Characterization and Changes of Lymphocyte Subsets in Baricitinib-Treated Patients With Rheumatoid Arthritis: An Integrated Analysis.
ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE:Baricitinib is an orally administered inhibitor of JAK1 and JAK2 that has been shown to be effective in treating rheumatoid arthritis (RA). This study was undertaken to analyze changes in lymphocyte cell subsets during baricitinib treatment and to correlate these changes with clinical outcomes. METHODS:An integrated analysis was conducted by pooling data from 3 completed phase III trials comparing placebo with baricitinib treatment (RA-BEAM, RA-BUILD, and RA-BEACON) and 1 ongoing long-term extension study (RA-BEYOND) in patients with active RA (n = 2,186). RESULTS:Baricitinib treatment was associated with an early transient increase in total lymphocyte count at week 4, which returned to baseline by week 12. Transient changes within normal reference ranges in T cells and subsets were observed with baricitinib treatment, up to week 104. B cells and relevant subpopulations increased after 4 weeks of baricitinib treatment, with no further increases noted through 104 weeks of treatment. Natural killer (NK) cells temporarily increased after 4 weeks of baricitinib treatment, before decreasing below baseline levels and then stabilizing over time. With baricitinib treatment, few correlations were observed between changes in lymphocyte subsets and clinical end points, and most correlations were also observed within the placebo group. A modest potential association between low NK cell numbers and treatment-emergent infections was observed in the baricitinib 4 mg/day treatment group, but not for serious infections or herpes zoster. CONCLUSION:Overall, these findings demonstrate that changes in lymphocyte subsets were largely within normal reference ranges across the baricitinib phase III RA clinical program and were not associated with increased risk of serious infections.
Project description:To investigate baricitinib (LY3009104, formerly INCB028050), a novel, oral inhibitor of JAK1/JAK2 in patients with moderate to severe rheumatoid arthritis (RA) despite treatment with methotrexate.In this phase IIb study, 301 patients were randomised 2:1:1:1:1 to receive once daily doses of placebo or 1, 2, 4 or 8?mg baricitinib for 12?weeks. Patients assigned to 2, 4 and 8 mg baricitinib continued blinded treatment for an additional 12?weeks. Patients assigned to placebo or 1 mg baricitinib were reassigned to 2 mg twice daily or 4 mg once daily baricitinib between weeks 12-24. The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients in the combined 4 and 8 mg groups achieving an American College of Rheumatology 20% (ACR20) response versus placebo at week 12.Significantly more patients in the combined baricitinib 4 and 8 mg groups compared with placebo achieved an ACR20 response at week 12 (76% vs 41%, p<0.001). At week 12, significant differences versus placebo were also observed in patients achieving ACR50, ACR70 and remission as measured by Disease Activity Score for 28-joint counts, Clinical Disease Activity Index and Simplified Disease Activity Index. Patients receiving 2, 4, or 8?mg baricitinib maintained or improved in all measures through 24?weeks. Similar proportions of patients experienced at least one adverse event in the placebo and baricitinib groups. Serious infections developed in three patients receiving baricitinib. No cases of tuberculosis, herpes zoster, opportunistic infections or deaths were reported. Dose-dependent decreases in haemoglobin were observed with baricitinib.Baricitinib improved the signs and symptoms of RA in methotrexate inadequate responders with active disease. Baricitinib was well tolerated with no unexpected safety findings through week 24.NCT01185353.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Tissue released blood-based biomarkers can provide insight into drug mode of action and response. To understand the changes in extracellular matrix turnover, we analyzed biomarkers associated with joint tissue turnover from a phase 3, randomized, placebo-controlled study of baricitinib in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis (RA). METHODS:Serum biomarkers associated with synovial inflammation (C1M, C3M, and C4M), cartilage degradation (C2M), bone resorption (CTX-I), and bone formation (osteocalcin) were analyzed at baseline, and weeks 4 and 12, from a subgroup of patients (n =?240) randomized to placebo or 2-mg or 4-mg baricitinib (RA-BUILD, NCT01721057). Mixed-model repeated measure was used to identify biomarkers altered by baricitinib. The relationship between changes in biomarkers and clinical measures was evaluated using correlation analysis. RESULTS:Treatment arms were well balanced for baseline biomarkers, demographics, and disease activity. At week 4, baricitinib 4-mg significantly reduced C1M from baseline by 21% compared to placebo (p <?0.01); suppression was sustained at week 12 (27%, p <?0.001). Baricitinib 4-mg reduced C3M and C4M at week 4 by 14% and 12% compared to placebo, respectively (p <?0.001); they remained reduced by 16% and 11% at week 12 (p <?0.001). In a pooled analysis including all treatment arms, patients with the largest reduction (upper 25% quartile) in C1M, C3M, and C4M by week 12 had significantly greater clinical improvement in the Simplified Disease Activity Index at week 12 compared to patients with the smallest reduction (lowest 25% quartile). CONCLUSION:Baricitinib treatment resulted in reduced circulating biomarkers associated with joint tissue destruction as well as concomitant RA clinical improvement. TRIAL REGISTRATION:ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01721057 ; date of registration: November 1, 2012.
