage individuals using opioids and link them with a range of services.<h4>Methods</h4>Community partners providing services to individuals with opioid use disorder (OUD) were identified and collaborations were formalized using a standardized memorandum of understanding. The program was structured to offer ongoing peer recovery support specialist (PRSS) services, not just a one-time referral. A website and cards describing the WV PEERS program were developed and disseminated via community partners and community education sessions.<h4>Results</h4>Overall, 1456 encounters with individuals with OUD (mean= 2 encounters per individual) occurred in a variety of community settings over 8 months. The majority of referrals were from harm reduction programs. Overall, 63.9% (n=931) of individuals served by WV PEERS accessed services for substance use disorders and/or mental health problems. Over half (52.3%; n = 487) of individuals entered substance use and/or mental health treatment, and nearly a third (30.4%; n = 283) remained in treatment over six months.<h4>Implications</h4>Using the WV PEERS model, PRSSs effectively engaged and linked individuals with OUD to mental health and substance use treatment in rural central Appalachia. Future research is needed to determine whether these services reduce the risk of overdose mortality.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Treatment for opioid use disorder involving opioid-based pharmacotherapies is considered most effective when accompanied by psychosocial interventions. Peer-led support groups are widely available and have been described by many as fundamental to the recovery process. However, some individuals using medications face stigma in these settings, which can be contradictory and counterproductive to their recovery. METHODS:This paper describes the development of the "Ability, Inspiration and Motivation" or "AIM" group, an alternative peer support group that aims to remove medication stigma from peer recovery. Qualitative interviews with staff, peers, and clients of a community-based buprenorphine treatment program were used to establish the core components of the curriculum to support client needs. RESULTS:Staff, peers, and clients of the buprenorphine program indicated a need and desire to establish a peer recovery group that recognizes persons on medication as being in recovery and destigmatizes use of medication to treat opioid addiction. A respectful environment, holistic perspective on health, spirituality, sharing, and celebration were all established as necessary pillars of the AIM group curriculum. CONCLUSIONS:The community-based effort to establish and develop the AIM group demonstrates that combining the strengths of a peer support with evidence-based medication treatment is both possible and desirable. Shifting the culture of peer recovery groups to support the use of medications may have implications for improving treatment retention and should be considered as a potential strategy to reduce the burden of the opioid epidemic.
Project description:For patients with substance use disorder (SUD), a peer recovery coach (PRC) intervention increases engagement in recovery services; effective support services interventions have occasionally demonstrated cost savings through decreased acute care utilization. Examine effect of PRCs on acute care utilization. Combined results of 2 parallel 1:1 randomized controlled trials. Inpatient adults with substance use disorder INTERVENTIONS: Inpatient PRC linkage and follow-up contact for 6 months vs usu