A systematic literature review on the European, African and Amerindian genetic ancestry components on Brazilian health outcomes.
ABSTRACT: The variables such as race, skin colour and ethnicity have become intensely discussed in medicine research, as a response to the rising debate over the importance of the ethnic-racial dimension in the scope of health-disease processes. The aim of this study was to identify the European (EUR), African (AFR) and Amerindian (AMR) ancestries on Brazilian health outcomes through a systematic literature review. This study was carried out by searching in three electronic databases, for studies published between 2005 and 2017. A total of 13 papers were eligible. The search identified the following health outcomes: visceral leishmaniosis, malaria, Alzheimer's disease, neuromyelitis optica, multiple sclerosis, prostate cancer, non-syndromic cleft lip/palate, chronic heart failure, sickle cell disease, primary congenital glaucoma, preterm labour, preterm premature rupture of membranes, systemic lupus erythematosus and type 1 diabetes mellitus. Research paper assessments were guided by the STROBE instrument, and agreements between results were determined by comparing the points attributed by two authors. Increased EUR ancestry was identified from preterm labour (PTL), type 1 diabetes (T1D) and non-syndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate (NSCL), as well as in patients presenting aggressive prostate cancer prognoses. On the other hand, the highest AFR ancestral component was verified from systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and primary congenital glaucoma (PCG) cases, presenting worse prognoses. AMR ancestry may be a protective factor in the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The worst hemodynamic parameters in cases of heart failure (HF) were identified among individuals with greater AMR and AFR ancestry indices.
Project description:Preterm infants (PIs) often require respiratory support due to surfactant deficiency. Early weaning from mechanical ventilation to noninvasive respiratory support decreases ventilation-associated irreversible lung damage. This wean is particularly challenging in PIs with cleft lip and cleft palate due to anatomical difficulties encountered in maintaining an adequate seal for positive pressure ventilation. PI with a cleft lip and palate often fail noninvasive respiratory support and require continued intubation and mechanical ventilation. We are presenting the first case report of a PI with cleft lip and palate who was managed by biphasic nasal continuous positive airway pressure.
Project description:Polymorphisms in genes related to the metabolism of vitamin B12 haven't been examined in a Brazilian population. To (a) determine the correlation between the local genetic ancestry components and vitamin B12 levels using ninety B12-related genes; (b) determine associations between these genes and their SNPs with vitamin B12 levels; (c) determine a polygenic risk score (PRS) using significant variants. This cross-sectional study included 168 children and adolescents, aged 9-13 years old. Total cobalamin was measured in plasma. Genotyping arrays and whole exome data were combined to yield ~ 7000 SNPs in 90 genes related to vitamin B12. The Efficient Local Ancestry Inference was used to estimate local ancestry for African (AFR), Native American, and European (EUR). The association between the genotypes and vitamin B12 levels were determined with generalized estimating equation. Vitamin B12 levels were driven by positive (EUR) and negative (AFR, AMR) correlations with genetic ancestry. A set of 36 variants were used to create a PRS that explained 42% of vitamin level variation. Vitamin B12 levels are influenced by genetic ancestry and a PRS explained almost 50% of the variation in plasma cobalamin in Brazilian children and adolescents.