Temporal changes in the spatial distribution of carabid beetles around arable field-woodlot boundaries.
ABSTRACT: Carabids are considered beneficial arthropods in agroecosystems, where they prey on crop pests or consume weed seeds. Therefore, knowledge of the spatial distribution of carabids in agricultural landscapes is crucial to efficiently manage the ecosystem services that they provide. In the present study, we investigated the spatial distribution of carabids around arable field-woodlot boundaries in different seasons: (1) early spring, (2) late spring, (3) summer and (4) late autumn. The spatial distribution of carabid abundance (activity-density) and species richness varied seasonally, and the total abundance was highest within arable fields, except in early spring when it peaked at the boundaries. The observed pattern was mainly driven by the spatial distribution of the open-habitat species, which aggregated near the field boundaries during winter and early spring. The open-habitat species penetrated into woodlots during the summer season but occurred almost exclusively outside woodlots in the other sampling periods. The abundance of the forest species was highest within woodlots with the exception of the early spring season, when their abundance peaked at the boundaries. Carabid species richness was highest within arable fields in close proximity to woodlot boundaries with the exception of the summer season, when the total species richness was similar across habitats.
Project description:Carabid beetles and ground-dwelling spiders inhabiting agroecosystems are beneficial organisms with a potential to control pest species. Intensification of agricultural management and reduction of areas covered by non-crop vegetation during recent decades in some areas has led to many potentially serious environmental problems including a decline in the diversity and abundance of beneficial arthropods in agricultural landscapes. This study investigated carabid beetle and spider assemblages in non-crop habitat islands of various sizes (50 to 18,000 square metres) within one large field, as well as the arable land within the field, using pitfall traps in two consecutive sampling periods (spring to early summer and peak summer). The non-crop habitat islands situated inside arable land hosted many unique ground-dwelling arthropod species that were not present within the surrounding arable land. Even the smallest non-crop habitat islands with areas of tens of square metres were inhabited by assemblages substantially different from these inhabiting arable land and thus enhanced the biodiversity of agricultural landscapes. The non-crop habitat area substantially affected the activity density, recorded species richness and recorded species composition of carabid and ground-dwelling spider assemblages; however, the effects were weakened when species specialised to non-crop habitats species were analysed separately. Interestingly, recorded species richness of spiders increased with non-crop habitat area, whereas recorded species richness of carabid beetles exhibited an opposite trend. There was substantial temporal variation in the spatial distribution of ground-dwelling arthropods, and contrasting patterns were observed for particular taxa (carabid beetles and spiders). In general, local environmental conditions (i.e., non-crop habitat island tree cover, shrub cover, grass cover and litter depth) were better determinants of arthropod assemblages than non-crop habitat island size, indicating that the creation of quite small but diversified (e.g., differing in vegetation cover) non-crop habitat islands could be the most efficient tool for the maintenance and enhancement of diversity of ground-dwelling carabids and spiders in agricultural landscapes.
Project description:Background:Conserving biodiversity and enhancing ecosystem services of interest in intensive agroecosystems is a major challenge. Perennial ecological infrastructures (EIs), such as hedges and grassy strips, and annual EI under Agri-Environment Schemes appear to be good candidates to promote both. Our study focused on carabids, an indicator group responding both at the species and functional trait level to disturbances and supporting pest control and weed seed consumption services. Methods:We compared carabid assemblages at the species and functional traits levels, sampled via pitfall trapping, in three types of EIs (hedges, grassy strips and annual flower strips) and crops. We also tested via GLMs the effect of (1) the type of EI at the crops' border and (2) the distance from the crops' border (two meters or 30 meters) on carabid assemblages of crops. Tested variables comprised: activity-density, species richness, functional dispersion metrics (FDis) and proportions of carabids by functional categories (Diet: generalist predators/specialist predators/seed-eaters; Size: small/medium/large/very large; Breeding period: spring/autumn). Results and Discussion:Carabid assemblages on the Principal Coordinate Analysis split in two groups: crops and EIs. Assemblages from all sampled EIs were dominated by mobile generalist predator species from open-land, reproducing in spring. Assemblages of hedges were poor in activity-density and species richness, contrarily to grassy and annual flower strips. Differences in carabid assemblages in crops were mainly driven by the presence of hedges. The presence of hedges diminished the Community Weighted Mean size of carabids in crops, due to an increased proportion of small (<5 mm) individuals, while distance from crops' border favoured large (between 10-15 mm) carabids. Moreover, even if they were attracted by EIs, granivorous carabid species were rare in crops. Our results underlie the importance of local heterogeneity when adapting crops' borders to enhance carabid diversity and question the relevance of hedge implantation in intensive agrolandscapes, disconnected from any coherent ecological network. Moreover, this study emphasizes the difficulty to modify functional assemblages of crops for purposes of ecosystem services development, especially for weed seed consumption, as well as the role of distance from the crops' border in the shaping of crop carabid assemblages.
