Long-term efficacy of novel therapies in moderate-to-severe plaque psoriasis: a systematic review and network meta-analysis of PASI response.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Patients with moderate-to-severe psoriasis require long-term treatment, yet few trials compare outcomes beyond a short-term induction period. Quantitative comparisons of long-term outcomes in patients with psoriasis are limited. To our knowledge, no network meta-analysis (NMA) of such data has been performed. OBJECTIVE:To compare novel systemic therapies, both biologic and non-biologic, approved for moderate-to-severe psoriasis by conducting a systematic review (SR) and NMA of Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI) outcomes measured at or around 1 year. METHODS:An SR was conducted to identify studies reporting PASI 75, PASI 90 and PASI 100 responses. Feasibility of an NMA on maintenance phase endpoints was assessed and sources of heterogeneity considered. Data appropriate for analysis were modelled using a Bayesian multinomial likelihood model with probit link. Wherever possible, data corresponding to an intention-to-treat approach with non-responder imputation were used. RESULTS:Twenty-four studies reporting outcomes at 40-64 weeks were identified, but heterogeneity in study design allowed synthesis of only 17. Four 52-week randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comprised the primary analysis, which found brodalumab was significantly more efficacious than secukinumab, ustekinumab and etanercept. Secukinumab was also more efficacious than ustekinumab and both outperformed etanercept. In a secondary analysis, evidence from 13 additional studies and 4 further therapies (adalimumab, apremilast, infliximab and ixekizumab) was included by comparing long-term outcomes from active interventions to placebo outcomes extrapolated from induction. Results were consistent with the primary analysis: brodalumab was most effective, followed by ixekizumab and secukinumab, then ustekinumab, infliximab and adalimumab. Etanercept and apremilast had the lowest expected long-term efficacy. Results were similar when studies with low prior exposure to biological therapies were excluded. CONCLUSION:Results suggest that brodalumab is associated with a higher likelihood of sustained PASI response, including complete clearance, at week 52 than comparators. Further long-term active-comparator RCT data are required to better assess relative efficacy across therapies.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Rapid improvement of psoriasis is valued by patients and should be considered to be an important factor in treatment selection. We investigated Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI) and Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) response rates within the first 12 weeks of treatment to compare the rapid response of 11 biologic therapies for moderate-to-severe psoriasis using Bayesian and Frequentist network meta-analyses (NMA). METHODS:A systematic literature review was conducted to identify phase 3, double-blind, randomized, controlled trials for adult patients with moderate-to-severe psoriasis treated with interleukin (IL)-17 (brodalumab, ixekizumab, secukinumab), IL-12/-23 (ustekinumab), IL-23 (guselkumab, risankizumab, tildrakizumab), or tumor necrosis factor inhibitors (adalimumab, certolizumab pegol, etanercept, infliximab). Outcome measures extracted from 32 publications were ? 75, ? 90, or 100% improvement in PASI score (PASI? 75,?PASI?90, or PASI 100, respectively) at weeks 2, 4, 8, and 12 and DLQI (0,1), where score (0,1) indicates no effect on patient's life, at week 12. Bayesian NMA (BNMA) used fixed-treatment effect and random-baseline effect, normal independent models. Frequentist NMA (fNMA) was conducted as sensitivity analyses to test the robustness of the findings. RESULTS:Based on BNMA and fNMA, brodalumab and ixekizumab showed the most rapid treatment effects on PASI 75 at weeks 2, 4, and 8 and on PASI 90 and PASI 100 at weeks 2, 4, 8, and 12; ixekizumab overlapped with risankizumab on PASI 75 at week 12. Brodalumab, ixekizumab, and secukinumab yielded higher DLQI (0,1) gains at week 12 compared to all of the other biologics studied. Additional measures of quality of life were not assessed in this report. CONCLUSIONS:Ixekizumab and brodalumab provide the most rapid response and earliest clinical benefit at week 2 among all of the biologics studied, including other biologic treatments such as secukinumab, ustekinumab, guselkumab, adalimumab, and etanercept. BNMA and fNMA results showed similar relative effect estimates and treatment rankings. FUNDING:Eli Lilly and Company.