Scc2 counteracts a Wapl-independent mechanism that releases cohesin from chromosomes during G1.
ABSTRACT: Cohesin's association with chromosomes is determined by loading dependent on the Scc2/4 complex and release due to Wapl. We show here that Scc2 also actively maintains cohesin on chromosomes during G1 in S. cerevisiae cells. It does so by blocking a Wapl-independent release reaction that requires opening the cohesin ring at its Smc3/Scc1 interface as well as the D loop of Smc1's ATPase. The Wapl-independent release mechanism is switched off as cells activate Cdk1 and enter G2/M and cannot be turned back on without cohesin's dissociation from chromosomes. The latter phenomenon enabled us to show that in the absence of release mechanisms, cohesin rings that have already captured DNA in a Scc2-dependent manner before replication no longer require Scc2 to capture sister DNAs during S phase.
Project description:Sister chromatid cohesion involves entrapment of sister DNAs by a cohesin ring created through association of a kleisin subunit (Scc1) with ATPase heads of Smc1/Smc3 heterodimers. Cohesin's association with chromatin involves subunits recruited by Scc1: Wapl, Pds5, and Scc3/SA, in addition to Scc2/4 loading complex. Unlike Pds5, Wapl, and Scc2/4, Scc3s are encoded by all eukaryotic genomes. Here, a crystal structure of Scc3 reveals a hook-shaped protein composed of tandem ? helices. Its N-terminal domain contains a conserved and essential surface (CES) present even in organisms lacking Pds5, Wapl, and Scc2/4, while its C-terminal domain binds a section of the kleisin Scc1. Scc3 turns over in G2/M while maintaining cohesin's association with chromosomes and it promotes de-acetylation of Smc3 upon Scc1 cleavage.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The Cohesin complex that holds sister chromatins together until anaphase is comprised of three core subunits: Smc1 and Smc3, two long-rod-shaped proteins with an ABC-like ATPase head (nucleotide-binding domain [NBD]) and a dimerization domain linked by a 50 nm long intramolecular antiparallel coiled-coil, and Scc1, an ?-kleisin subunit interconnecting the NBD domains of Smc1 and Smc3. Cohesin's stable association with chromosomes is thought to involve entrapment of chromatin fibers by its tripartite Smc1-Smc3-Scc1 ring via a poorly understood mechanism dependent on a separate Scc2/4 loading complex. A key issue concerns where entrapment initially takes place: at sites where cohesin is found stably associated or at distinct "loading" sites from which it translocates. RESULTS:In this study, we find transition state mutant versions (Smc1E1158Q and SmcE1155Q) defective in disengagement of their nucleotide binding domains (NBDs), unlike functional cohesin, colocalize with Scc2/4 at core centromeres, sites that catalyze wild-type cohesin's recruitment to sequences 20 kb or more away. In addition to Scc2/4, the unstable association of transition state complexes with core centromeres requires Scc1's association with Smc1 and Smc3 NBDs, ATP-driven NBD engagement, cohesin's Scc3 subunit, and its hinge domain. CONCLUSION:We propose that cohesin's association with chromosomes is driven by two key events. NBD engagement driven by ATP binding produces an unstable association with specific loading sites like core centromeres, whereas subsequent ATP hydrolysis triggers DNA entrapment, which permits translocation along chromatin fibers.
Project description:The ring-shaped cohesin complex topologically entraps chromosomes and regulates chromosome segregation, transcription, and DNA repair. The cohesin core consists of the structural maintenance of chromosomes 1 and 3 (Smc1-Smc3) heterodimeric ATPase, the kleisin subunit sister chromatid cohesion 1 (Scc1) that links the two ATPase heads, and the Scc1-bound adaptor protein Scc3. The sister chromatid cohesion 2 and 4 (Scc2-Scc4) complex loads cohesin onto chromosomes. Mutations of cohesin and its regulators, including Scc2, cause human developmental diseases termed cohesinopathy. Here, we report the crystal structure of Chaetomium thermophilum (Ct) Scc2 and examine its interaction with cohesin. Similar to Scc3 and another Scc1-interacting cohesin regulator, precocious dissociation of sisters 5 (Pds5), Scc2 consists mostly of helical repeats that fold into a hook-shaped structure. Scc2 binds to Scc1 through an N-terminal region of Scc1 that overlaps with its Pds5-binding region. Many cohesinopathy mutations target conserved residues in Scc2 and diminish Ct Scc2 binding to Ct Scc1. Pds5 binding to Scc1 weakens the Scc2-Scc1 interaction. Our study defines a functionally important interaction between the kleisin subunit of cohesin and the hook of Scc2. Through competing with Scc2 for Scc1 binding, Pds5 might contribute to the release of Scc2 from loaded cohesin, freeing Scc2 for additional rounds of loading.