Project description:Intensively managed flowering crops like canola (Brassicales: Brassicaceae) (oilseed rape, OSR) provide significant short-term nectar resources for pollen consumers. They may also play important roles as annual "service strips" in temporarily promoting predatory invertebrates. We set out to test this assumption by comparing overall and functional group-specific species richness, activity density, and assemblage composition of carabids (Coleoptera: Carabidae) and spiders (Araneae), in three types of service strips-OSR, woody, and grassy strips established in direct vicinity to cropland. OSR strips were found to harbor the highest carabid species richness and activity density of small carabids. The activity density of carabids overall and of omnivorous species, the species richness and activity density of spiders across size classes and feeding strategies were all significantly reduced in woody strips. The percentage of seminatural habitat in the wider landscape was positively linked to the activity density of spiders overall, ground hunting and large spiders, whereas in carabids, positive effects were limited to large species occurring in grassy strips. Habitat type was the main predictor of both carabid and spider assemblage composition. Our results indicate that carabid and spider activity density across functional groups responded more strongly to changes in the landscape composition than the diversity of individual taxonomic groups. For agricultural landscape management, the establishment of habitat mosaics that include regular OSR could promote abundant, species-rich predatory invertebrates particularly in early spring. In contrast, structurally homogenous woody strips represent limited value in promoting the investigated biological pest control agents.
Project description:Urban ecosystems, as mosaics of residential, industrial, commercial, and agricultural land, present challenges for species survival due to impervious surface, degradation, fragmentation, and modification of natural habitat, pollution, and introduced species. Some urban habitats, such as community gardens, support biodiversity and promote ecosystem services. In gardens, local factors (e.g., vegetation, groundcover) and landscape surroundings (e.g., agriculture, built or impervious cover) may influence species abundance, richness, and functional traits that are present. We examined which local and landscape factors within 19 community gardens in the California central coast influence ground beetle (Carabidae) activity density, species richness, functional group richness, and functional traits-body size, wing morphology, and dispersal ability. Gardens with higher crop richness and that are surrounded by agricultural land had greater carabid activity density, while species and functional group richness did not respond to any local or landscape factor. Gardens with more leaf litter had lower carabid activity, and gardens with more leaf litter tended to have more larger carabids. Changes in local (floral abundance, ground cover) and landscape (urban land cover) factors also influenced the distribution of individuals with certain wing morphology and body size traits. Thus, both local and landscape factors influence the taxonomic and functional traits of carabid communities, with potential implications for pest control services that are provided by carabids.