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:New generation biologics, including interleukin (IL)-17 and IL-23 inhibitors, have delivered higher rates of skin clearance than older treatments in head-to-head studies. However, studies comparing these new biologics directly to one another are limited. OBJECTIVES:To compare the short-term efficacy of available (or imminently available) biologic and non-biologic systemic therapies for treating patients with moderate-to-severe plaque psoriasis. METHODS:A systematic review was undertaken to identify randomised controlled trials evaluating biologic treatments, apremilast and dimethyl fumarate. MEDLINE, MEDLINE In-Process, Embase and the Cochrane Library were searched from the 1st January 2000 to 22nd November 2018. A Bayesian network meta-analysis (NMA) using a random-effects multinomial likelihood model with probit link and meta-regression to adjust for cross-trial variation in placebo responses compared the efficacy of interventions at inducing different levels of Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI) response during the induction period. A range of sensitivity analyses was undertaken. RESULTS:Seventy-seven trials (34,816 patients) were included in the NMA. The base-case analysis showed that all active treatments were superior to placebo. IL-17 inhibitors, guselkumab and risankizumab were found to be more efficacious than tildrakizumab, ustekinumab, all TNF inhibitors and non-biologic systemic treatments at inducing all levels of PASI response. In addition, brodalumab, ixekizumab and risankizumab were significantly more efficacious than secukinumab; no significant difference was found in the comparison with guselkumab. The greatest benefit of brodalumab, ixekizumab, guselkumab, and risankizumab was seen for PASI 90 and PASI 100 response. Results were consistent across all analyses. CONCLUSIONS:In the NMA brodalumab, ixekizumab, risankizumab and guselkumab showed the highest levels of short-term efficacy. There were differences in efficacy between treatments within the same class. Longer-term analyses are needed to understand differences between these drugs beyond induction in what is a life-long condition.
Project description:Background:The role of interleukin-12 (IL-12), interleukin-23 (IL-23), and interleukin-17 (IL-17) has been recognized in psoriasis pathogenesis, and new drugs targeting this axis have already been developed which may provide a new therapeutic approach for patients with moderate to severe psoriasis. Objective:To compare the direct and indirect evidences of the efficacy and safety of brodalumab, secukinumab, ixekizumab, ustekinumab, guselkumab, tildrakizumab, and risankizumab in the short-term treatment of moderate to severe plaque psoriasis using network meta-analysis (NMA). Methods:A comprehensive literature search was performed in PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials for the available relevant studies. NMA was conducted by Stata 15.0 software using relative risks (RR) with 95% confidence interval to assess the clinical effectiveness and safety. Ranked the efficacy and safety for each drug accordance with the surface under the cumulative ranking curve (SUCRA). Results:This meta-analysis included 28 studies. All the interventions performed better than placebo in short-term achievement. Based on the result of SUCRA, ixekizumab 80?mg every 2 weeks ranked the highest in short-term achievement of PASI 75 (SUCRA?=?93.0%). Brodalumab 210?mg ranked the highest in short-term achievement of PASI 100 (SUCRA?=?85.0%). Secukinumab 300?mg ranked the highest in short-term achievement of sPGA 0/1 or IGA 0/1 or PGA 0/1 (SUCRA?=?98.1%). In terms of having a risk of adverse events, the rates were higher in brodalumab, secukinumab, ixekizumab, and ustekinumab 45?mg compared with placebo. Ixekizumab 80?mg every 4 weeks ranked the highest in the risk of adverse events during short-term treatment (SUCRA?=?4.5%). Guselkumab 50?mg ranked the highest in the risk of serious adverse events during short-term treatment (SUCRA?=?25.9%). Ixekizumab 80?mg every 4 weeks ranked the highest in the risk of discontinuations due to adverse events during short-ter treatment (SUCRA?=?10.7%). Conclusions:IL-17, IL-12/23, and IL-23 inhibitors had high efficacy in the achievement of PASI 75, PASI 100, and sPGA 0/1 or IGA 0/1 or PGA 0/1 in moderate to severe plaque psoriasis after 12 or 16 weeks of treatment. IL-17 inhibitors showed superior efficacy. However, its clinical safety was poor. Risankizumab appeared to have relatively high efficacy and low risk. The clinical tolerance of other biological agents needs to be further observed.
