Assessment of APOE in atypical parkinsonism syndromes.
ABSTRACT: Atypical parkinsonism syndromes are a heterogeneous group of neurodegenerative disorders that include corticobasal degeneration (CBD), Lewy body dementia (LBD), multiple system atrophy (MSA), and progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP). The APOE ?4 allele is a well-established risk factor for Alzheimer's disease; however, the role of APOE in atypical parkinsonism syndromes remains controversial. To examine the associations of APOE ?4 and ?2 alleles with risk of developing these syndromes, a total of 991 pathologically-confirmed atypical parkinsonism cases were genotyped using the Illumina NeuroChip array. We also performed genotyping and logistic regression analyses to examine APOE frequency and associated risk in patients with Alzheimer's disease (n?=?571) and Parkinson's disease (n?=?348). APOE genotypes were compared to those from neurologically healthy controls (n?=?591). We demonstrate that APOE ?4 and ?2 carriers have a significantly increased and decreased risk, respectively, of developing Alzheimer's disease (?4: OR: 4.13, 95% CI: 3.23-5.26, p?=?3.67?×?10-30; ?2: OR: 0.21, 95% CI: 0.13-0.34; p?=?5.39?×?10-10) and LBD (?4: OR: 2.94, 95% CI: 2.34-3.71, p?=?6.60?×?10-20; ?2: OR?=?OR: 0.39, 95% CI: 0.26-0.59; p?=?6.88?×?10-6). No significant associations with risk for CBD, MSA, or PSP were observed. We also show that APOE ?4 decreases survival in a dose-dependent manner in Alzheimer's disease and LBD. Taken together, this study does not provide evidence to implicate a role of APOE in the neuropathogenesis of CBD, MSA, or PSP. However, we confirm association of the APOE ?4 allele with increased risk for LBD, and importantly demonstrate that APOE ?2 reduces risk of this disease.
Project description:Background:There is a critical need to develop valid, non-invasive biomarkers for Parkinsonian syndromes. The current 17-site, international study assesses whether non-invasive diffusion MRI (dMRI) can distinguish between Parkinsonian syndromes. Methods:We used dMRI from 1002 subjects, along with the Movement Disorders Society Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale part III (MDS-UPDRS III), to develop and validate disease-specific machine learning comparisons using 60 template regions and tracts of interest in Montreal Neurological Institute (MNI) space between Parkinson's disease (PD) and Atypical Parkinsonism (multiple system atrophy - MSA, progressive supranuclear palsy - PSP), as well as between MSA and PSP. For each comparison, models were developed on a training/validation cohort and evaluated in a test cohort by quantifying the area under the curve (AUC) of receiving operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Findings:In the test cohort for both disease-specific comparisons, AUCs were high in the dMRI + MDS-UPDRS (PD vs. Atypical Parkinsonism: 0·962; MSA vs. PSP: 0·897) and dMRI Only (PD vs. Atypical Parkinsonism: 0·955; MSA vs. PSP: 0·926) models, whereas the MDS-UPDRS III Only models had significantly lower AUCs (PD vs. Atypical Parkinsonism: 0·775; MSA vs. PSP: 0·582). Interpretations:This study provides an objective, validated, and generalizable imaging approach to distinguish different forms of Parkinsonian syndromes using multi-site dMRI cohorts. The dMRI method does not involve radioactive tracers, is completely automated, and can be collected in less than 12 minutes across 3T scanners worldwide. The use of this test could thus positively impact the clinical care of patients with Parkinson's disease and Parkinsonism as well as reduce the number of misdiagnosed cases in clinical trials.
