Combined Hypothermic and Normothermic Machine Perfusion Improves Functional Recovery of Extended Criteria Donor Livers.
ABSTRACT: Hypothermic oxygenated perfusion (HOPE) and normothermic perfusion are seen as distinct techniques of ex situ machine perfusion of the liver. We aimed to demonstrate the feasibility of combining both techniques and whether it would improve functional parameters of donor livers into transplant standards. Ten discarded human donor livers had either 6 hours of normothermic perfusion (n = 5) or 2 hours of HOPE followed by 4 hours of normothermic perfusion (n = 5). Liver function was assessed according to our viability criteria; markers of tissue injury and hepatic metabolic activity were compared between groups. Donor characteristics were comparable. During the hypothermic perfusion phase, livers down-regulated mitochondrial respiration (oxygen uptake, P = 0.04; partial pressure of carbon dioxide perfusate, P = 0.04) and increased adenosine triphosphate levels 1.8-fold. Following normothermic perfusion, those organs achieved lower tissue expression of markers of oxidative injury (4-hydroxynonenal, P = 0.008; CD14 expression, P = 0.008) and inflammation (CD11b, P = 0.02; vascular cell adhesion molecule 1, P = 0.05) compared with livers that had normothermic perfusion alone. All livers in the combined group achieved viability criteria, whereas 40% (2/5) in the normothermic group failed (P = 0.22). In conclusion, this study suggests that a combined protocol of hypothermic oxygenated and normothermic perfusions might attenuate oxidative stress, tissue inflammation, and improve metabolic recovery of the highest-risk donor livers compared with normothermic perfusion alone.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Mitochondrial succinate accumulation has been suggested as key event for ischemia reperfusion injury in mice. No specific data are however available on behavior of liver mitochondria during ex situ machine perfusion in clinical transplant models. METHODS:We investigated mitochondrial metabolism of isolated perfused rat livers before transplantation. Livers were exposed to warm and cold ischemia to simulate donation after circulatory death (DCD) and organ transport. Subsequently, livers were perfused with oxygenated Belzer-MPS for 1h, at hypothermic or normothermic conditions. Various experiments were performed with supplemented succinate and/or mitochondrial inhibitors. The perfusate, liver tissues, and isolated mitochondria were analyzed by mass-spectroscopy and fluorimetry. Additionally, rat DCD livers were transplanted after 1h hypothermic or normothermic oxygenated perfusion. In parallel, perfusate samples were analysed during HOPE-treatment of human DCD livers before transplantation. FINDINGS:Succinate exposure during rat liver perfusion triggered a dose-dependent release of mitochondrial Flavin-Mononucleotide (FMN) and NADH in perfusates under normothermic conditions. In contrast, perfusate FMN was 3-8 fold lower under hypothermic conditions, suggesting less mitochondrial injury during cold re-oxygenation compared to normothermic conditions. HOPE-treatment induced a mitochondrial reprogramming with uploading of the nucleotide pool and effective succinate metabolism. This resulted in a clear superiority after liver transplantation compared to normothermic perfusion. Finally, the degree of mitochondrial injury during HOPE of human DCD livers, quantified by perfusate FMN and NADH, was predictive for liver function. INTERPRETATION:Mitochondrial injury determines outcome of transplanted rodent and human livers. Hypothermic oxygenated perfusion improves mitochondrial function, and allows viability assessment of liver grafts before implantation. FUNDING:detailed information can be found in Acknowledgments.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:The combination of hypothermic and normothermic machine perfusion (HMP+NMP) of the liver provides individual benefits of both techniques, improving the rescue of marginal organs. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect on the bioenergetic status and the oxidative-mediated tissue injury of an uninterrupted combined protocol of HMP+NMP using a single haemoglobin-based oxygen carrier (HBOC)-based perfusate. METHODS:Ten discarded human donor livers had either 2 hours of dual hypothermic oxygenated perfusion (D-HOPE) with sequential controlled rewarming (COR) and then NMP using the HBOC-based perfusate uninterruptedly (cold-to-warm group); or 2 hours of hypothermic oxygenated perfusion (HOPE) with an oxygen carrier-free perfusate, followed by perfusate exchange and then NMP with an HBOC-based perfusate. Markers of liver function, tissue adenosine triphosphate (ATP) levels and tissue injury were systematically assessed. RESULTS:The hypothermic phase downregulated mitochondrial respiration and increased ATP levels in both groups. The cold-to-warm group presented higher arterial vascular resistance during rewarming/NMP (p = 0.03) with a trend of lower arterial flow (p = 0.09). At the end of NMP tissue expression of markers of reactive oxygen species production, oxidative injury and inflammation were comparable between the groups. CONCLUSION:The uninterrupted combined protocol of HMP+NMP using an HBOC-based perfusate-cold-to-warm MP-mitigated the oxidative-mediated tissue injury and enhanced hepatic energy stores, similarly to an interrupted combined protocol; however, it simplified the logistics of this combination and may favour its clinical applicability.
