Cyclin D-CDK4 relieves cooperative repression of proliferation and cell cycle gene expression by DREAM and RB.
ABSTRACT: The retinoblastoma protein (RB) restricts cell cycle gene expression and entry into the cell cycle. The RB-related protein p130 forms the DREAM (DP, RB-like, E2F, and MuvB) complex and contributes to repression of cell cycle-dependent genes during quiescence. Although both RB and DREAM bind and repress an overlapping set of E2F-dependent gene promoters, it remains unclear whether they cooperate to restrict cell cycle entry. To test the specific contributions of RB and DREAM, we generated RB and p130 knockout cells in primary human fibroblasts. Knockout of both p130 and RB yielded higher levels of cell cycle gene expression in G0 and G1 cells compared to cells with knockout of RB alone, indicating a role for DREAM and RB in repression of cell cycle genes. We observed that RB had a dominant role in E2F-dependent gene repression during mid to late G1 while DREAM activity was more prominent during G0 and early G1. Cyclin D-Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 4 (CDK4)-dependent phosphorylation of p130 occurred during early G1, and led to the release of p130 and MuvB from E2F4 and decreased p130 and MuvB binding to cell cycle promoters. Specific inhibition of CDK4 activity by palbociclib blocked DREAM complex disassembly during cell cycle entry. In addition, sensitivity to CDK4 inhibition was dependent on RB and an intact DREAM complex in both normal cells as well as in palbociclib-sensitive cancer cell lines. Although RB knockout cells were partially resistant to CDK4 inhibition, RB and p130 double knockout cells were significantly more resistant to palbociclib treatment. These results indicate that DREAM cooperates with RB in repressing E2F-dependent gene expression and cell cycle entry and supports a role for DREAM as a therapeutic target in cancer.
Project description:The retinoblastoma Rb protein is an important factor controlling the cell cycle. Yet, mammalian cells carrying Rb deletions are still able to arrest under growth-limiting conditions. The Rb-related proteins p107 and p130, which are components of the DREAM complex, had been suggested to be responsible for a continued ability to arrest by inhibiting E2f activity and by recruiting chromatin-modifying enzymes. Here, we show that p130 and p107 are not sufficient for DREAM-dependent repression. We identify the MuvB protein Lin37 as an essential factor for DREAM function. Cells not expressing Lin37 proliferate normally, but DREAM completely loses its ability to repress genes in G0/G1 while all remaining subunits, including p130/p107, still bind to target gene promoters. Furthermore, cells lacking both Rb and Lin37 are incapable of exiting the cell cycle. Thus, Lin37 is an essential component of DREAM that cooperates with Rb to induce quiescence.
Project description:Most human cancers acquire mutations causing defects in the p53 signaling pathway. The tumor suppressor p53 becomes activated in response to genotoxic stress and is essential for arresting the cell cycle to facilitate DNA repair or to initiate apoptosis. p53-induced cell cycle-arrest is mediated by expression of the CDK inhibitor p21WAF1/Cip1, which prevents phosphorylation and inactivation of the pocket proteins RB, p130, and p107. In a hypophosphorylated state, pocket proteins bind to E2F factors forming RB-E2F and DREAM transcriptional repressor complexes. Here, we analyze the influence of RB and DREAM on p53-induced gene repression and cell-cycle arrest. We show that abrogation of DREAM function by knockout of the DREAM component LIN37 results in a reduced repression of cell-cycle genes. We identify the genes repressed by the p53-DREAM pathway and describe a set of genes that is downregulated by p53 independent of LIN37/DREAM. Most strikingly, p53-dependent repression of cell-cycle genes is completely abrogated in LIN37-/-;RB-/- cells leading to a loss of the G1/S checkpoint. Taken together, we show that DREAM and RB are key factors in the p53 signaling pathway to downregulate a large number of cell-cycle genes and to arrest the cell cycle at the G1/S transition.
Project description:The DREAM complex represses cell cycle genes during quiescence through scaffolding MuvB proteins with E2F4/5 and the Rb tumor suppressor paralog p107 or p130. Upon cell cycle entry, MuvB dissociates from p107/p130 and recruits B-Myb and FoxM1 for up-regulating mitotic gene expression. To understand the biochemical mechanisms underpinning DREAM function and regulation, we investigated the structural basis for DREAM assembly. We identified a sequence in the MuvB component LIN52 that binds directly to the pocket domains of p107 and p130 when phosphorylated on the DYRK1A kinase site S28. A crystal structure of the LIN52-p107 complex reveals that LIN52 uses a suboptimal LxSxExL sequence together with the phosphate at nearby S28 to bind the LxCxE cleft of the pocket domain with high affinity. The structure explains the specificity for p107/p130 over Rb in the DREAM complex and how the complex is disrupted by viral oncoproteins. Based on insights from the structure, we addressed how DREAM is disassembled upon cell cycle entry. We found that p130 and B-Myb can both bind the core MuvB complex simultaneously but that cyclin-dependent kinase phosphorylation of p130 weakens its association. Together, our data inform a novel target interface for studying MuvB and p130 function and the design of inhibitors that prevent tumor escape in quiescence.