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Europeans and American Indians were major genetic ancestry of Hispanics in the U.S. These ancestral groups have markedly different incidence rates and outcomes in many types of cancers. Therefore, the genetic admixture may cause biased genetic association study with cancer susceptibility variants specifically in Hispanics. For example, the incidence rate of liver cancer has been shown with substantial disparity between Hispanic, Asian and non-Hispanic white populations. Currently, ancestry informative marker (AIM) panels have been widely utilized with up to a few hundred ancestry-informative single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) to infer ancestry admixture. Notably, current available AIMs are predominantly located in intron and intergenic regions, while the whole exome sequencing (WES) protocols commonly used in translational research and clinical practice do not cover these markers. Thus, it remains challenging to accurately determine a patient's admixture proportion without additional DNA testing. RESULTS:In this study we designed an unique AIM panel that infers 3-way genetic admixture from three distinct and selective continental populations (African (AFR), European (EUR), and East Asian (EAS)) within evolutionarily conserved exonic regions. Initially, about 1 million exonic SNPs from selective three populations in the 1000 Genomes Project were trimmed by their linkage disequilibrium (LD), restricted to biallelic variants, and finally we optimized to an AIM panel with 250 SNP markers, or the UT-AIM250 panel, using their ancestral informativeness statistics. Comparing to published AIM panels, UT-AIM250 performed better accuracy when we tested with three ancestral populations (accuracy: 0.995?±?0.012 for AFR, 0.997?±?0.007 for EUR, and 0.994?±?0.012 for EAS). We further demonstrated the performance of the UT-AIM250 panel to admixed American (AMR) samples of the 1000 Genomes Project and obtained similar results (AFR, 0.085?±?0.098; EUR, 0.665?±?0.182; and EAS, 0.250?±?0.205) to previously published AIM panels (Phillips-AIM34: AFR, 0.096?±?0.127, EUR, 0.575?±?0.290, and EAS, 0.330?±?0.315; Wei-AIM278: AFR, 0.070?±?0.096, EUR, 0.537?±?0.267, and EAS, 0.393?±?0.300). Subsequently, we applied the UT-AIM250 panel to a clinical dataset of 26 self-reported Hispanic patients in South Texas with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We estimated the admixture proportions using WES data of adjacent non-cancer liver tissues (AFR, 0.065?±?0.043; EUR, 0.594?±?0.150; and EAS, 0.341?±?0.160). Similar admixture proportions were identified from corresponding tumor tissues. In addition, we estimated admixture proportions of The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) collection of hepatocellular carcinoma (TCGA-LIHC) samples (376 patients) using the UT-AIM250 panel. The panel obtained consistent admixture proportions from tumor and matched normal tissues, identified 3 possible incorrectly reported race/ethnicity, and/or provided race/ethnicity determination if necessary. CONCLUSIONS:Here we demonstrated the feasibility of using evolutionarily conserved exonic regions to infer admixture proportions and provided a robust and reliable control for sample collection or patient stratification for genetic analysis. R implementation of UT-AIM250 is available at https://github.com/chenlabgccri/UT-AIM250.
Project description:Case-parent trios were used in a genome-wide association study of cleft lip with and without cleft palate. SNPs near two genes not previously associated with cleft lip with and without cleft palate (MAFB, most significant SNP rs13041247, with odds ratio (OR) per minor allele = 0.704, 95% CI 0.635-0.778, P = 1.44 x 10(-11); and ABCA4, most significant SNP rs560426, with OR = 1.432, 95% CI 1.292-1.587, P = 5.01 x 10(-12)) and two previously identified regions (at chromosome 8q24 and IRF6) attained genome-wide significance. Stratifying trios into European and Asian ancestry groups revealed differences in statistical significance, although estimated effect sizes remained similar. Replication studies from several populations showed confirming evidence, with families of European ancestry giving stronger evidence for markers in 8q24, whereas Asian families showed stronger evidence for association with MAFB and ABCA4. Expression studies support a role for MAFB in palatal development.