Project description:Background & Aims:End-ischemic hypothermic oxygenated machine perfusion (HOPE) of the donor liver for 1-2 h mitigates ischemia-reperfusion injury during subsequent liver transplantation. Extended preservation time may be preferred to facilitate difficult recipient hepatectomy or to optimize logistics. We therefore investigated whether end-ischemic dual HOPE (DHOPE) could extend preservation time for up to 24 h using a porcine liver reperfusion model. Methods:Following 30 min warm ischemia, porcine livers were subjected to 2 h static cold storage (SCS), followed by 2 h, 6 h, or 24 h DHOPE (n = 6 per group). Subsequent normothermic reperfusion was performed for 4 h using autologous blood. Two livers preserved by 24 h SCS served as additional controls. A proof of principle confirmation was carried out in 2 discarded human livers subjected to extended DHOPE. Hepatocellular and cholangiocyte injury and function were assessed. Oxidative stress levels and histology were compared between groups. Results:Perfusion flows remained stable during DHOPE, regardless of duration. After normothermic reperfusion, livers perfused for 24 h by DHOPE had similar lactate clearance, blood pH, glucose, and alanine aminotransferase levels, and biliary pH, bicarbonate, and LDH levels, as livers perfused for 2 h and 6 h. Levels of malondialdehyde and high-mobility group box 1 in serum and liver parenchyma were similar for all groups. Histological analysis of bile ducts and liver parenchyma revealed no differences between the groups. Extended DHOPE in discarded human livers preserved hepatocellular and cholangiocyte function and histology after reperfusion. In contrast, livers preserved by 24 h SCS were non-functioning. Conclusion:Extended end-ischemic DHOPE enabled successful preservation of porcine and discarded human donor livers for up to 24 h. Extended DHOPE enables safe extension of preservation time, which may facilitate allocation and transplantation from a logistical perspective, and further expand the donor pool. Lay summary:It has been suggested that preserving liver grafts with a technique called (dual) hypothermic oxygenated machine perfusion ([D]HOPE) leads to better outcomes after transplantation than if livers are stored on ice, especially if an organ is of lesser quality. In this study, we showed that DHOPE could be used to preserve liver grafts for up to 24 h. This extended procedure could be used globally to facilitate transplantation and expand the donor pool.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Extended criteria donor (ECD) livers are increasingly accepted for transplantation in an attempt to reduce the gap between the number of patients on the waiting list and the available number of donor livers. ECD livers; however, carry an increased risk of developing primary non-function (PNF), early allograft dysfunction (EAD) or post-transplant cholangiopathy. Ischaemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) plays an important role in the development of these complications. Machine perfusion reduces IRI and allows for reconditioning and subsequent evaluation of liver grafts. Single or dual hypothermic oxygenated machine perfusion (DHOPE) (4°C-12°C) decreases IRI by resuscitation of mitochondria. Controlled oxygenated rewarming (COR) may further reduce IRI by preventing sudden temperature shifts. Subsequent normothermic machine perfusion (NMP) (37°C) allows for ex situ viability assessment to facilitate the selection of ECD livers with a low risk of PNF, EAD or post-transplant cholangiopathy. METHODS AND ANALYSIS:This prospective, single-arm study is designed to resuscitate and evaluate initially nationwide declined ECD livers. End-ischaemic DHOPE will be performed for the initial mitochondrial and graft resuscitation, followed by COR of the donor liver to a normothermic temperature. Subsequently, NMP will be continued to assess viability of the liver. Transplantation into eligible recipients will proceed if all predetermined viability criteria are met within the first 150?min of NMP. To facilitate machine perfusion at different temperatures, a perfusion solution containing a haemoglobin-based oxygen carrier will be used. With this protocol, we aim to transplant extra livers. The primary endpoint is graft survival at 3 months after transplantation. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION:This protocol was approved by the medical ethical committee of Groningen, METc2016.281 in August 2016 and registered in the Dutch Trial registration number TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NTR5972, NCT02584283.