Project description:High-risk (HR) human papillomaviruses are known causative agents in 5% of human cancers including cervical, ano-genital and head and neck carcinomas. In part, HR-HPV causes cancer by targeting host-cell tumor suppressors including retinoblastoma protein (pRb) and RB-like proteins p107 and p130. HR-HPV E7 uses a LxCxE motif to bind RB proteins, impairing their ability to control cell-cycle dependent transcription. E7 disrupts DREAM (Dimerization partner, RB-like, E2F and MuvB), a transcriptional repressor complex that can include p130 or p107, but not pRb, which regulates genes required for cell cycle progression. However, it is not known whether disruption of DREAM plays a significant role in HPV-driven tumorigenesis. In the DREAM complex, LIN52 is an adaptor that binds directly to p130 via an E7-like LxSxE motif. Replacement of the LxSxE sequence in LIN52 with LxCxE (LIN52-S20C) increases p130 binding and partially restores DREAM assembly in HPV-positive keratinocytes and human cervical cancer cells, inhibiting proliferation. Our findings demonstrate that disruption of the DREAM complex by E7 is an important process promoting cellular proliferation by HR-HPV. Restoration of the DREAM complex in HR-HPV positive cells may therefore have therapeutic benefits in HR-HPV positive cancers.
Project description:The DREAM (DP, Retinoblastoma [Rb]-like, E2F, and MuvB) complex controls cellular quiescence by repressing cell cycle genes, but its mechanism of action is poorly understood. Here we show that Caenorhabditis elegans DREAM targets have an unusual pattern of high gene body HTZ-1/H2A.Z. In mutants of lin-35, the sole p130/Rb-like gene in C. elegans, DREAM targets have reduced gene body HTZ-1/H2A.Z and increased expression. Consistent with a repressive role for gene body H2A.Z, many DREAM targets are up-regulated in htz-1/H2A.Z mutants. Our results indicate that the DREAM complex facilitates high gene body HTZ-1/H2A.Z, which plays a role in target gene repression.
Project description:Mip130/LIN-9 is part of a large complex that includes homologs of the Drosophila dREAM (drosophila RB-like, E2F, and Myb) and C. elegans DRM complexes. This complex also includes proteins such as Mip40/LIN-37, Mip120/LIN-54, and LIN-52. In mammalian cells, Mip130/LIN-9 specifically associates with the p107/p130-E2F4 repressor complex in G0/G1 and with B-Myb in S-phase. However, little is known about how the transition occurs and whether Mip130/LIN-9 contributes to the repressor effect of p107/p130. In this report, we demonstrate that Mip130/LIN-9, Mip40/LIN-37, Mip120/LIN-54, and Sin3b form a core complex, the Mip Core Complex or LIN Complex (MCC/LINC), which is detectable in all phases of the cell cycle. This complex specifically recruits transcriptional repressors such as p107, p130, E2F4 and HDAC1 in G0/G1, and B-Myb in S-phase. Importantly, we provide strong evidence that the transition between repressors and activators of transcription is mediated by CDK4, through the phosphorylation of the pocket proteins, p107 and p130. The requirement for CDK4 activity is bypassed by the deletion of the first 84 amino acids (Mip130/LIN-9(Delta84)), since this mutant is unable to interact with p107/p130 in G0/G1, while maintaining its association with B-Myb. Importantly, the Mip130/LIN-9(Delta84) allele rescues the low expression of G1/S genes observed in CDK4(-/-) MEFs demonstrating that Mip130/LIN-9 contributes to the repression of these E2F-regulated genes in G0/G1.