Project description:Distinct neuronal and glial tau pathologies define corticobasal degeneration (CBD) and progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP). Additional Alzheimer disease, TDP-43, and Lewy body copathologies are also common. The interplay of these pathologies with clinical symptoms remains unclear as individuals can present with corticobasal syndrome, frontotemporal dementia, PSP, or atypical Parkinsonism and may have additional secondary impairments. We report clinical, pathological, and genetic interactions in a cohort of CBD and PSP cases. Neurofibrillary tangles and plaques were common. Apolipoprotein E (APOE)?4 carriers had more plaques while PSP APOE?2 carriers had fewer plaques. TDP-43 copathology was present and age-associated in 14% of PSP, and age-independent in 33% of CBD. Lewy body copathology varied from 9% to 15% and was not age-associated. The primary FTD-Tau burden-a sum of the neuronal, astrocytic and oligodendrocytic tau-was not age-, APOE-, or MAPT-related. In PSP, FTD-Tau, independent of copathology, associated with executive, language, motor, and visuospatial impairments, while PSP with Parkinsonism had a lower FTD-Tau burden, but this was not the case in CBD. Taken together, our results indicate that the primary tauopathy burden is the strongest correlate of clinical PSP, while copathologies are principally determined by age and genetic risk factors.
Project description:[18F]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET and [123I]metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) scintigraphy may contribute to the differential diagnosis of neurodegenerative parkinsonism. To identify the superior method, we retrospectively evaluated 54 patients with suspected neurodegenerative parkinsonism, who were referred for FDG PET and MIBG scintigraphy. Two investigators visually assessed FDG PET scans using an ordinal 6-step score for disease-specific patterns of Lewy body diseases (LBD) or atypical parkinsonism (APS) and assigned the latter to the subgroups multiple system atrophy (MSA), progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), or corticobasal syndrome. Regions-of-interest analysis on anterior planar MIBG images served to calculate the heart-to-mediastinum ratio. Movement disorder specialists blinded to imaging results established clinical follow-up diagnosis by means of guideline-derived case vignettes. Clinical follow-up (1.7?±?2.3 years) revealed the following diagnoses: n?=?19 LBD (n?=?17 Parkinson’s disease [PD], n?=?1?PD dementia, and n?=?1 dementia with Lewy bodies), n?=?31 APS (n?=?28 MSA, n?=?3 PSP), n?=?3 non-neurodegenerative parkinsonism; n?=?1 patient could not be diagnosed and was excluded. Receiver operating characteristic analyses for discriminating LBD vs. non-LBD revealed a larger area under the curve for FDG PET than for MIBG scintigraphy at statistical trend level for consensus rating (0.82 vs. 0.69, p?=?0.06; significant for investigator #1: 0.83 vs. 0.69, p?=?0.04). The analysis of PD vs. MSA showed a similar difference (0.82 vs. 0.69, p?=?0.11; rater #1: 0.83 vs. 0.69, p?=?0.07). Albeit the notable differences in diagnostic performance did not attain statistical significance, the authors consider this finding clinically relevant and suggest that FDG PET, which also allows for subgrouping of APS, should be preferred.
Project description:<h4>Background and purpose</h4>Accurate diagnosis of Atypical Parkinsonian Syndromes (APS) is important due to differences in prognosis and management, but remains a challenge in the clinical setting. The purpose of our meta-analysis was to identify characteristic patterns of gray matter atrophy in Corticobasal Degeneration (CBD), Progressive Supranuclear Palsy (PSP), Multisystem-Atrophy Parkinsonian type (MSA-P), and Idiopathic Parkinson's Disease (IPD).<h4>Materials and methods</h4>Whole-brain meta-analysis was performed on 39 published voxel-based morphometry (VBM) articles (consisting of 404 IPD, 87 MSA-P, 165 CBD, and 176 PSP subjects) using the modified Anatomic Likelihood Estimation method. Based on these results, contrast analyses were then utilized to determine areas of atrophy shared by as well as unique to each disorder.<h4>Results</h4>CBD was characterized by asymmetric gray matter atrophy in multiple cortical regions, while the thalamus-midbrain and insula were predominantly involved in PSP. The striatum and superior cerebellum were affected in MSA-P, while IPD demonstrated an anterior cerebral pattern. Although there was a mild overlap among PSP, CBD, and MSA-P, significant regions of atrophy unique to each disorder were identified, including (1) the superior parietal lobule in CBD (2) putamen in MSA-P (3) insula and medial dorsal nucleus in PSP.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Our results suggest that there are characteristic patterns of atrophy in APS. Guided by these findings, future studies on the individual subject level may lead to the development of robust imaging biomarkers.
