No Clinical Impact of CYP3A5 Gene Polymorphisms on the Pharmacokinetics and/or Efficacy of Maraviroc in Healthy Volunteers and HIV-1-Infected Subjects.
ABSTRACT: Maraviroc is a C-C chemokine receptor type-5 antagonist approved for the treatment of HIV-1. Previous studies show that cytochrome P450 3A5 (CYP3A5) plays a role in maraviroc metabolism. CYP3A5 is subject to a genetic polymorphism. The presence of 2 functional alleles (CYP3A5*1/*1) confers the extensive metabolism phenotype, which is rare in whites but common in blacks. The effect of CYP3A5 genotype on maraviroc and/or metabolite pharmacokinetics was evaluated in 2 clinical studies: a post hoc analysis from a phase 2b/3 study (NCT00098293) conducted in 494 HIV-1-infected subjects (study 1) in which the impact on maraviroc efficacy in 303 subjects was also assessed, and a study conducted in 47 healthy volunteers (study 2). In study 2 (NCT02625207), extensive metabolizers had 26% to 37% lower mean area under the concentration-time curve compared with poor metabolizers (no CYP3A5*1 alleles). This effect diminished to 17% in the presence of potent CYP3A inhibition. The effect of CYP3A5 genotype was greatest in the formation of the metabolite (1S,2S)-2-hydroxymaraviroc. In study 1, the CYP3A5*1/*1 genotype unexpectedly had higher maraviroc area under the curve predictions (20%) compared with those with no CYP3A5*1 alleles. The reason for this disparity remains unclear. The proportions of subjects with viral loads <50 and <400 copies/mL for maraviroc were comparable among all 3 CYP3A5 genotypes. In both studies maraviroc exposures were in the range of near-maximal viral inhibition in the majority of subjects. These results demonstrate that although CYP3A5 contributes to the metabolism of maraviroc, CYP3A5 genotype does not affect the clinical response to maraviroc in combination treatment of HIV-1 infection at approved doses.
Project description:CYP3A5 plays a prominent role in the metabolism of maraviroc, an approved drug for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 treatment and a candidate for HIV-1 prevention. We studied the effect of the CYP3A5 genotype on pharmacokinetics of maraviroc and a primary CYP3A5-dependent metabolite of maraviroc denoted as metabolite 1 (M1). Volunteers were screened for health status and CYP3A5 genotype (wild-type allele *1 and dysfunctional alleles *2, *3, *6, and *7) to obtain 24 evaluable subjects in three groups (n = 8 each): homozygous dysfunctional (two dysfunctional alleles), heterozygous (one *1 allele and one dysfunctional allele), and homozygous wild-type (two *1 alleles). Subjects received 300 mg maraviroc orally followed by blood collection for 32 hours. The homozygous wild-type group exhibited lower mean plasma maraviroc concentrations at almost all sampling times. The median (interquartile range) maraviroc area under the plasma concentration-time curves from time 0 to infinity (AUC0-inf) were 2099 (1422-2568) ng?h/ml, 1761 (931-2640) ng?h/ml, and 1238 (1065-1407) ng?h/ml for the homozygous dysfunctional, heterozygous, and homozygous wild-type groups, respectively. The homozygous wild-type group had 41% lower maraviroc AUC0-inf and 66% higher apparent clearance compared with the homozygous dysfunctional group (P = 0.02). The AUC0-inf ratios of maraviroc to M1 in heterozygous and homozygous wild-type subjects were lower by 51 and 64% relative to the homozygous dysfunctional group, respectively (P < 0.001). In conclusion, the lower maraviroc concentrations in the homozygous wild-type group indicate that maraviroc may be underdosed in people homozygous for the CYP3A5*1 allele, including almost one-half of African Americans.