Project description:To assess the comparative effectiveness and safety of novel biologic therapies in psoriatic arthritis (PsA) and to establish the position of the non-anti-tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF-?) biologic drugs in the treatment regimen of the disease. A systematic review and network meta-analysis (NMA) was conducted according to the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA) requirements. Two investigators identified the studies, abstracted data, and assessed the risk of bias independently. The NMA was conducted for efficacy [American College of Rheumatology (ACR) criteria, ACR20 and ACR50; psoriasis area and severity index (PASI), PASI75] and safety outcomes [any adverse events (AEs) and serious adverse events (SAEs)]; treatments were ranked using the P score for each outcome. The PROSPERO registration number was 42017072200. MEDLINE/PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, and ClinicalTrials.gov were searched from the inception of each database to July 10, 2017. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) for abatacept, apremilast, secukinumab or ustekinumab in adults with moderate and severe PsA were included. The overall PsA population and anti-TNF-?-naive, anti-TNF-?-failure, or anti-TNF-?-experienced subpopulations were considered. We identified eight eligible RCTs and included them in the systematic review and NMA. Significant differences in ACR20 response rate were revealed between secukinumab 150 mg and apremilast 20 mg [relative risk; RR?=?2.55 (CI-confidence interval; 1.24, 5.23)] and between secukinumab 300 mg and apremilast 20 or 30 mg [RR?=?3.57 CI (1.48, 8.64) and RR?=?2.84 CI (1.18, 6.86), respectively]. Any AEs occurred more often in apremilast 20 and 30 mg compared with placebo [RR?=?0.58 CI (0.45, 0.74) and RR?=?0.58 CI (0.45, 0.75), respectively] but also compared with secukinumab 150 mg [RR?=?0.54 CI (0.35, 0.81) and RR?=?0.45 CI (0.35, 0.82), respectively]. No significant differences were revealed for SAEs among biologics and between biologics and placebo. In the overall population, as well as in the anti-TNF-?-naive subpopulation, secukinumab at a dose of 300 and 150 mg was ranked the highest for the ACR20 endpoint, while in the anti-TNF-?-experienced subpopulation, secukinumab 300 mg and apremilast 30 mg revealed the highest rank. Secukinumab 75 mg was the safest drug in terms of any AEs, but for SEAs the safest was ustekinumab 90 mg. Our study revealed no significant differences among non-anti-TNF-? biologics in the treatment of PsA in the comparisons performed with regards to the highest efficacy and safety. Both in the overall population and in the analyzed subpopulations, secukinumab 300 mg was ranked the highest for the ACR20 response rate. Secukinumab 300 mg was the safest drug in terms of any AEs, and ustekinumab 90 mg presented the lowest overall risk of SAEs. Head-to-head trials and evaluation of comparative efficacy and safety between non-TNF-? biologics are warranted to inform clinical decision making with a relevant treatment paradigm.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>To study cost-effectiveness of an interleukin (IL)-17A inhibitor secukinumab, with other biologics and apremilast in patients with Psoriatic arthritis (PsA) from payer perspective in Finland.