Project description:We undertook this phase III study to evaluate baricitinib, an orally administered JAK-1/JAK-2 inhibitor, as monotherapy or combined with methotrexate (MTX) compared to MTX monotherapy in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis (RA) who had received no or minimal conventional synthetic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) and who were naive to biologic DMARDs.A total of 588 patients were randomized 4:3:4 to receive MTX monotherapy (once weekly), baricitinib monotherapy (4 mg once daily), or the combination of baricitinib and MTX for 52 weeks. The primary end point assessment was a noninferiority comparison of baricitinib monotherapy to MTX monotherapy based on the proportion of patients meeting the American College of Rheumatology 20% improvement criteria (achieving an ACR20 response) at week 24.The study met its primary objective. Moreover, baricitinib monotherapy was found to be superior to MTX monotherapy at week 24, with a higher ACR20 response rate (77% versus 62%; P ≤ 0.01). Similar results were observed for combination therapy. Compared to MTX monotherapy, significant improvements in disease activity and physical function were observed for both baricitinib groups as early as week 1. Radiographic progression was reduced in both baricitinib groups compared to MTX monotherapy; the difference was statistically significant for baricitinib plus MTX. The rates of serious adverse events (AEs) were similar across treatment groups, while rates of some treatment-emergent AEs, including infections, were increased with baricitinib plus MTX. Three deaths were reported, all occurring in the MTX monotherapy group. Malignancies, including nonmelanoma skin cancer, were reported in 1 patient receiving MTX monotherapy, 1 receiving baricitinib monotherapy, and 4 receiving baricitinib plus MTX.Baricitinib alone or in combination with MTX demonstrated superior efficacy with acceptable safety compared to MTX monotherapy as initial therapy for patients with active RA.
Project description:Objective:The absolute and relative changes of peripheral NK and T subsets are unclear in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) associated with pulmonary interstitial fibrosis (RA-ILD). To investigate the clinical risk factors, especially the changes of lymphocyte subsets, in RA-ILD in order to make early diagnosis and achieve prevention of the pulmonary interstitial lesions. Methods:A total of 100 RA and 100 RA-ILD patients were enrolled. Rheumatoid factor, anti-cyclic citrulline peptide antibody, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, immunoglobulin, and C-reactive protein were examined. The percentage and absolute number of NK, T, B, Treg, Th1, Th2, and Th17 cells in peripheral blood were determined by flow cytometry. Results:RA-ILD is more common in older and male RA patients and/or those with higher autoantibody titers. Flow cytometry showed that the absolute and relative numbers of CD56+ NK cells were significantly higher in RA-ILD (280.40?±?180.51?cells/?l vs. 207.66?±?148.57?cells/?l; 16.62?±?8.56% vs. 12.11?±?6.47%), whereas the proportion of T cells and CD4+ T cells was lower in peripheral blood of RA-ILD patients (69.82?±?9.30%; 39.44?±?9.87?cells/?l) than that in RA patients (74.45?±?8.72%; 43.29?±?9.10?cells/?l). Conclusions:The occurrence of RA-ILD is closely related to the older male patients with high titer of various self-antibodies. Imbalance of CD3-CD56+ NK cells and T cells with other subsets were found in RA-ILD patients, which, together with older age, male, and high levels of autoantibodies should be considered as risk factors of pulmonary interstitial lesions.