Project description:Schizophrenia is a common polygenetic disease affecting 0.5-1% of individuals across distinct ethnic populations. PGC-II, the largest genome-wide association study investigating genetic risk factors for schizophrenia, previously identified 128 independent schizophrenia-associated genetic variants (GVs). The current study examined the genetic variability of GVs across ethnic populations. To assess the genetic variability across populations, the 'variability indices' (VIs) of the 128 schizophrenia-associated GVs were calculated. We used 2504 genomes from the 1000 Genomes Project taken from 26 worldwide healthy samples comprising five major ethnicities: East Asian (EAS: n=504), European (EUR: n=503), African (AFR: n=661), American (AMR: n=347) and South Asian (SAS: n=489). The GV with the lowest variability was rs36068923 (VI=1.07). The minor allele frequencies (MAFs) were 0.189, 0.192, 0.256, 0.183 and 0.194 for EAS, EUR, AFR, AMR and SAS, respectively. The GV with the highest variability was rs7432375 (VI=9.46). The MAFs were 0.791, 0.435, 0.041, 0.594 and 0.508 for EAS, EUR, AFR, AMR and SAS, respectively. When we focused on the EAS and EUR population, the allele frequencies of 86 GVs significantly differed between the EAS and EUR (P<3.91 × 10-4). The GV with the highest variability was rs4330281 (P=1.55 × 10-138). The MAFs were 0.023 and 0.519 for the EAS and EUR, respectively. The GV with the lowest variability was rs2332700 (P=9.80 × 10-1). The MAFs were similar between these populations (that is, 0.246 and 0.247 for the EAS and EUR, respectively). Interestingly, the mean allele frequencies of the GVs did not significantly differ between these populations (P>0.05). Although genetic heterogeneities were observed in the schizophrenia-associated GVs across ethnic groups, the combination of these GVs might increase the risk of schizophrenia.
Project description:The identification of genetic risk factors for non-syndromic oral clefts is of great importance for better understanding the biological processes related to this heterogeneous and complex group of diseases. Herein we applied whole-exome sequencing to identify potential variants related to non-syndromic cleft palate only (NSCPO) in the multiethnic Brazilian population. Thirty NSCPO samples and 30 sex- and genetic ancestry-matched healthy controls were pooled (3 pools with 10 samples for each group) and subjected to whole-exome sequencing. After filtering, the functional affects, individually and through interactions, of the selected variants and genes were assessed by bioinformatic analyses. As a group, 399 variants in 216 genes related to palatogenesis/cleft palate, corresponding to 6.43%, were exclusively identified in the NSCPO pools. Among those genes are 99 associated with syndromes displaying cleft palate in their clinical spectrum and 92 previously related to cleft lip palate. The most significantly biological processes and pathways overrepresented in the NSCPO-identified genes were associated with the folic acid metabolism, highlighting the interaction between LDL receptor-related protein 6 (<i>LRP6</i>) and 5-methyltetrahydrofolate-homocysteine methyltransferase (<i>MTR</i>) that interconnect two large networks. This study yields novel data on characterization of specific variants and complex processes and pathways related to NSCPO, including many variants in genes of the folate/homocysteine pathway, and confirms that variants in genes related to syndromic cleft palate and cleft lip-palate may cause NSCPO.
Project description:Infantile hemangioma (IH) with concurrent cleft lip and palate is a rare case. Surgical management is often considered as the best management for infantile hemangioma with concurrent cleft lip and palate. However, considering the functionality aspect and aesthetic appearance, a plastic surgeon can also consider non-surgical management without interrupting the surgical timeline for the cleft lip and palate. This case report aimed to describe the role of oral propranolol and oral methylprednisolone for infantile hemangioma with concurrent cleft lip and palate alongside the surgical management for cleft lip and palate. A 2-month-old presented with complaints of swelling in her right upper nose and cheek along with cleft lip and palate. She was treated with oral propranolol and oral methylprednisolone. Labioplasty was performed when she was three months old. Palatoplasty and nasorraphy were done when she was one year old. A significant reduction of the hemangioma was seen and the corrective procedures showed a good result. The use of propranolol and methylprednisolone for infantile hemangioma in our patient shows a good result even when combined with labioplasty, palatoplasty, and nasorraphy for cleft lip and palate. The management of infantile hemangioma with concurrent cleft lip and palate using oral propranolol and oral methylprednisolone shows a good result with no side effects and can be elaborated with labioplasty, palatoplasty, and nasorraphy, and will not interrupt the cleft lip and palate surgical timeline.