Project description:AIM:The primary objective of the present study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interactions between clopidogrel and cilostazol in relation to the CYP2C19 and CYP3A5 genotypes. METHODS:In a randomized, three-way crossover study, 27 healthy subjects were administered clopidogrel (300 mg), cilostazol (100 mg) or clopidogrel + cilostazol orally. Plasma concentrations of clopidogrel, cilostazol and their active metabolites (clopidogrel thiol metabolite, 3,4-dehydrocilostazol and 4?-trans-hydroxycilostazol), and adenosine diphosphate-induced platelet aggregation were measured for pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic assessment. RESULTS:The area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) of the active thiol metabolite of clopidogrel was highest in the CYP2C19 extensive metabolizers (EM) and lowest in the poor metabolizers (PM). Cilostazol decreased the thiol metabolite AUC by 29% in the CYP3A5*1/*3 genotype [geometric mean ratio (GMR) 0.71; 90% confidence interval (CI) 0.58, 0.86; P = 0.020] but not in the CYP3A5*3/*3 genotype (GMR 0.93; 90% CI 0.80, 1.10; P = 0.446). Known effects of the CYP2C19 and CYP3A5 genotypes on the exposure of cilostazol and its metabolites were observed but there was no significant difference in the AUC of cilostazol and 3,4-dehydrocilostazol between cilostazol and clopidogrel + cilostazol. The inhibition of platelet aggregation from 4 h to 24 h (IPA4-24 ) following the administration of clopidogrel alone was highest in the CYP2C19 EM genotype and lowest in the CYP2C19 PM genotype (59.05 ± 18.95 vs. 36.74 ± 13.26, P = 0.023). However, the IPA of the CYP2C19 PM following co-administration of clopidogrel and cilostazol was comparable with that of the CYP2C19 EM and intermediate metabolizers (IM) only in CYP3A5*3/*3 subjects. CONCLUSIONS:The additive antiplatelet effect of cilostazol plus clopidogrel is maximized in subjects with both the CYP2C19 PM and CYP3A5*3/*3 genotypes because of a lack of change of clopidogrel thiol metabolite exposure in CYP3A5*3/*3 as well as the highest cilostazol IPA in CYP2C19 PM and CYP3A5*3/*3 subjects.
Project description:Maraviroc is an anti-human immunodeficiency virus drug that acts by blocking viral entry into target cells. With use of ultra-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry several monooxygenated, dioxygenated, and glucuronidated metabolites of maraviroc were identified both in vitro and in vivo. Characterization of the enzymes involved in the production of these metabolites determined that cytochrome P450 3A5 was the principal enzyme responsible for the formation of an abundant metabolite of maraviroc that resulted from oxygenation of the dichlorocyclohexane ring. For the formation of this metabolite, the V(max) values for CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 were 0.04 and 0.93 pmol · min?¹ · pmol P450?¹, and the K(m) values were 11.1 and 48.9 ?M, respectively. Furthermore, human liver microsomes isolated from donors homozygous for the loss-of-function CYP3A5*3 allele exhibited a 79% decrease in formation of this metabolite compared with those homozygous for the wild-type CYP3A5*1 allele. To probe which divergent residues between CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 might play a role in the differential activities of these enzymes toward maraviroc, mutations were introduced into both enzymes and metabolism of maraviroc was measured. A CYP3A5 L57F mutant exhibited a 61% decrease in the formation of this metabolite, whereas formation by a CYP3A4 F57L mutant was increased by 337% compared with that of the wild type. Taken together, these data provide novel insights into the biotransformation of maraviroc as well as the potential role of CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 divergent residues in the enzymatic activities of these two highly homologous enzymes.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>CYP3A5 enzymes belong to the phase I Group of drug-metabolizing enzymes, which are involved in the metabolism of 50% of the drugs. Participants with CYP3A5 genotype: CYP3A5 *1/*1 are fast metabolizers of drugs and hence will require higher dosing. Whereas those with CYP3A5 * 3/*3 are poor metabolizers of drugs and will require a lower dose to achieve target drug concentration in the blood and those with CYP3A5 * 1/*3 have intermediate drug metabolizing activity. Pharmacogenetic evaluation may improve disease outcomes by maximizing the efficacy and minimizing the toxicity of drugs in patients.<h4>Materials and methods</h4>This is a single-center cross-sectional study conducted in the year 2018-2019 to study the population prevalence of genetic polymorphisms of CYP3A5 in healthy participants from western India. Eligible participants willing to give written, informed consent were enrolled in the study. Subsequently, 2 ml venous blood was collected the deoxyribonucleic acid was extracted and then stored at ‒20°C. Genotyping was done by a polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism.<h4>Results</h4>A total of 400 participants with a median age of 22 years (range: 18-58 years) were included. Among them, the genotype prevalence for CYP3A5 * 1/*1 was 17% (n = 67/400); CYP3A5 * 1/*3 was 37% (n = 149/400) and that of CYP3A5 * 3/*3 was 46% (184/400). Out of the total 400 healthy participants analyzed, the allele frequency for CYP3A5 * 1 was 35% (142/400) and that of CYP3A5*3 was 65% (259/400).<h4>Conclusion</h4>The genotype prevalence for CYP3A5 * 3*3 (46%) and the allele frequency for CYP3A5 * 3 (65%) respectively were the highest among the western Indian population.