<h4>Methods</h4>In this semi-Markov model, subcutaneous (SC) secukinumab was compared with SC treatments etanercept and its biosimilar, certolizumab pegol, adalimumab and its biosimilar, golimumab, ustekinumab, intravenous (IV) treatment infliximab, as well as oral non-biologic apremilast. Patients without prior exposure (naïve) to biologics and without moderate to severe psoriasis were considered for secukinumab 150 mg group. Secukinumab 300 mg group included naïve patients with moderate to severe psoriasis and all patients with prior biologic exposure. The PsA Response Criteria (PsARC) at 12-week was primary criteria for treatment response. Other clinical as well as cost related model inputs were derived from relevant clinical trials as well as Finnish publications. The key model outcomes were quality-adjusted life years and incremental cost-effectiveness ratio. An annual 3% discount rate was applied to all future costs and benefits. Model input variations were assessed through sensitivity analyses and alternative scenario analyses.<h4>Results</h4>For a lifetime horizon (60 years), secukinumab 150 mg dominated all branded SC biologics and apremilast with highest QALY of 8.01 and lowest lifetime cost of €187,776, while it was cost-effective against IV infliximab among biologic-naïve patients without moderate to severe psoriasis. Secukinumab 300 mg was cost-effective against all branded SC biologics and apremilast and dominated IV infliximab among biologic-naïve patients with moderate to severe psoriasis, while it was cost-effective in biologic experienced patients. With the one-way sensitivity analysis, PsARC response, drug acquisition cost, and health assessment questionnaire score were the most important parameters affecting the outcomes. Across all treatment groups, patients on secukinumab were most likely to achieve highest net monetary benefit than other competitors in probabilistic sensitivity analysis. With alternative scenario analysis, results largely remained unchanged.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Secukinumab is a cost-effective treatment for PsA patients from a Finnish payer's perspective.
Project description:Apremilast, an oral, small-molecule phosphodiesterase 4 inhibitor, has demonstrated efficacy in patients with moderate-to-severe psoriasis.Evaluate efficacy and safety of apremilast vs. placebo in biologic-naive patients with moderate-to-severe plaque psoriasis and safety of switching from etanercept to apremilast in a phase IIIb, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study (NCT01690299).Two hundred and fifty patients were randomized to placebo (n = 84), apremilast 30 mg BID (n = 83) or etanercept 50 mg QW (n = 83) through Week 16; thereafter, all patients continued or switched to apremilast through Week 104. The primary efficacy endpoint was achievement of PASI-75 at Week 16 with apremilast vs. placebo. Secondary endpoints included achievement of PASI-75 at Week 16 with etanercept vs. placebo and improvements in other clinical endpoints vs. placebo at Week 16. Outcomes were assessed through Week 52. This study was not designed for apremilast vs. etanercept comparisons.At Week 16, PASI-75 achievement was greater with apremilast (39.8%) vs. placebo (11.9%; P < 0.0001); 48.2% of patients achieved PASI-75 with etanercept (P < 0.0001 vs. placebo). PASI-75 response was maintained in 47.3% (apremilast/apremilast), 49.4% (etanercept/apremilast) and 47.9% (placebo/apremilast) of patients at Week 52. Most common adverse events (≥5%) with apremilast, including nausea, diarrhoea, upper respiratory tract infection, nasopharyngitis, tension headache and headache, were mild or moderate in severity; diarrhoea and nausea generally resolved in the first month. No new safety or tolerability issues were observed through Week 52 with apremilast.Apremilast demonstrated significant efficacy vs. placebo at Week 16 in biologic-naive patients with psoriasis, which was sustained over 52 weeks, and demonstrated safety consistent with the known safety profile of apremilast. Switching from etanercept to apremilast did not result in any new or clinically significant safety findings, and efficacy was maintained with apremilast through Week 52.
