In-depth analysis of swim bladder-associated microbiota in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).
ABSTRACT: Our knowledge regarding microbiota associated with the swim bladder of physostomous, fish with the swim bladder connected to the esophagus via the pneumatic duct, remains largely unknown. The goal of this study was to conduct the first in-depth characterization of the swim bladder-associated microbiota using high-throughput sequencing of the V4 region of the 16 S rRNA gene in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). We observed major differences in bacterial communities composition between swim bladder-associated microbiota and distal intestine digesta microbiota in fish. Whilst bacteria genera, such as Cohnella, Lactococcus and Mycoplasma were more abundant in swim bladder-associated microbiota, Citrobacter, Rhodobacter and Clavibacter were more abundant in distal intestine digesta microbiota. The presumptive metabolic function analysis (PICRUSt) revealed several metabolic pathways to be more abundant in the swim bladder-associated microbiota, including metabolism of carbohydrates, nucleotides and lipoic acid as well as oxidative phosphorylation, cell growth, translation, replication and repair. Distal intestine digesta microbiota showed greater abundance of nitrogen metabolism, amino acid metabolism, biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids and bacterial secretion system. We demonstrated swim bladder harbors a unique microbiota, which composition and metabolic function differ from microbiota associated with the gut in fish.
Project description:The present study aimed to investigate whether alternative dietary protein sources modulate the microbial communities in the distal intestine (DI) of Atlantic salmon, and whether alterations in microbiota profiles are reflected in modifications in host intestinal function and health status. A 48-day feeding trial was conducted, in which groups of fish received one of five diets: a reference diet in which fishmeal (diet FM) was the only protein source and four experimental diets with commercially relevant compositions containing alternative ingredients as partial replacements of fishmeal, i.e., poultry meal (diet PM), a mix of soybean meal and wheat gluten (diet SBMWG), a mix of soy protein concentrate and poultry meal (diet SPCPM), and guar meal and wheat gluten (diet GMWG). Samples were taken of DI digesta and mucosa for microbial profiling using high-throughput sequencing and from DI whole tissue for immunohistochemistry and expression profiling of marker genes for gut health. Regardless of diet, there were significant differences between the microbial populations in the digesta and the mucosa in the salmon DI. Microbial richness was higher in the digesta than the mucosa. The digesta-associated bacterial communities were more affected by the diet than the mucosa-associated microbiota. Interestingly, both legume-based diets (SBMWG and GMWG) presented high relative abundance of lactic acid bacteria in addition to alteration in the expression of a salmon gene related to cell proliferation (pcna). It was, however, not possible to ascertain the cause-effect relationship between changes in bacterial communities and the host's intestinal responses to the diets.IMPORTANCE The intestine of cultivated Atlantic salmon shows symptoms of compromised function, which are most likely caused by imbalances related to the use of new feed ingredients. Intestinal microbiota profiling may become in the future a valuable endpoint measurement in order to assess fish intestinal health status and effects of diet. The present study aimed to gain information about whether alternative dietary protein sources modulate the microbial communities in the Atlantic salmon intestine and whether alterations in microbiota profiles are reflected in alterations in host intestinal function and health status. We demonstrate here that there are substantial differences between the intestinal digesta and mucosa in the presence and abundance of bacteria. The digesta-associated microbiota showed clear dependence on the diet composition, whereas mucosa-associated microbiota appeared to be less affected by diet composition. Most important, the study identified bacterial groups associated with diet-induced gut dysfunction that may be utilized as microbial markers of gut health status in fish.
Project description:Gut health challenges, possibly related to alterations in gut microbiota, caused by plant ingredients in the diets, cause losses in Atlantic salmon production. To investigate the role of the microbiota for gut function and health, detailed characterization of the gut microbiota is needed. We present the first in-depth characterization of salmon gut microbiota based on high-throughput sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene's V1-V2 region. Samples were taken from five intestinal compartments: digesta from proximal, mid and distal intestine and of mucosa from mid and distal intestine of 67.3?g salmon kept in seawater (12-14?°C) and fed a commercial diet for 4?weeks. Microbial richness and diversity differed significantly and were higher in the digesta than the mucosa. In mucosa, Proteobacteria dominated the microbiota (90%), whereas in digesta both Proteobacteria (47%) and Firmicutes (38%) showed high abundance. Future studies of diet and environmental impacts on gut microbiota should therefore differentiate between effects on mucosa and digesta in the proximal, mid and the distal intestine. A core microbiota, represented by 22 OTUs, was found in 80% of the samples. The gut microbiota of Atlantic salmon showed similarities with that of mammals.