Project description:Cohesin’s association with chromosomes is determined by loading dependent on the Scc2/4 complex and release due to Wapl. We show here that Scc2 also actively maintains cohesin on chromosomes during G1. It does so by blocking a Wapl-independent release reaction that requires opening the cohesin ring at its Smc3/Scc1 interface as well as the D loop of Smc1’s ATPase. The Wapl-independent release mechanism is switched off as cells activate Cdk1 and enter G2/M and cannot be turned back on without cohesin’s dissociation from chromosomes. The latter phenomenon enabled us to show that in the absence of release mechanisms, cohesin rings that have already captured DNA in a Scc2-dependent manner before replication no longer require Scc2 to capture sister DNAs during S phase. Overall design: Characterisation of the effect of WT and mutant cohesin complexes and associated factors on loading onto chromosomes in S. cerevisiae, assessed by calibrated ChIP-seq on an Ion Torrent Proton (Life Technologies)
Project description:Sister chromatid cohesion conferred by entrapment of sister DNAs within a tripartite ring formed between cohesin's Scc1, Smc1, and Smc3 subunits is created during S and destroyed at anaphase through Scc1 cleavage by separase. Cohesin's association with chromosomes is controlled by opposing activities: loading by Scc2/4 complex and release by a separase-independent releasing activity as well as by cleavage. Coentrapment of sister DNAs at replication is accompanied by acetylation of Smc3 by Eco1, which blocks releasing activity and ensures that sisters remain connected. Because fusion of Smc3 to Scc1 prevents release and bypasses the requirement for Eco1, we suggested that release is mediated by disengagement of the Smc3/Scc1 interface. We show that mutations capable of bypassing Eco1 in Smc1, Smc3, Scc1, Wapl, Pds5, and Scc3 subunits reduce dissociation of N-terminal cleavage fragments of Scc1 (NScc1) from Smc3. This process involves interaction between Smc ATPase heads and is inhibited by Smc3 acetylation.
Project description:The spatial organization of chromosomes influences many nuclear processes including gene expression. The cohesin complex shapes the 3D genome by looping together CTCF sites along chromosomes. We show here that chromatin loop size can be increased and that the duration with which cohesin embraces DNA determines the degree to which loops are enlarged. Cohesin's DNA release factor WAPL restricts this loop extension and also prevents looping between incorrectly oriented CTCF sites. We reveal that the SCC2/SCC4 complex promotes the extension of chromatin loops and the formation of topologically associated domains (TADs). Our data support the model that cohesin structures chromosomes through the processive enlargement of loops and that TADs reflect polyclonal collections of loops in the making. Finally, we find that whereas cohesin promotes chromosomal looping, it rather limits nuclear compartmentalization. We conclude that the balanced activity of SCC2/SCC4 and WAPL enables cohesin to correctly structure chromosomes.
Project description:Through their association with a kleisin subunit (Scc1), cohesin's Smc1 and Smc3 subunits are thought to form tripartite rings that mediate sister chromatid cohesion. Unlike the structure of Smc1/Smc3 and Smc1/Scc1 interfaces, that of Smc3/Scc1 is not known. Disconnection of this interface is thought to release cohesin from chromosomes in a process regulated by acetylation. We show here that the N-terminal domain of yeast Scc1 contains two ? helices, forming a four-helix bundle with the coiled coil emerging from Smc3's adenosine triphosphatase head. Mutations affecting this interaction compromise cohesin's association with chromosomes. The interface is far from Smc3 residues, whose acetylation prevents cohesin's dissociation from chromosomes. Cohesin complexes holding chromatids together in vivo do indeed have the configuration of hetero-trimeric rings, and sister DNAs are entrapped within these.