Project description:Psoriasis is a common disease, which has a considerable impact on patients and the health care system. Treatment approaches to the disease may be various because some issues are not definitely addressed. Moreover, the therapeutic paradigms are continuously changing because of the recent approval of new treatments for psoriasis such as interleukin (IL)-17 inhibitors and apremilast. In this review, the factors influencing psoriasis severity, the indications for systemic treatments, the overall parameters to be considered in the treatment choice, life style interventions, and the recommendations for the use, screening, and monitoring of systemic therapies available including acitretin, cyclosporine, methotrexate, apremilast, adalimumab, etanercept, infliximab, secukinumab, ixekizumab, and ustekinumab are discussed. Finally, treatment approaches in special patient populations including children, the elderly, pregnant women, patients with a history of neoplasm, and candidates for surgical procedures are reported.
Project description:Importance:Patients with psoriasis enrolled in clinical trials of biologics may not be representative of the real-world population. There is evidence that patients ineligible for such trials have a greater risk of serious adverse events (SAEs), but the effect on drug discontinuation and effectiveness are unknown. Objective:To determine whether (1) drug discontinuation, (2) effectiveness, and (3) rates of SAEs differ in patients with psoriasis categorized as eligible or ineligible for clinical trials. Design, Setting, and Participants:An observational study using 157 dermatology centers in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland was carried out wherein we applied the eligibility criteria of clinical trials of biologic therapies for psoriasis to patients who were being followed up in the British Association of Dermatologists Biologic Interventions Register (BADBIR) and being prescribed biologics as part of standard clinical care. Patients with psoriasis registered to BADBIR who were taking etanercept (enbrel only; n = 1509), adalimumab (n = 4000), and ustekinumab (n = 1627) with at least 1 follow-up visit. Eligibility criteria were extracted from phase 3 licensing trials for etanercept, adalimumab, and ustekinumab for the treatment of moderate to severe psoriasis. Patients in BADBIR with a missing baseline Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI) or baseline PASI value less than 10 (etanercept) or less than 12 (adalimumab; ustekinumab) but who would otherwise be eligible were investigated separately. Eligibility categories applied to BADBIR included: eligible, ineligible, insufficient baseline PASI only, and missing baseline PASI only. Main Outcomes and Measures:(1) Drug discontinuation: cumulative incidence at 12 months by stop reason per eligibility category and drug; (2) effectiveness: linear regression of absolute change in PASI from baseline to 6 and 12 months; and (3) SAEs: incidence rate ratio (IRR) at 12 months between eligibility categories per drug. Results:The mean (SD) age of the 7136 patients included in the analysis was 45 (13) years and 2924 (41%) were women and 4212 (59%) were men. Of 7136 patients, 839 (56%) etanercept, 2219 (56%) adalimumab, and 754 (46%) ustekinumab registrations were categorized as eligible. The most common reasons for ineligibility were diabetes (etanercept, 143 [9%]; ustekinumab, 201 [12%]) and nonchronic plaque psoriasis (adalimumab, 157 [4%]). Patients categorized as ineligible (etanercept, 367 [24%]; adalimumab, 282 [7%]; ustekinumab, 394 [24%]) achieved a smaller absolute change in PASI after 6 and 12 months (adalimumab, ustekinumab), and had significantly higher rates of SAEs compared with the eligible category (etanercept: IRR, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.4-2.6; adalimumab: IRR, 2.0; 95% CI, 1.5-2.6; ustekinumab: IRR, 2.8; 95% CI, 2.1-3.8). No significant differences in drug discontinuation were observed between categories. Conclusions and Relevance:Clinical trial effectiveness and safety outcomes are not representative of real-world patients in BADBIR patients categorized as ineligible for such trials.