Project description:Ex situ dual hypothermic oxygenated machine perfusion (DHOPE) and normothermic machine perfusion (NMP) of donor livers may have a complementary effect when applied sequentially. While DHOPE resuscitates the mitochondria and increases hepatic adenosine triphosphate (ATP) content, NMP enables hepatobiliary viability assessment prior to transplantation. In contrast to DHOPE, NMP requires a perfusion solution with an oxygen carrier, for which red blood cells (RBC) have been used in most series. RBC, however, have limitations and cannot be used cold. We, therefore, established a protocol of sequential DHOPE, controlled oxygenated rewarming (COR), and NMP using a new hemoglobin-based oxygen carrier (HBOC)-based perfusion fluid (DHOPE-COR-NMP trial, NTR5972). Seven livers from donation after circulatory death (DCD) donors, which were initially declined for transplantation nationwide, underwent DHOPE-COR-NMP. Livers were considered transplantable if perfusate pH and lactate normalized, bile production was ?10 mL and biliary pH > 7.45 within 150 minutes of NMP. Based on these criteria five livers were transplanted. The primary endpoint, 3-month graft survival, was a 100%. In conclusion, sequential DHOPE-COR-NMP using an HBOC-based perfusion fluid offers a novel method of liver machine perfusion for combined resuscitation and viability testing of suboptimal livers prior to transplantation.
Project description:Purpose of Review:The purpose of this review was to summarise how machine perfusion could contribute to viability assessment of donor livers. Recent Findings:In both hypothermic and normothermic machine perfusion, perfusate transaminase measurement has allowed pretransplant assessment of hepatocellular damage. Hypothermic perfusion permits transplantation of marginal grafts but as yet has not permitted formal viability assessment. Livers undergoing normothermic perfusion have been investigated using parameters similar to those used to evaluate the liver in vivo. Lactate clearance, glucose evolution and pH regulation during normothermic perfusion seem promising measures of viability. In addition, bile chemistry might inform on cholangiocyte viability and the likelihood of post-transplant cholangiopathy. Summary:While the use of machine perfusion technology has the potential to reduce and even remove uncertainty regarding liver graft viability, analysis of large datasets, such as those derived from large multicenter trials of machine perfusion, are needed to provide sufficient information to enable viability parameters to be defined and validated .
Project description:Hypothermic and normothermic ex vivo liver perfusions promote organ recovery after donation after circulatory death (DCD). We tested whether these perfusions can reduce the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) recurrence in a 1h-DCD syngeneic transplantation model, using Fischer F344 rats. DCD grafts were machine perfused for 2h with hypothermic perfusion (HOPE) or normothermic perfusion (NORMO), and transplanted. After reperfusion, we injected HCC cells into the vena porta. On day 28 after transplantation, we assessed tumour volumes by MRI. Control rats included transplantations with Fresh and non-perfused DCD livers. We observed apoptotic-necrotic hepatocyte foci in all DCD grafts, which were more visible than in the Fresh liver grafts. Normothermic perfusion allowed a faster post-transplant recovery, with lower day 1 levels of transaminases compared with the other DCD. Overall, survival was similar in all four groups and all animals developed HCCs. Total tumor volume was lower in the Fresh liver recipients compared to the DCD and DCD+HOPE recipients. Volumes in DCD+NORMO recipients were not significantly different from those in the Fresh group. This experiment confirms that ischemia/reperfusion injury promotes HCC cell engraftment/growth after DCD liver transplantation. Using the present extreme 1h ischemia model, both hypothermic and normothermic perfusions were not effective in reducing this risk.