Project description:Cohesin, along with positive regulators, establishes sister-chromatid cohesion by forming a ring to circle chromatin. The wings apart-like protein (Wapl) is a key negative regulator of cohesin and forms a complex with precocious dissociation of sisters protein 5 (Pds5) to promote cohesin release from chromatin. Here we report the crystal structure and functional characterization of human Wapl. Wapl contains a flexible, variable N-terminal region (Wapl-N) and a conserved C-terminal domain (Wapl-C) consisting of eight HEAT (Huntingtin, Elongation factor 3, A subunit, and target of rapamycin) repeats. Wapl-C folds into an elongated structure with two lobes. Structure-based mutagenesis maps the functional surface of Wapl-C to two distinct patches (I and II) on the N lobe and a localized patch (III) on the C lobe. Mutating critical patch I residues weaken Wapl binding to cohesin and diminish sister-chromatid resolution and cohesin release from mitotic chromosomes in human cells and Xenopus egg extracts. Surprisingly, patch III on the C lobe does not contribute to Wapl binding to cohesin or its known regulators. Although patch I mutations reduce Wapl binding to intact cohesin, they do not affect Wapl-Pds5 binding to the cohesin subcomplex of sister chromatid cohesion protein 1 (Scc1) and stromal antigen 2 (SA2) in vitro, which is instead mediated by Wapl-N. Thus, Wapl-N forms extensive interactions with Pds5 and Scc1-SA2. Wapl-C interacts with other cohesin subunits and possibly unknown effectors to trigger cohesin release from chromatin.
Project description:The cohesin complex mediates DNA-DNA interactions both between (sister chromatid cohesion) and within chromosomes (DNA looping). It has been suggested that intra-chromosome loops are generated by extrusion of DNAs through the lumen of cohesin's ring. Scc2 (Nipbl) stimulates cohesin's ABC-like ATPase and is essential for loading cohesin onto chromosomes. However, it is possible that the stimulation of cohesin's ATPase by Scc2 also has a post-loading function, for example driving loop extrusion. Using fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) and single-molecule tracking in human cells, we show that Scc2 binds dynamically to chromatin, principally through an association with cohesin. Scc2's movement within chromatin is consistent with a 'stop-and-go' or 'hopping' motion. We suggest that a low diffusion coefficient, a low stoichiometry relative to cohesin, and a high affinity for chromosomal cohesin enables Scc2 to move rapidly from one chromosomal cohesin complex to another, performing a function distinct from loading.
Project description:The linkage between duplicated chromosomes (sister chromatids) is established during S phase by the action of cohesin, a multisubunit complex conserved from yeast to humans. Most cohesin dissociates from chromosome arms when the cell enters mitotic prophase, leading to the formation of metaphase chromosomes with two cytologically discernible chromatids. This process is known as sister-chromatid resolution. Although two mitotic kinases have been implicated in this process, it remains unknown exactly how the cohesin-mediated linkage is destabilized at a mechanistic level.The wings apart-like (Wapl) protein was originally identified as a gene product that potentially regulates heterochromatin organization in Drosophila melanogaster. We show that the human ortholog of Wapl is a cohesin-binding protein that facilitates cohesin's timely release from chromosome arms during prophase. Depletion of Wapl from HeLa cells causes transient accumulation of prometaphase-like cells with chromosomes that display poorly resolved sister chromatids with a high level of cohesin. Reduction of cohesin relieves the Wapl-depletion phenotype, and depletion of Wapl rescues premature sister separation observed in Sgo1-depleted or Esco2-depleted cells. Conversely, overexpression of Wapl causes premature separation of sister chromatids. Wapl physically associates with cohesin in HeLa-cell nuclear extracts. Remarkably, in vitro reconstitution experiments demonstrate that Wapl forms a stoichiometric, ternary complex with two regulatory subunits of cohesin, implicating its noncatalytic function in inactivating cohesin's ability to interact with chromatin.Wapl is a new regulator of sister chromatid resolution and promotes release of cohesin from chromosomes by directly interacting with its regulatory subunits.