Project description:TITLE:Secukinumab efficacy and safety in Indian patients with moderate-to-severe plaque psoriasis: sub-analysis from FIXTURE (Full Year Investigative Examination of Secukinumab vs. Etanercept Using Two Dosing Regimens to Determine Efficacy in Psoriasis), a randomized, placebo-controlled, phase 3 study. BACKGROUND:Evidence has suggested Interleukin (IL)-17A to be an important effector cytokine in the pathogenesis of psoriasis. Here, we report results for an Indian sub-population from a multinational study FIXTURE, designed to assess the safety, tolerability, and long-term efficacy of fully human anti-IL-17A monoclonal antibody secukinumab in patients with moderate-to-severe plaque psoriasis. MATERIALS AND METHODS:In this double-dummy, placebo controlled, 52-weeks phase 3 study FIXTURE, 149 Indian patients were randomized 1:1:1:1 to receive secukinumab at a dose of 300 mg or 150 mg, etanercept, or placebo. The study objective was to show the superiority of secukinumab over placebo at week 12, vis-à-vis proportion of patients achieving a reduction of 75% or more from the baseline in the psoriasis area-and-severity index score (PASI 75) and a score of 0 (clear) or 1 (almost clear) on a 5-point modified investigator's global assessment (IGA mod 2011) (co-primary end points). RESULTS:At week 12, 61.0% and 55.9% patients in secukinumab 300 mg and 150 mg groups, respectively, achieved PASI 75 response compared to 20.0% in the etanercept and 7.1% in the placebo groups. Similarly, IGA mod 2011 0 or 1 response was achieved by 43.9% and 20.6% in patients in the secukinumab 300 mg and 150 mg group, respectively, vs. 13.3% in the etanercept and 2.4% in the placebo groups at week 12. Likewise, higher proportions of patients in secukinumab 300 mg (41.5%) and 150 mg (20.6%) group were PASI 90 responders at week 12 than those in the etanercept (10.0%) or placebo (0.0%) groups. The incidences of adverse events (AEs), during the induction period were similar in all the treatment groups. Overall secukinumab was well-tolerated at both doses in the Indian sub-population. CONCLUSION:The results from the Indian sub-population suggest that secukinumab is an efficacious and safe drug for use in moderate-to-severe chronic plaque psoriasis.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Secukinumab, a fully human anti-interleukin-17A monoclonal antibody, has demonstrated superior efficacy to ustekinumab in the phase 3b CLEAR study of moderate to severe plaque psoriasis. Here, we report 16-week results from CLARITY, a second head-to-head trial comparing secukinumab with ustekinumab. METHODS:In the phase 3b CLARITY study, patients were randomized 1:1 to receive subcutaneous secukinumab 300 mg or ustekinumab per label. The co-primary objectives were to demonstrate the superiority of secukinumab over ustekinumab at Week 12 in relation to the proportion of patients with (1) 90% or more improvement from baseline Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI 90) and (2) a score of 0/1 (clear/almost clear) on the modified Investigator's Global Assessment (IGA mod 2011 0/1). Key secondary objectives were also assessed, as was Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) 0/1 (no impact of skin disease on patients' quality of life) response. Missing values were handled by multiple imputation except for DLQI 0/1, where last observation carried forward techniques were utilized. RESULTS:Both co-primary objectives were met: secukinumab was superior to ustekinumab for the proportion of patients achieving a PASI 90 (66.5% vs. 47.9%) and IGA mod 2011 0/1 response (72.3% vs. 55.4%) at Week 12 (p?<?0.0001). PASI 90 responses were greater with secukinumab compared to ustekinumab from as early as Week 4 (16.7% vs. 4.0%) and out to Week 16 (76.6% vs. 54.2%). Similarly, IGA mod 2011 0/1 findings were greater with secukinumab at Week 4 (26.9% vs. 7.8%) and at Week 16 (78.6% vs. 59.1%). DLQI 0/1 response rates were also greater with secukinumab compared to ustekinumab at Week 4 (33.9% vs. 18.0%), Week 12 (64.0% vs. 51.7%), and Week 16 (68.4% vs. 55.9%). CONCLUSION:The results of this study confirm the superior efficacy of secukinumab over ustekinumab in treating patients with moderate to severe psoriasis. TRIAL REGISTRATION:Clinicaltrials.gov Identifier, NCT02826603. FUNDING:Novartis Pharma AG, Basel, Switzerland.