Project description:Absence of pulmonary perfusion during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) may be associated with reduced postoperative oxygenation. Effects of active pulmonary artery perfusion were explored in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) undergoing cardiac surgery.90 patients were randomised to receive pulmonary artery perfusion during CPB with either oxygenated blood (n=30) or histidine-tryptophan-ketoglutarate (HTK) solution (n=29) compared with no pulmonary perfusion (n=31). The coprimary outcomes were the inverse oxygenation index compared at 21?hours after starting CPB and longitudinally in a mixed-effects model (MEM). Secondary outcomes were tracheal intubation time, serious adverse events, mortality, days alive outside the intensive care unit (ICU) and outside the hospital.21?hours after starting CPB patients receiving pulmonary artery perfusion with normothermic oxygenated blood had a higher oxygenation index compared with no pulmonary perfusion (mean difference (MD) 0.94; 95% CI 0.05 to 1.83; p=0.04). The blood group had also a higher oxygenation index both longitudinally (MEM, p=0.009) and at 21?hours (MD 0.99; CI 0.29 to 1.69; p=0.007) compared with the HTK group. The latest result corresponds to a difference in the arterial partial pressure of oxygen of 23?mm?Hg with a median fraction of inspired oxygen of 0.32. Yet the blood or HTK groups did not demonstrate a longitudinally higher oxygenation index compared with no pulmonary perfusion (MEM, p=0.57 and 0.17). Similarly, at 21?hours there was no difference in the oxygenation index between the HTK group and those no pulmonary perfusion (MD 0.06; 95% CI -0.73 to 0.86; p=0.87). There were no statistical significant differences between the groups for the secondary outcomes.Pulmonary artery perfusion with normothermic oxygenated blood during cardiopulmonary bypass appears to improve postoperative oxygenation in patients with COPD undergoing cardiac surgery. Pulmonary artery perfusion with hypothermic HTK solution does not seem to improve postoperative oxygenation.NCT01614951; Pre-results.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Hypothermic oxygenated machine perfusion (HOPE) reduces ischemia-reperfusion injury of donor livers and is increasingly used in clinical transplantation. However, it remains unclear whether perfusion via the portal vein alone (HOPE) or via both the portal vein and hepatic artery (dual HOPE or DHOPE) is superior.<h4>Methods</h4>Twelve porcine livers donated after circulatory death were randomized for 2 h of HOPE (n = 6) or DHOPE (n = 6), followed by 4 h of warm reperfusion with whole blood, to mimic transplantation. Hepatobiliary and endothelial cell function and injury markers were determined in perfusate and bile samples. Biopsies of bile ducts, hepatic arteries, and liver parenchyma were collected to assess histological damage and the expression of endothelial protective genes (KLF-2, eNOS, ET-1, CD31, VWF, VEGF-A).<h4>Results</h4>There were no differences in hepatobiliary function and injury after warm reperfusion between the groups, apart from a 2-fold lower concentration of alanine aminotransferase in the perfusate (<i>P</i> = 0.045) and a lower peak lactate dehydrogenase in bile (<i>P</i> = 0.04) of livers preserved by DHOPE. Endothelial cell function and injury, as assessed by perfusate nitric oxide and von Willebrand factor antigen levels, as well as endothelial protective gene expressions, were similar between the groups. The hepatic arteries of both groups showed no microscopic evidence of injury.<h4>Conclusions</h4>This study did not reveal major differences in hepatobiliary or endothelial function and injury after preservation by single or dual HOPE of porcine livers donated after circulatory death.
Project description:Strategies to increase the use of steatotic donor livers are required to tackle the mortality on the transplant waiting list. We aimed to test the efficacy of pharmacological enhancement of the lipid metabolism of human livers during ex situ normothermic machine perfusion to promote defatting and improve the functional recovery of the organs. Because of steatosis, 10 livers were discarded and were allocated either to a defatting group that had the perfusate supplemented with a combination of drugs to enhance lipid metabolism or to a control group that received perfusion fluid with vehicle only. Steatosis was assessed using tissue homogenate and histological analyses. Markers for lipid oxidation and solubilization, oxidative injury, inflammation, and biliary function were evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, immunohistochemistry, and in-gel protein detection. Treatment reduced tissue triglycerides by 38% and macrovesicular steatosis by 40% over 6 hours. This effect was driven by increased solubility of the triglycerides (P = 0.04), and mitochondrial oxidation as assessed by increased ketogenesis (P = 0.008) and adenosine triphosphate synthesis (P = 0.01) were associated with increased levels of the enzymes acyl-coenzyme A oxidase 1, carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1A, and acetyl-coenzyme A synthetase. Concomitantly, defatted livers exhibited enhanced metabolic functional parameters such as urea production (P = 0.03), lower vascular resistance, lower release of alanine aminotransferase (P = 0.049), and higher bile production (P = 0.008) with a higher bile pH (P = 0.03). The treatment down-regulated the expression of markers for oxidative injury as well as activation of immune cells (CD14; CD11b) and reduced the release of inflammatory cytokines in the perfusate (tumor necrosis factor ?; interleukin 1?). In conclusion, pharmacological enhancement of intracellular lipid metabolism during normothermic machine perfusion decreased the lipid content of human livers within 6 hours. It also improved the intracellular metabolic support to the organs, leading to successful functional recovery and decreased expression of markers of reperfusion injury.