Project description:Organic farming, a low intensity system, may offer benefits for a range of taxa, but what affects the extent of those benefits is imperfectly understood. We explored the effects of organic farming and landscape on the activity density and species density of spiders and carabid beetles, using a large sample of paired organic and conventional farms in the UK. Spider activity density and species density were influenced by both farming system and surrounding landscape. Hunting spiders, which tend to have lower dispersal capabilities, had higher activity density, and more species were captured, on organic compared to conventional farms. There was also evidence for an interaction, as the farming system effect was particularly marked in the cropped area before harvest and was more pronounced in complex landscapes (those with little arable land). There was no evidence for any effect of farming system or landscape on web-building spiders (which include the linyphiids, many of which have high dispersal capabilities). For carabid beetles, the farming system effects were inconsistent. Before harvest, higher activity densities were observed in the crops on organic farms compared with conventional farms. After harvest, no difference was detected in the cropped area, but more carabids were captured on conventional compared to organic boundaries. Carabids were more species-dense in complex landscapes, and farming system did not affect this. There was little evidence that non-cropped habitat differences explained the farming system effects for either spiders or carabid beetles. For spiders, the farming system effects in the cropped area were probably largely attributable to differences in crop management; reduced inputs of pesticides (herbicides and insecticides) and fertilisers are possible influences, and there was some evidence for an effect of non-crop plant species richness on hunting spider activity density. The benefits of organic farming may be greatest for taxa with lower dispersal abilities generally. The evidence for interactions among landscape and farming system in their effects on spiders highlights the importance of developing strategies for managing farmland at the landscape-scale for most effective conservation of biodiversity.
Project description:While carabid beetles have been shown to feed on a variety of crop pests, little is known about their species assemblages in US annual ryegrass crops, where invertebrate pests, particularly slugs, lepidopteran larvae and craneflies, incur major financial costs. This study assesses the biological control potential of carabid beetles for autumn- and winter-active pests in annual ryegrass grown for seed by: (a) investigating the spatial and temporal overlap of carabids with key pests; and (b) molecular gut content analysis using qPCR. Introduced Nebria brevicollis was the only common carabid that was active during pest emergence in autumn, with 18.6% and 8.3% of N. brevicollis collected between September and October testing positive for lepidopteran and cranefly DNA, respectively, but only 1.7% testing positive for slug DNA. While pest DNA was also detected in the guts of the other common carabid species-Agonum muelleri, Calosoma cancellatum and Poecilus laetulus-these were active only during spring and summer, when crop damage by pests is less critical. None of the four carabid species was affected by disk tilling and only N. brevicollis was significantly associated with a vegetated field margin. However, as its impact on native ecosystems is unknown, we do not recommend managing for this species.
Project description:Carabids are an important insect group in grassland ecosystems and are involved in numerous ecosystem services. Steppes are the most widespread ecosystems in China, but they are under increasing degradation. Despite their importance, little is known about the relationships between environmental variables and carabid community structure in Chinese steppes. We studied the effects of fine-scale factors (soil and vegetation) and coarse-scale factors (climate) on carabid community parameters (abundance, richness, diversity, dominance, and evenness) in three types of steppes (desert, typical, and meadow steppes) in northern China. Carabid communities responded to environmental factors in different ways according to the type of steppe. Climate factors were the most important drivers of community structure, whereas the effects of soil and vegetation were less important. Desert steppe showed the lowest carabid abundance, richness, diversity, and evenness, and the highest dominance. This community is relatively simple and strongly dominated by a few species adapted to the severe conditions of this environment. Typical and meadow steppes showed carabid communities with a more complex structure. As expected on the basis of environmental severity, the most severe ecosystem (i.e., the desert) was only influenced by climatic factors, whereas a certain influence of biotic factors emerged in the other ecosystems.
Project description:Background:Most carabid beetles are particularly sensitive to local habitat characteristics. Although in China grasslands account for more than 40% of the national land, their biodiversity is still poorly known. The aim of this paper is to identify the main environmental characteristics influencing carabid diversity in different types of grassland in northern China. Methods:We investigated the influence of vegetation (plant biomass, cover, density, height and species richness), soil (bulk density, above ground litter, moisture and temperature) and climate (humidity, precipitation and temperature) on carabid community structure (species richness, species composition and functional diversity-measured as body size, movement and total diversity) in three types of grasslands: desert, typical and meadow steppes. We used Canonical correspondence analysis to investigate the role of habitat characteristics on species composition and eigenvector spatial filtering to investigate the responses of species richness and functional diversities. Results:We found that carabid community structure was strongly influenced by local habitat characteristics and particularly by climatic factors. Carabids in the desert steppe showed the lowest richness and functional diversities. Climate predictors (temperature, precipitation and humidity) had positive effects on carabid species richness at both regional and ecosystem levels, with difference among ecosystems. Plant diversity had a positive influence on carabid richness at the regional level. Soil compaction and temperature were negatively related to species richness at regional level. Climatic factors positively influenced functional diversities, whereas soil temperature had negative effects. Soil moisture and temperature were the most important drivers of species composition at regional level, whereas the relative importance of the various environmental parameters varied among ecosystems. Discussion:Carabid responses to environmental characteristics varied among grassland types, which warns against generalizations and indicates that management programs should be considered at grassland scale. Carabid community structure is strongly influenced by climatic factors, and can therefore be particularly sensitive to ongoing climate change.