Project description:The DREAM (Dp/Retinoblastoma(Rb)-like/E2F/MuvB) transcriptional repressor complex acts as a gatekeeper of the mammalian cell cycle by establishing and maintaining cellular quiescence. How DREAM's three functional components, the E2F-DP heterodimer, the Rb-like pocket protein, and the MuvB subcomplex, form and function at target gene promoters remains unknown. The current model invokes that the pocket protein links E2F-DP and MuvB and is essential for gene repression. We tested this model by assessing how the conserved yet less redundant DREAM system in Caenorhabditis elegans is affected by absence of the sole C. elegans pocket protein LIN-35. Using a LIN-35 protein null mutant, we analyzed the assembly of E2F-DP and MuvB at promoters that are bound by DREAM and the level of expression of those "DREAM target genes" in embryos. We report that LIN-35 indeed mediates the association of E2F-DP and MuvB, a function that stabilizes DREAM subunit occupancy at target genes. In the absence of LIN-35, the occupancy of E2F-DP and MuvB at most DREAM target genes decreases dramatically and many of those genes become upregulated. The retention of E2F-DP and MuvB at some target gene promoters in lin-35 null embryos allowed us to test their contribution to DREAM target gene repression. Depletion of MuvB, but not E2F-DP, in the sensitized lin-35 null background caused further upregulation of DREAM target genes. We conclude that the pocket protein functions primarily to support MuvB-mediated repression of DREAM targets and that transcriptional repression is the innate function of the evolutionarily conserved MuvB complex. Our findings provide important insights into how mammalian DREAM assembly and disassembly may regulate gene expression and the cell cycle.
Project description:The mammalian Retinoblastoma (RB) family including pRB, p107, and p130 represses E2F target genes through mechanisms that are not fully understood. In D. melanogaster, RB-dependent repression is mediated in part by the multisubunit protein complex Drosophila RBF, E2F, and Myb (dREAM) that contains homologs of the C. elegans synthetic multivulva class B (synMuvB) gene products. Using an integrated approach combining proteomics, genomics, and bioinformatic analyses, we identified a p130 complex termed DP, RB-like, E2F, and MuvB (DREAM) that contains mammalian homologs of synMuvB proteins LIN-9, LIN-37, LIN-52, LIN-54, and LIN-53/RBBP4. DREAM bound to more than 800 human promoters in G0 and was required for repression of E2F target genes. In S phase, MuvB proteins dissociated from p130 and formed a distinct submodule that bound MYB. This work reveals an evolutionarily conserved multisubunit protein complex that contains p130 and E2F4, but not pRB, and mediates the repression of cell cycle-dependent genes in quiescence. Keywords: Gene expression analysis during cell cycle Overall design: Gene expression during the cell cycle in T98G cells. Cells were serum starved for 72 hours to induce G0 and then restimuated to enter cell cycle by serum addition. BrdU and FACS was done simultaneously to confirm their cell cycle phase.
Project description:The mammalian Retinoblastoma (RB) family including pRB, p107, and p130 represses E2F target genes through mechanisms that are not fully understood. In D. melanogaster, RB-dependent repression is mediated in part by the multisubunit protein complex Drosophila RBF, E2F, and Myb (dREAM) that contains homologs of the C. elegans synthetic multivulva class B (synMuvB) gene products. Using an integrated approach combining proteomics, genomics, and bioinformatic analyses, we identified a p130 complex termed DP, RB-like, E2F, and MuvB (DREAM) that contains mammalian homologs of synMuvB proteins LIN-9, LIN-37, LIN-52, LIN-54, and LIN-53/RBBP4. DREAM bound to more than 800 human promoters in G0 and was required for repression of E2F target genes. In S phase, MuvB proteins dissociated from p130 and formed a distinct submodule that bound MYB. This work reveals an evolutionarily conserved multisubunit protein complex that contains p130 and E2F4, but not pRB, and mediates the repression of cell cycle-dependent genes in quiescence. Experiment Overall Design: Gene expression during the cell cycle in T98G cells. Cells were serum starved for 72 hours to induce G0 and then restimuated to enter cell cycle by serum addition. BrdU and FACS was done simultaneously to confirm their cell cycle phase.
Project description:Overexpression of the oncogene MYBL2 (B-Myb) is associated with increased cell proliferation and serves as a marker of poor prognosis in cancer. However, the mechanism by which B-Myb alters the cell cycle is not fully understood. In proliferating cells, B-Myb interacts with the MuvB core complex including LIN9, LIN37, LIN52, RBBP4, and LIN54, forming the MMB (Myb-MuvB) complex, and promotes transcription of genes required for mitosis. Alternatively, the MuvB core interacts with Rb-like protein p130 and E2F4-DP1 to form the DREAM complex that mediates global repression of cell cycle genes in G0/G1, including a subset of MMB target genes. Here, we show that overexpression of B-Myb disrupts the DREAM complex in human cells, and this activity depends on the intact MuvB-binding domain in B-Myb. Furthermore, we found that B-Myb regulates the protein expression levels of the MuvB core subunit LIN52, a key adapter for assembly of both the DREAM and MMB complexes, by a mechanism that requires S28 phosphorylation site in LIN52. Given that high expression of B-Myb correlates with global loss of repression of DREAM target genes in breast and ovarian cancer, our findings offer mechanistic insights for aggressiveness of cancers with MYBL2 amplification, and establish the rationale for targeting B-Myb to restore cell cycle control.