Project description:Interpatient variability in tacrolimus pharmacokinetics is attributed to metabolism by cytochrome P-450 3A5 (CYP3A5) isoenzymes and membrane transport by P-glycoprotein. Interpatient pharmacokinetic variability has been associated with genotypic variants for both CYP3A5 or ABCB1. Tacrolimus pharmacokinetics was investigated in 65 stable Black and Caucasian post-renal transplant patients by assessing the effects of multiple alleles in both CYP3A5 and ABCB1. A metabolic composite based upon the CYP3A5 polymorphisms: ?3(rs776746), ?6(10264272), and ?7(41303343), each independently responsible for loss of protein expression was used to classify patients as extensive, intermediate and poor metabolizers. In addition, the role of ABCB1 on tacrolimus pharmacokinetics was assessed using haplotype analysis encompassing the single nucleotide polymorphisms: 1236C > T (rs1128503), 2677G > T/A(rs2032582), and 3435C > T(rs1045642). Finally, a combined analysis using both CYP3A5 and ABCB1 polymorphisms was developed to assess their inter-related influence on tacrolimus pharmacokinetics. Extensive metabolizers identified as homozygous wild type at all three CYP3A5 loci were found in 7 Blacks and required twice the tacrolimus dose (5.6 ± 1.6 mg) compared to Poor metabolizers [2.5 ± 1.1 mg (P < 0.001)]; who were primarily Whites. These extensive metabolizers had 2-fold faster clearance (P < 0.001) with 50% lower AUC? (P < 0.001) than Poor metabolizers. No differences in C12 h were found due to therapeutic drug monitoring. The majority of blacks (81%) were classified as either Extensive or Intermediate Metabolizers requiring higher tacrolimus doses to accommodate the more rapid clearance. Blacks who were homozygous for one or more loss of function SNPS were associated with lower tacrolimus doses and slower clearance. These values are comparable to Whites, 82% of who were in the Poor metabolic composite group. The ABCB1 haplotype analysis detected significant associations of the wildtype 1236T-2677T-3435T haplotype to tacrolimus dose (P = 0.03), CL (P = 0.023), CL/LBW (P = 0.022), and AUC? (P = 0.078). Finally, analysis combining CYP3A5 and ABCB1 genotypes indicated that the presence of the ABCB1 3435 T allele significantly reduced tacrolimus clearance for all three CPY3A5 metabolic composite groups. Genotypic associations of tacrolimus pharmacokinetics can be improved by using the novel composite CYP3A5?3?4?5 and ABCB1 haplotypes. Consideration of multiple alleles using CYP3A5 metabolic composites and drug transporter ABCB1 haplotypes provides a more comprehensive appraisal of genetic factors contributing to interpatient variability in tacrolimus pharmacokinetics among Whites and Blacks.
Project description:Tacrolimus exhibits inter-patient pharmacokinetic variability attributed to CYP3A5 isoenzymes and the efflux transporter, P-glycoprotein. Most black renal transplant recipients require higher tacrolimus doses compared to whites to achieve similar troughs when race-adjusted recommendations are used. An established guideline provides tacrolimus genotype dosing recommendations based on CYP3A5*1(W/T) and loss of protein function variants: CYP3A5*3 (rs776746), CYP3A5*6 (rs10264272), CYP3A5*7 (rs41303343) and may provide more comprehensive race-adjusted dosing recommendations. Our objective was to develop a tacrolimus population pharmacokinetic model evaluating demographic, clinical, and genomic factors in stable black and white renal transplant recipients. A secondary objective investigated race-based tacrolimus regimens and genotype-specific dosing. Sixty-seven recipients receiving oral tacrolimus and mycophenolic acid ?6 months completed a 12-hour pharmacokinetic study. CYP3A5*3,*6,*7 and ABCB1 1236C>T, 2677G>T/A, 3435C>T polymorphisms were characterized. Patients were classified as extensive, intermediate, and poor metabolizers using a novel CYP3A5*3*6*7 metabolic composite. Modeling and simulation was performed with computer software (NONMEM 7.3, ICON Development Solutions; Ellicott City, Maryland). A 2-compartment model with first-order elimination and absorption with lag time best described the data. The CYP3A5*3*6*7 metabolic composite was significantly associated with tacrolimus clearance (P value < .05), which was faster in extensive (mean: 45.0 L/hr) and intermediate (29.5 L/hr) metabolizers than poor metabolizers (19.8 L/hr). Simulations support CYP3A5*3*6*7 genotype-based tacrolimus dosing to enhance general race-adjusted regimens, with dose increases of 1.5-fold and 2-fold, respectively, in intermediate and extensive metabolizers for comparable exposures to poor metabolizers. This model offers a novel approach to determine tacrolimus dosing adjustments that maintain comparable therapeutic exposure between black and white recipients with different CYP3A5 genotypes.