Project description:The aim of the present study was to identify major bacteria associated with the swim bladder in the rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss. We extracted DNA from the swim bladder and gut contents in order to perform a temporal temperature gradient gel electrophoresis (TTGE) analysis of 16S rRNA amplicons for bacterial identification to further compare both profiles. Arthrobacter and Cellulosimicrobium were the major genera observed in the swim bladder in fish, but were not present in fish gut contents; Mycoplasma were instead observed in these samples. Further research to investigate the possible symbiotic roles of the swim bladder-associated microbiota in salmonids is needed.
Project description:Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) is a carnivorous fish species whose productive performance tends to be suboptimal when fed low-cost carbohydrate rich meals. It is of interest to study the dynamics of gut microbiota communities in salmonids fed high carbohydrate diets since gut microbes are referred to as key players that influence the metabolism and physiology of the host. A study was conducted to determine the effect of feeding a high carbohydrate diet to Atlantic salmon in gut microbiota communities. A medium carbohydrate (15% wheat starch)/medium protein (MC/MP) diet or a high carbohydrate (30% wheat starch)/low protein (HC/LP) diet was fed to triplicate tanks (28 fish each) during four weeks. We conducted an in-depth characterization of the distal intestine digesta microbiota using high-throughput sequencing of the V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene. Firmicutes, Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria were the major phyla determined in either experimental group. Phylum Planctomycetes, class Planctomycetia, order Planctomycetales and genus Lactococcus were significantly more abundant in fish fed the HC/LP diet compared with fish fed the MC/MP diet. Our study suggests feeding a carbohydrate rich meal to salmon exerts a low impact on the structure of gut microbial communities, affecting mostly low-abundance bacteria capable of metabolizing anaerobically carbohydrates as a major energy-yielding substrate.
Project description:The aim of this study was to assess the effect of the transfer from freshwater to seawater on the distal intestinal bacterial communities of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) and to evaluate the effect of dietary inclusion of Pediococcus acidilactici MA18/5M (at 1.19 × 106 CFU/g). In this context, fish health and antiviral response were also investigated. A 12-week feeding trial was conducted in a flow-through rearing system involving 6 weeks in freshwater and 6 weeks in seawater. Fish received a control and probiotic diet. The composition of the salmon gut bacterial communities was determined by high-throughput sequencing of digesta and mucosa samples from both the freshwater and seawater stage. The main phyla detected during both freshwater and seawater stages were Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Fusobacteria, and Actinobacteria. Significant differences were observed between the intestinal microbiota in the digesta and the mucosa. Both probiotic supplementation and the seawater transfer (SWT) had a substantial impact on the microbial communities, with most pronounced changes detected in the mucosal communities after SWT. This last finding together with a significantly higher antiviral response (mx-1 and tlr3 gene expression) in the distal intestine of fish fed the probiotic diet suggest a causal link between the microbiota modulation and activation of antiviral response. Feeding probiotics during the freshwater stage did not significantly increase survival after infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) challenge after SWT, although higher survival was observed in one out of two replicate challenge tanks. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that both dietary probiotic supplementation and transfer from freshwater to seawater have an important role in modulating the bacterial communities in the distal intestine of Atlantic salmon. Furthermore, supplementation of the diet with P. acidilactici MA18/5M can modulate antiviral response.
Project description:The presence of fat stores in fish is widely used as a correlate of fish health and fitness. Techniques to measure fat content with some accuracy are available for medium-sized and large fish, but apart from morphometric indices, a noninvasive method to determine fat content in small fish has hitherto been lacking. In this study, we introduce a novel method to measure the fat content in live fish that can be applied also to small fish of less than 0.5?g of body mass. This approach relies on a precise measurement of the swim bladder volume, from which fat content can subsequently be deduced. As fat is positively buoyant, fish with larger fat stores require a smaller swim bladder to attain neutral buoyancy. To determine swim bladder volume, we developed a measuring device, which makes use of the differential compressibility of air and water. A fish is placed in a pressure-tight chamber to which a standardized amount of water is added. The resulting change in pressure ?p is inversely proportional to the volume of the swim bladder. Using juveniles and adults of Simochromis pleurospilus (Nelissen, '78; Pisces: Tropheini) a small cichlid fish, we show that ?p is tightly related to structural size, mass, and body condition. Most importantly, this approach allows to predict the visceral fat content of small fish more precisely than the six most commonly used morphometric body indices.