Project description:Patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) may experience residual pain and functional impairment despite good control of disease activity. This study compared improvements in pain and physical function in patients with well-controlled RA after 24 weeks' treatment with baricitinib, adalimumab or placebo in the 52-week RA-BEAM phase III study. Adults with active RA and inadequate response to methotrexate received baricitinib 4 mg once daily, adalimumab 40 mg every two weeks or placebo, with background methotrexate. Patients (N = 1010) were categorised as in remission, in remission or low disease activity, or not in remission or low disease activity at week 24. For patients in remission or low disease activity (n = 310), improvements in mean pain and physical function scores at week 24 were significantly greater with baricitinib than placebo (p < 0.001 and p < 0.01, respectively) and adalimumab (p < 0.05 for both). For both outcomes, differences between adalimumab and placebo were not significant. The proportions of patients in remission or low disease activity with minimal or no pain and with normalised physical function were numerically greater with baricitinib than placebo. Baricitinib 4 mg once daily provided enhanced improvement in pain and physical function in patients with well-controlled RA, suggesting it may produce effects beyond immunomodulation.
Project description:To evaluate the effect of baricitinib on patient-reported outcomes (PROs) in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and an inadequate response or intolerance to conventional synthetic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs.In this phase III study, patients were randomised 1:1:1 to placebo (N=228), baricitinib 2 mg once daily (QD, N=229) or baricitinib 4 mg QD (N=227). PROs included the Health Assessment Questionnaire-Disability Index (HAQ-DI), Patient's Global Assessment of Disease Activity (PtGA), patient's assessment of pain, measures from patient electronic daily diaries (duration and severity of morning joint stiffness (MJS), Worst Tiredness, Worst Joint Pain), Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Fatigue (FACIT-F), SF-36, EuroQol 5-D index scores and visual analogue scales (VAS) and the Work Productivity and Activity Impairment Questionnaire-RA. The primary time point for the study was week 12. Treatment comparisons were assessed with logistic regression for categorical measures and analysis of covariance for continuous variables.Statistically significant improvements were observed for both baricitinib groups versus placebo in HAQ-DI, PtGA, pain, daily diary measures, EuroQoL index scores and SF-36 physical component score at week 12 and for those measures when assessed at week 24. Baricitinib 2 mg and baricitinib 4 mg were statistically significantly improved versus placebo for the EuroQoL VAS and FACIT-F, respectively, at week 24.Baricitinib 2 or 4 mg provided significant improvement versus placebo in PROs across different domains of RA, including physical function, MJS, fatigue, pain and quality of life.NCT01721057; Results.
Project description:Background: Baricitinib is an oral janus kinase inhibitor for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and is approved in Europe for use in adults with moderately-to-severely active RA and an inadequate response or intolerance to conventional synthetic disease-modifying antirheumatic drug (csDMARD) therapy. To date, no economic evaluations have assessed the cost-effectiveness of baricitinib in the Spanish setting. Objectives: To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of baricitinib versus adalimumab for the treatment of moderately-to-severely active RA in the Spanish setting. Methods: A discrete event simulation model was developed in Microsoft Excel. Costs and outcomes were estimated over a lifetime horizon using the Spanish national payer perspective. The model compared baricitinib 4 mg once daily in combination with methotrexate with adalimumab 40 mg every other week in combination with methotrexate. Effectiveness and physical function were captured using the American College of Rheumatology criteria and the Health Assessment Questionnaire-Disability Index, input values of which were derived from a phase 3, double-blind, placebo- and active-controlled trial (RA-BEAM; funded by Eli Lilly and Incyte; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01710358). Costs are presented in Euros, 2018 values. Results: In the base case analysis, baricitinib was associated with a quality-adjusted life year gain of 0.09 years over a lifetime horizon, at an incremental cost of -€558 versus adalimumab. Results of various scenario analyses and probabilistic sensitivity analysis generally were consistent with the base case analysis. Conclusion: This analysis suggests that baricitinib is a cost-effective treatment option compared to adalimumab for Spanish patients with moderately-to-severely active RA and a previous inadequate response or intolerance to csDMARD therapy.