Project description:The influence of diet and genetics was investigated in a healthy white person who had distinctly low methylprednisolone clearance. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic parameter values were similar on 2 occasions during the consumption of a low-carbohydrate diet and a Weight Watchers diet, indicating that the decreased clearance was unlikely attributable to a change in diet composition. Although the subject was found to be homozygous for CYP3A5*3, genetic findings were not significant for a number of other CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 allelic variants. Because of the high prevalence of CYP3A5*3/*3 in whites and because 5 of 7 white control subjects are also homozygous for CYP3A5*3, this genotype cannot fully explain the reduced metabolism of the drug. Other genetic or contributing factors might have been involved. New polymerase chain reaction-based genotyping methods for functionally defective CYP3A5*6, *8, *9, and *10 alleles were developed in this study. These assays will be useful for CYP3A5 genotype analysis in future clinical studies.
Project description:Tacrolimus is the mainstay immunosuppressant drug used after solid organ and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Individuals who express CYP3A5 (extensive and intermediate metabolizers) generally have decreased dose-adjusted trough concentrations of tacrolimus as compared with those who are CYP3A5 nonexpressers (poor metabolizers), possibly delaying achievement of target blood concentrations. We summarize evidence from the published literature supporting this association and provide dosing recommendations for tacrolimus based on CYP3A5 genotype when known (updates at www.pharmgkb.org).
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>Simvastatin is primarily metabolized by CYP3A4. A combined CYP3A4/5 genotype classification, combining the decrease-of-function CYP3A4*22 and the loss-of-function CYP3A5*3, has recently been reported. We aim to determine whether CYP3A4*22 and CYP3A5*3 alleles are associated with increased plasma concentrations of simvastatin lactone (SV) and simvastatin acid (SVA). This is the first report evaluating associations between in-vivo simvastatin concentrations and CYP3A4*22, alone or in a combined CYP3A4/5 genotype-defined classification.<h4>Participants and methods</h4>Genotypes and simvastatin concentrations were determined for 830 participants (555 Whites and 275 African-Americans) in the Cholesterol and Pharmacogenomics clinical trial with 40 mg/day simvastatin for 6 weeks. Concentrations were determined in 12-h postdose samples. Associations between simvastatin concentrations and CYP3A4*22 and CYP3A5*3 alleles were tested separately and in a combined CYP3A4/5 genotype-defined classification system.<h4>Results</h4>In Whites, CYP3A4*22 carriers (n=42) had 14% higher SVA (P=0.04) and 20% higher SV (P=0.06) compared with noncarriers (n=513). CYP3A5*3 allele status was not significantly associated with SV or SVA in Whites. In African-Americans, CYP3A4*22 carriers (n=8) had 170% higher SV (P<0.01) than noncarriers (n=267), but no significant difference was detected for SVA. African-American CYP3A5 nonexpressors (n=28) had 33% higher SV (P=0.02) than CYP3A5 expressors (n=247), but no significant difference was detected for SVA. For both races, SV appeared to decrease across the rank-ordered combined CYP3A4/5 genotype-defined groups (poor, intermediate, and extensive metabolizers); however, similar trends were not observed for SVA.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Genetic variation in CYP3A4 was associated with plasma simvastatin concentrations in self-reported Whites. Genetic variations in CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 were associated with plasma simvastatin concentrations in self-reported African-Americans.
Project description:CYP2C19 is a cytochrome P450 enzyme, which is involved in the metabolism of some clinically important medications and is encoded by a highly polymorphic gene. There is no available data on the distribution of the CYP2C19 *4 and *17 mutant alleles in the Saudi Arabian population. The aim of the study was to determine different CYP2C19 mutant allele (*2, *4 and *17) frequencies in healthy Saudi subjects and to determine genotype frequencies for these mutations. The CYP2C19 genotypes were then classified into phenotypes.In 201 adults of Saudi ethnicity, the allele frequencies were CYP2C19*1 (62.9%), *17 (25.7%), *2 (11.2%) and *4 (0.2%). The most prevalent genotype combinations were CYP2C19 *1/*1 (40.3%) and *1/*17 (30.4%). The distribution of CYP2C19 phenotypes was divided into extensive metabolizers (EM) 77.6%, intermediate metabolizers (IM) 14.9%, ultra-rapid metabolizers (UM) 7% and poor metabolizers (PM) 0.4%. This finding has important clinical implications for the use of CYP2C19 metabolized medications in the Saudi population and further studies are needed.