Project description:<h4>Objectives</h4>This study aimed to investigate the temporal and spatial characteristics of cleft lip and/or palate based on a large-scale birth defect monitoring database.<h4>Methods</h4>Data on perinatal infants and children with cleft lip and/or palate defects from 1 January 2015 to 31 December 2018 in Guangdong province of China were collected. The variables including the demographic data, basic family information (address, education level, etc.), the infant's birth weight, gender and other basic parameters were collected and analysed.<h4>Results</h4>During the study period, the prevalence of cleft lip and/or palate was 7.55 per 10 000 perinatal infants. The prevalence of cleft lip, cleft palate and cleft lip and palate were 2.34/10 000, 2.22/10 000 and 2.98/10 000, respectively. The prevalence of cleft lip and/or palate showed a pronounced downward trend, reducing from 8.47/10 000 in 2015 to 6.51/10 000 in 2018. We observed spatial heterogeneity of prevalence of cleft lip and/or palate across the study period in Guangdong. In the Pearl River Delta region, the overall prevalence of cleft lip and/or palate was 7.31/10 000, while the figure (7.86/10 000) was slightly higher in the non-Pearl River Delta region (p<0.05). Concerning infant gender, the prevalence was in general higher in boys than girls (p<0.05). In addition, the higher prevalence was more common in mothers older than 35 years old. For the birth season, infants born in spring tended to have a higher prevalence than those born in other seasons, regardless of the prevalence of cleft lip and palate calculated separately or jointly (p<0.05). The majority of newborns with cleft lip and palate were accompanied by other birth defects.<h4>Conclusion</h4>This study contributes a better understanding of the characteristics of spatio-temporal trends for birth defects of cleft lip and/or palate in south China.
Project description:Copy number variants (CNVs) may play an important part in the development of common birth defects such as oral clefts, and individual patients with multiple birth defects (including clefts) have been shown to carry small and large chromosomal deletions. In this paper we investigate de novo deletions defined as DNA segments missing in an oral cleft proband but present in both unaffected parents. We compare de novo deletion frequencies in children of European ancestry with an isolated, non-syndromic oral cleft to frequencies in children of European ancestry from randomly sampled trios.We identified a genome-wide significant 62 kilo base (kb) non-coding region on chromosome 7p14.1 where de novo deletions occur more frequently among oral cleft cases than controls. We also observed wider de novo deletions among cleft lip and palate (CLP) cases than seen among cleft palate (CP) and cleft lip (CL) cases.This study presents a region where de novo deletions appear to be involved in the etiology of oral clefts, although the underlying biological mechanisms are still unknown. Larger de novo deletions are more likely to interfere with normal craniofacial development and may result in more severe clefts. Study protocol and sample DNA source can severely affect estimates of de novo deletion frequencies. Follow-up studies are needed to further validate these findings and to potentially identify additional structural variants underlying oral clefts.
Project description:To assess the statistical significance of associations between variants and traits, genome-wide association studies (GWAS) should employ an appropriate threshold that accounts for the massive burden of multiple testing in the study. Although most studies in the current literature commonly set a genome-wide significance threshold at the level of P=5.0 × 10<sup>-8</sup>, the adequacy of this value for respective populations has not been fully investigated. To empirically estimate thresholds for different ancestral populations, we conducted GWAS simulations using the 1000 Genomes Phase 3 data set for Africans (AFR), Europeans (EUR), Admixed Americans (AMR), East Asians (EAS) and South Asians (SAS). The estimated empirical genome-wide significance thresholds were P<sub>sig</sub>=3.24 × 10<sup>-8</sup> (AFR), 9.26 × 10<sup>-8</sup> (EUR), 1.83 × 10<sup>-7</sup> (AMR), 1.61 × 10<sup>-7</sup> (EAS) and 9.46 × 10<sup>-8</sup> (SAS). We additionally conducted trans-ethnic meta-analyses across all populations (ALL) and all populations except for AFR (?AFR), which yielded P<sub>sig</sub>=3.25 × 10<sup>-8</sup> (ALL) and 4.20 × 10<sup>-8</sup> (?AFR). Our results indicate that the current threshold (P=5.0 × 10<sup>-8</sup>) is overly stringent for all ancestral populations except for Africans; however, we should employ a more stringent threshold when conducting a meta-analysis, regardless of the presence of African samples.