Project description:This study evaluates patient-reported outcomes (PROs) in a double-blind, phase III study of baricitinib as monotherapy or combined with methotrexate (MTX) in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis (RA) with no or minimal prior conventional synthetic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) and naïve to biological DMARDs.Patients were randomized 4:3:4 to MTX administered once weekly (N?=?210), baricitinib monotherapy (4 mg once daily (QD), N?=?159), or combination of baricitinib (4 mg QD) and MTX (baricitinib?+?MTX, N?=?215). PROs included the Patient's Global Assessment of Disease Activity (PtGA), patient's assessment of pain, Health Assessment Questionnaire-Disability Index (HAQ-DI), Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Fatigue (FACIT-F), duration of morning joint stiffness (MJS), worst joint pain, worst tiredness, Work Productivity and Activity Impairment-Rheumatoid Arthritis (WPAI-RA), Short Form 36 version 2, Acute (SF-36); and EuroQol 5-Dimensions (EQ-5D) Health State Profile. Comparisons were assessed with analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) and logistic regression models.Compared to MTX, patients in both baricitinib groups reported greater improvement (p???0.01) in HAQ-DI, PtGA, pain, fatigue, worst join pain, SF-36 physical component score, and EQ-5D at weeks 24 and 52. For the SF-36 mental component score, patients in both baricitinib groups reported statistically significant improvements (p???0.01) at week 52 compared to MTX-treated patients. Statistically significant improvements (p???0.05) were observed with the WPAI-RA for the baricitinib groups vs. MTX at week 24 and for the WPAI-RA daily activity and work productivity measures for baricitinib?+?MTX at week 52.In this study, baricitinib alone or in combination with MTX, when used as initial therapy, resulted in significant improvement compared to MTX in the majority of the pre-specified PRO measures.ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01711359 . Registered on 18 October 2012.
Project description:RA patients who have failed biologic DMARDs (bDMARDs) represent an unmet medical need. We evaluated the effects of baseline characteristics, including prior bDMARD exposure, on baricitinib efficacy and safety.RA-BEACON patients (previously reported) had moderate to severe RA with insufficient response to one or more TNF inhibitor and were randomized 1:1:1 to once-daily placebo or 2 or 4 mg baricitinib. Prior bDMARD use was allowed. The primary endpoint was a 20% improvement in ACR criteria (ACR20) at week 12 for 4 mg vs placebo. An exploratory, primarily post hoc, subgroup analysis evaluated efficacy at weeks 12 and 24 by ACR20 and Clinical Disease Activity Index (CDAI) ⩽10. An interaction P-value ⩽0.10 was considered significant, with significance at both weeks 12 and 24 given more weight.The odds ratios predominantly favored baricitinib over placebo and were generally similar to those in the overall study (3.4, 2.4 for ACR20 weeks 12 and 24, respectively). Significant quantitative interactions were observed for baricitinib 4 mg vs placebo at weeks 12 and 24: ACR20 by region (larger effect Europe) and CDAI ⩽10 by disease duration (larger effect ⩾10 years). No significant interactions were consistently observed for ACR20 by age; weight; disease duration; seropositivity; corticosteroid use; number of prior bDMARDs, TNF inhibitors or non-TNF inhibitors; or a specific prior TNF inhibitor. Treatment-emergent adverse event rates, including infections, appeared somewhat higher across groups with greater prior bDMARD use.Baricitinib demonstrated a consistent, beneficial treatment effect in bDMARD-refractory patients across subgroups based on baseline characteristics and prior bDMARD use.ClinicalTrials.gov (https://clinicaltrials.gov/), NCT01721044.
Project description:To assess the effect of baricitinib on patient-reported outcomes (PROs) in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis and an inadequate response to methotrexate (MTX).In this double-blind phase 3 study, patients were randomised 3:3:2 to placebo (n=488), baricitinib 4 mg once daily (n=487), or adalimumab 40 mg biweekly (n=330) with background MTX. PROs included the SF-36, EuroQol 5-D (EQ-5D) index scores and visual analogue scale, Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Fatigue (FACIT-F), Health Assessment Questionnaire-Disability Index (HAQ-DI), Patient's Global Assessment of Disease Activity (PtGA), patient's assessment of pain and Work Productivity and Activity Impairment Questionnaire-Rheumatoid Arthritis (WPAI-RA), and measures collected in electronic patient daily diaries: duration and severity of morning joint stiffness (MJS), Worst Ttiredness and Worst Joint Pain. The primary study endpoint was at week 12. Treatment comparisons were assessed with logistic regression for categorical measures or analysis of covariance for continuous variables.Compared with placebo and adalimumab, baricitinib showed statistically significant improvements (p≤0.05) in HAQ-DI, PtGA, pain, FACIT-F, SF-36 physical component score, EQ-5D index scores and WPAI-RA daily activity at week 12. Improvements were maintained for measures assessed to week 52. Statistically significant improvement in patient diary measures (MJS duration and severity), worst tiredness and worst joint pain were observed for baricitinib versus placebo and adalimumab at week 12 (p≤0.05).Baricitinib provided significantly greater improvement in most PROs compared with placebo and adalimumab, including physical function MJS, pain, fatigue and quality of life. Improvement was maintained to the end of the study (week 52).NCT01710358.