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Antimicrobial growth promoters (AGPs) are antimicrobial agents administered to livestock in feed for prolonged periods to enhance feed efficiency. Beef cattle are primarily finished in confined feeding operations in Canada and the USA, and the administration of AGPs such as chlortetracycline and sulfamethazine (Aureo S-700 G) is the standard. The impacts of AGPs on the intestinal microbiota of beef cattle are currently uncertain; it is documented that AGPs administered to beef cattle pass through the rumen and enter the intestine. To ascertain the impacts of Aureo S-700 G on the small and large intestinal microbiota of beef cattle (mucosa-associated and within digesta), terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis and quantitative PCR (qPCR) for total bacteria were applied. Beef cattle were maintained in an experimental feedlot (five replicate pens per treatment), and AGP treatment cattle were administered Aureo S-700 G in feed, whereas control cattle were administered no antimicrobials. As the intestinal microbiota of beef cattle has not been extensively examined, clone library analysis was applied to ascertain the primary bacterial constituents of the intestinal microbiota. RESULTS:Comparative T-RFLP and qPCR analysis (n?=?122 samples) revealed that bacterial community fingerprints and bacterial load within digesta differed from those associated with mucosa. However, the administration of Aureo S-700 G did not affect bacterial community fingerprints or bacterial load within the small and large intestine relative to control cattle. Analysis of >1500 near full length 16S rDNA clones revealed considerably greater bacterial diversity in the large relative to the small intestine of beef cattle. Mucosa-associated bacterial communities in the jejunum were dominated by Proteobacteria, and differed conspicuously from those in the ileum and large intestine. Although the ileum contained bacterial clones that were common to the jejunum as well as the cecum, Firmicutes clones associated with mucosa dominated in the ileum, cecum, and descending colon. In the descending colon, clone library analysis did not reveal a difference in the richness or diversity of bacterial communities within digesta relative to those associated with mucosa. However, T-RFLP analysis indicated a significant difference in T-RF relative abundance (i.e. difference in relative taxon abundance) between mucosa-associated and digesta communities attributed in part to the differential abundance of Bacteriodes, Alistipes, Oscillibacter, and unclassified Clostridiales. CONCLUSIONS:These data demonstrate that there was no significant difference in the composition of the predominant intestinal bacteria constituents within animals administered Aureo S-700 G and those not administered AGPs after a 28 day withdrawal period.
Project description:The aim of this study was to determine the effect of exogenous butyrate on the activity of carbohydrate-digesting enzymes in the reticuloruminal digesta and structure and selected functions of the small intestine in sheep. Eighteen rams (30.8 ± 2.1 kg; 12 to 15 mo of age) were fed for 14 d a diet without (CTRL) or with sodium butyrate (BUT; 36 g/kg of offered DM). Butyrate concentration in the reticuloruminal fluid and proximal small intestinal digesta was greater for BUT compared with CTRL (P ? 0.05). Amylolytic activity was greater, whereas cellulolytic and xylanolytic activity in the reticuloruminal digesta was less for BUT compared with CTRL (P ? 0.04). Relative to BW, small intestinal tissue mass and small intestine length did not differ between treatments (P ? 0.15); however, absolute length of the small intestine was greater for BUT compared with CTRL (P = 0.04). In the duodenum, crypt depth tended (P = 0.10) to be greater, whereas in the ileum, crypt depth and muscularis thickness tended (P = 0.10) to be less for BUT compared with CTRL. Mitosis-to-apoptosis ratio in the proximal jejunum was greater for CTRL compared with BUT (P = 0.02). Expression of G-protein-coupled receptor 43 mRNA in the duodenal epithelium was greater for BUT compared with CTRL (P < 0.01). On the other hand, peptide transporter 1 mRNA expression in the distal sections of the small intestine, as well as activity of aminopeptidase A and dipeptidylpeptidase IV, were greater for CTRL (P ? 0.05). In summary, exogenous butyrate supplementation in feed affects hydrolytic activity in the rumen, and increased butyrate flow out of the reticulorumen affects both proximal and distal sections of the small intestine in sheep.
Project description:Bacterial colonization in the gastrointestinal tracts (GIT) of preweaned calves is very important, since it can influence early development and postweaning performance and health. This study investigated the composition of the bacteria along the GIT (rumen, jejunum, ileum, cecum, and colon) of preweaned bull calves (3 weeks old) using pyrosequencing to understand the segregation of bacteria between the mucosal surface and digesta. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that a total of 83 genera belonging to 13 phyla were distributed throughout the GIT of preweaned calves, with the Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, and Proteobacteria predominating. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) analysis of selected abundant bacterial genera (Prevotella, Bacteroides, Lactobacillus, and Faecalibacterium) revealed that their prevalence was significantly different among the GIT regions and between mucosa- and digesta-associated communities. Rumens contained the most diverse bacterial population, consisting of 47 genera, including 16 rumen-specific genera, followed by the large intestine and then the small intestine. Bacterial species richness was higher at the mucosal surface than in the local digesta, with the exception of the rumen. The majority of bacteria found on the rumen epithelial surface and within the small intestine could not be identified due to a lack of known genus-level information. Thus, future studies will be required to fully characterize the microbiome during the development of the rumens and the mucosal immune systems of newborn calves. This is the first study to analyze in depth the bacterial composition of the GIT microbiome in preweaned calves, which extends previous findings regarding early rumen colonization and bacterial segregation between mucosa- and digesta-associated microbial communities.