Project description:The terms atypical parkinsonian disorders (APDs) and Parkinson plus syndromes are mainly used to describe the four major entities of sporadic neuronal multisystem degeneration: progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), corticobasal degeneration (CBD), multiple system atrophy (MSA), and dementia with Lewy bodies (LBD). APDs are characterized by a variety of symptoms and a lack of disease modifying therapies; their treatment thus remains mainly symptomatic. Brain stimulation via repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a safe and noninvasive intervention using a magnetic coil, and it is considered an alternative therapy in various neuropsychiatric pathologies. In this paper, we review the available studies that investigate the efficacy of rTMS in the treatment of these APDs and Parkinson plus syndromes. <i>Τ</i>he majority of the studies have shown beneficial effects on motor and nonmotor symptoms, but research is still at a preliminary phase, with large, double-blind studies lacking in the literature.
Project description:<b>Background:</b> Atypical parkinsonian syndromes are rare, fatal neurodegenerative diseases associated with abnormal protein accumulation in the brain. Examples of these syndromes include progressive supranuclear palsy, multiple system atrophy, and corticobasal degeneration. A common clinical feature in parkinsonism is a limited improvement with levodopa. So far, there are no disease-modifying treatments to address these conditions, and therapy is only limited to the alleviation of symptoms. Diagnosis is devastating for patients, as prognosis is extremely poor, and the disease tends to progress rapidly. Currently, potential causes and neuropathological mechanisms involved in these diseases are being widely investigated. <b>Objectives:</b> The goal of this review is to summarize recent advances and gather emerging disease-modifying therapies that could slow the progression of atypical parkinsonian syndromes. <b>Methods:</b> PubMed and Google Scholar databases were searched regarding novel perspectives for atypical parkinsonism treatment. The following medical subject headings were used: "atypical parkinsonian syndromes-therapy," "treatment of atypical parkinsonian syndromes," "atypical parkinsonian syndromes-clinical trial," "therapy of tauopathy," "alpha-synucleinopathy treatment," "PSP therapy/treatment," "CBD therapy/treatment," "MSA therapy/treatment," and "atypical parkinsonian syndromes-disease modifying." All search results were manually reviewed prior to inclusion in this review. <b>Results:</b> Neuroinflammation, mitochondrial dysfunction, microglia activation, proteasomal impairment, and oxidative stress play a role in the neurodegenerative process. Ongoing studies and clinical trials target these components in order to suppress toxic protein accumulation. Various approaches such as stem cell therapy, anti-aggregation/anti-phosphorylation agent administration, or usage of active and passive immunization appear to have promising results. <b>Conclusion:</b> Presently, disease-modifying strategies for atypical parkinsonian syndromes are being actively explored, with encouraging preliminary results. This leads to an assumption that developing accurate, safe, and progression-halting treatment is not far off. Nevertheless, the further investigation remains necessary.