Project description:European farmland biodiversity is declining due to land use changes towards agricultural intensification or abandonment. Some Eastern European farming systems have sustained traditional forms of use, resulting in high levels of biodiversity. However, global markets and international policies now imply rapid and major changes to these systems. To effectively protect farmland biodiversity, understanding landscape features which underpin species diversity is crucial. Focusing on butterflies, we addressed this question for a cultural-historic landscape in Southern Transylvania, Romania. Following a natural experiment, we randomly selected 120 survey sites in farmland, 60 each in grassland and arable land. We surveyed butterfly species richness and abundance by walking transects with four repeats in summer 2012. We analysed species composition using Detrended Correspondence Analysis. We modelled species richness, richness of functional groups, and abundance of selected species in response to topography, woody vegetation cover and heterogeneity at three spatial scales, using generalised linear mixed effects models. Species composition widely overlapped in grassland and arable land. Composition changed along gradients of heterogeneity at local and context scales, and of woody vegetation cover at context and landscape scales. The effect of local heterogeneity on species richness was positive in arable land, but negative in grassland. Plant species richness, and structural and topographic conditions at multiple scales explained species richness, richness of functional groups and species abundances. Our study revealed high conservation value of both grassland and arable land in low-intensity Eastern European farmland. Besides grassland, also heterogeneous arable land provides important habitat for butterflies. While butterfly diversity in arable land benefits from heterogeneity by small-scale structures, grasslands should be protected from fragmentation to provide sufficiently large areas for butterflies. These findings have important implications for EU agricultural and conservation policy. Most importantly, conservation management needs to consider entire landscapes, and implement appropriate measures at multiple spatial scales.
Project description:In temperate agroecosystems, avian responses in abundance and distribution to landscape attributes may be exacerbated by the coupling of natural seasons and farming practices. We assessed the seasonal roles of field type, field use in the surroundings, and distance from a field to the nearest woodlot on the abundance of seed-eating birds in a 225,000?km<sup>2</sup> study area in the Pampas of central Argentina. During spring-summer and autumn of 2011-2013, we randomly selected 392 fields and used transect samples to collect data on abundance and presence of seed-eating bird species. We recorded a total of 11,579 individuals belonging to 15 seed-eating bird species. We used generalized lineal mixed models to relate bird abundance to field type, field use in the surroundings, and distance to the nearest woodlot. In spring-summer (breeding season) most bird responses were associated with their nesting requirements. Species that build their nests in trees, such as eared doves <i>Zenaida auriculata</i>, picazuro pigeons <i>Patagioenas picazuro</i>, and monk parakeets <i>Myiopsitta monachus</i>, were more abundant in fields closer to woodlots, whereas grassland yellow-finches <i>Sicalis luteola</i>, which nest at areas with tall grasses, were more abundant in fields with livestock use patches in the field surroundings. In autumn (non-breeding season), most bird responses were associated with foraging and refuge needs. The high abundance of eared doves in crop stubbles and the association of pigeons at field surroundings dominated by croplands or at crop stubbles surrounded by livestock use fields revealed the intimate association of these species to sites with high availability of food resources. In addition, both picazuro pigeons and spot-winged pigeons <i>Patagioenas maculosa</i> were associated with woodlots, which provide suitable roosting sites. Our results show that in temperate agroecosystems, the relationships between field characteristics and seed-eating bird abundances vary with season.