Project description:Multiple-system atrophy (MSA), progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), and corticobasal syndrome (CBS) have signs and symptoms overlapping those of Parkinson disease (PD), complicating their clinical diagnosis. Although presynaptic dopaminergic brain imaging with PET and SPECT is clinically widely used for patients with suspected PD, the benefit of functional imaging in atypical parkinsonism syndromes remains unclear. We compared striatal presynaptic dopaminergic function in MSA parkinsonism variant (MSA-P), MSA cerebellar variant (MSA-C), PSP, CBS, and PD using combined quantitative data from all published studies. Methods: The PubMed database was searched from inception to August 2018 for the terms "dopamine" OR "dopaminergic" AND "PET" OR "SPECT" OR "SPET" and keywords related to PD, MSA, PSP, and CBS. In total, 1,711 publications were identified. PET or SPECT studies comparing patients with atypical parkinsonism to another diagnostic group (PD, MSA, PSP, or CBS) were included. Tracers for dopamine transporter (DAT), aromatic amino acid decarboxylase (AADC), or vesicular monoamine type 2 were investigated. Tracer binding data were extracted from the original articles. Heterogeneity of the data was examined using I 2 statistics, and a random-effects model was used to summarize data. Hedges g was used as an estimator of effect size in group comparisons. Results are reported according to PRISMA guidelines. Results: Thirty-five studies (29 DAT, 6 AADC, no vesicular monoamine type 2 studies) with 356 MSA-P patients, 204 PSP patients, 79 CBS patients, and 62 MSA-C patients were included in the metaanalysis. Caudate nucleus and putamen DAT function was clearly lower in PSP than in PD (caudate: 34.1% difference, g = -1.08, 95% confidence interval [CI] = -1.52 to -0.64; putamen: 18.2%, g = -0.86, 95% CI = -1.50 to -0.21) and MSA-P (striatum: 31.4%, g = -0.70, 95% CI = -1.21 to -0.19) and was clearly lower in MSA-P than in MSA-C (striatum: 46.0%, g = 1.46, 95% CI = 0.23 to 2.68). Although not significant because of limited data, aromatic l-AADC results paralleled the DAT findings. Conclusion: Striatal presynaptic DAT function is clearly lower in PSP patients than in PD and MSA-P patients and is clearly lower in MSA-P patients than in MSA-C patients.
Project description:AIMS:Success in treating patients with atypical parkinsonian syndromes, namely progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), cortico-basal degeneration (CBD), multiple system atrophy (MSA), Parkinson's disease with dementia (PDD), and Lewy body dementia with (LBD), remains exceedingly low. The present work overviews the most influential research literature collected on MEDLINE, ISI Web of Science, Cochrane Library, and Scopus for available treatment in atypical parkinsonisms without time restriction. DISCUSSION:Transdermal rotigotine, autologous mesenchymal stem cells, tideglusib, and coenzyme Q10 along with donepezil, rivastigmine, memantine, and the deep brain stimulation have shown some benefits in alleviating symptoms in APS. Moreover, many new clinical trials are ongoing testing microtubule stabilizer, antitau monoclonal antibody, tau acetylation inhibition, cell replacement, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, active immunization, inhibition of toxic ?-synuclein oligomers formation, and inhibition of microglia. CONCLUSION:A detailed knowledge of the pathological mechanism underlying the disorders is needed, and disease-modifying therapies are required to offer better therapeutic options to physician and caregivers of APS patients.
Project description:<b>Introduction:</b> White matter degeneration may contribute to clinical symptoms of parkinsonism. <b>Objective:</b> We used fixel-based analysis (FBA) to compare the extent and patterns of white matter degeneration in different parkinsonian syndromes-including idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD), multiple system atrophy (MSA), and progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP). <b>Methods:</b> This is a retrospective interpretation of prospectively acquired data of patients recruited in previous studies during 2008 and 2019. Diffusion-weighted images were acquired on a 3-Tesla scanner (diffusion weighting b = 1000 s/mm<sup>2</sup>-applied along either 64 or 30 non-collinear directions) from 53 patients with PD (men/women: 29/24; mean age: 65.06 ± 5.51 years), 47 with MSA (men/women: 20/27; mean age: 63.00 ± 7.19 years), and 50 with PSP men/women: 20/30; mean age: 65.96 ± 3.14 years). Non-parametric permutation tests were used to detect intergroup differences in fixel-related indices-including fiber density, fiber cross-section, and their combination. <b>Results:</b> Patterns of white matter degeneration were significantly different between PD and atypical parkinsonisms (MSA and PSP). Compared with patients with PD, those with MSA and PSP showed a more extensive white matter involvement-noticeably descending tracts from primary motor cortex to corona radiata and cerebral peduncle. Lesions of corpus callosum were specific to PSP and absent in both MSA and PD. <b>Discussion:</b> FBA identified specific patterns of white matter changes in MSA and PSP patients compared to PD. Our results proved the utility of FBA in evaluation of implied biological processes of white matter changes in parkinsonism. Our study set the stage for future applications of this technique in patients with parkinsonian syndromes.
Project description:Importance:Atypical parkinsonian syndromes (APS), including progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), corticobasal syndrome (CBS), and multiple system atrophy (MSA), may be difficult to distinguish in early stages and are often misdiagnosed as Parkinson disease (PD). The diagnostic criteria for PSP have been updated to encompass a range of clinical subtypes but have not been prospectively studied. Objective:To define the distinguishing features of PSP and CBS subtypes and to assess their usefulness in facilitating early diagnosis and separation from PD. Design, Setting, Participants:This cohort study recruited patients with APS and PD from movement disorder clinics across the United Kingdom from September 1, 2015, through December 1, 2018. Patients with APS were stratified into the following groups: those with Richardson syndrome (PSP-RS), PSP-subcortical (including PSP-parkinsonism and progressive gait freezing subtypes), PSP-cortical (including PSP-frontal and PSP-CBS overlap subtypes), MSA-parkinsonism, MSA-cerebellar, CBS-Alzheimer disease (CBS-AD), and CBS-non-AD. Data were analyzed from February 1, through May 1, 2019. Main Outcomes and Measures:Baseline group comparisons used (1) clinical trajectory; (2) cognitive screening scales; (3) serum neurofilament light chain (NF-L) levels; (4) TRIM11, ApoE, and MAPT genotypes; and (5) volumetric magnetic resonance imaging measures. Results:A total of 222 patients with APS (101 with PSP, 55 with MSA, 40 with CBS, and 26 indeterminate) were recruited (129 [58.1%] male; mean [SD] age at recruitment, 68.3 [8.7] years). Age-matched control participants (n?=?76) and patients with PD (n?=?1967) were included for comparison. Concordance between the antemortem clinical and pathologic diagnoses was achieved in 12 of 13 patients with PSP and CBS (92.3%) undergoing postmortem evaluation. Applying the Movement Disorder Society PSP diagnostic criteria almost doubled the number of patients diagnosed with PSP from 58 to 101. Forty-nine of 101 patients with reclassified PSP (48.5%) did not have the classic PSP-RS subtype. Patients in the PSP-subcortical group had a longer diagnostic latency and a more benign clinical trajectory than those in PSP-RS and PSP-cortical groups. The PSP-subcortical group was distinguished from PSP-cortical and PSP-RS groups by cortical volumetric magnetic resonance imaging measures (area under the curve [AUC], 0.84-0.89), cognitive profile (AUC, 0.80-0.83), serum NF-L level (AUC, 0.75-0.83), and TRIM11 rs564309 genotype. Midbrain atrophy was a common feature of all PSP groups. Eight of 17 patients with CBS (47.1%) undergoing cerebrospinal fluid analysis were identified as having the CBS-AD subtype. Patients in the CBS-AD group had a longer diagnostic latency, relatively benign clinical trajectory, greater cognitive impairment, and higher APOE-?4 allele frequency than those in the CBS-non-AD group (AUC, 0.80-0.87; P?<?.05). Serum NF-L levels distinguished PD from all PSP and CBS cases combined (AUC, 0.80; P?<?.05). Conclusions and Relevance:These findings suggest that studies focusing on the PSP-RS subtype are likely to miss a large number of patients with underlying PSP tau pathology. Analysis of cerebrospinal fluid defined a distinct CBS-AD subtype. The PSP and CBS subtypes have distinct characteristics that may enhance their early diagnosis.