The flipped classroom model for an undergraduate epidemiology course.
ABSTRACT: PURPOSE:The flipped classroom has been suggested as a method for efficient teaching in medical education. However, its feasibility and effectiveness in the educational environment are often overlooked. The authors redesigned an epidemiology course applying the flipped classroom method under a traditional curriculum consisting of heavily scheduled classroom hours and explored its feasibility and effectiveness. METHODS:In the fall semester of 2017, we flipped the 'practice of epidemiology' course for third-year medical students at Korea University College of Medicine. We provided online lectures and assigned readings as pre-class materials, and substituted group discussions and communicative activities for traditional lectures. We conducted pre- and post-course surveys to review students' perceptions. We also analyzed the pre-test results and final exam scores for quantitative comparison. RESULTS:Ninety-seven students out of 120 completed the course. Most students made use of the online lectures, but not the reading materials. Lack of time was the most frequently cited reason for under-preparedness. We observed improvements in preparedness, participation, and effectiveness at the end of the course, while changes in satisfaction were unclear. Students' perceptions of course relevance and difficulty were predictive of pre-test outcomes, but the effects of preparedness and length of materials were insignificant. The authors found no evidence of differing test scores before and after the course. CONCLUSION:This study supports the feasibility of the flipped classroom model even under a traditional, heavily scheduled medical curriculum. To encourage self-directed learning and achieve better learning outcomes, restructuring pre-existing curricular components should also be considered in parallel with new instructional methods.
Project description:Although the flipped classroom model has been widely adopted in medical education, reports on its use in graduate-level public health programs are limited. This study describes the design, implementation, and evaluation of a flipped classroom redesign of an introductory epidemiology course and compares it to a traditional model.One hundred fifty Masters-level students enrolled in an introductory epidemiology course with a traditional format (in-person lecture and discussion section, at-home assignment; 2015, N =?72) and a flipped classroom format (at-home lecture, in-person discussion section and assignment; 2016, N =?78). Using mixed methods, we compared student characteristics, examination scores, and end-of-course evaluations of the 2016 flipped classroom format and the 2015 traditional format. Data on the flipped classroom format, including pre- and post-course surveys, open-ended questions, self-reports of section leader teaching practices, and classroom observations, were evaluated.There were no statistically significant differences in examination scores or students' assessment of the course between 2015 (traditional) and 2016 (flipped). In 2016, 57.1% (36) of respondents to the end-of-course evaluation found watching video lectures at home to have a positive impact on their time management. Open-ended survey responses indicated a number of strengths of the flipped classroom approach, including the freedom to watch pre-recorded lectures at any time and the ability of section leaders to clarify targeted concepts. Suggestions for improvement focused on ways to increase regular interaction with lecturers.There was no significant difference in students' performance on quantitative assessments comparing the traditional format to the flipped classroom format. The flipped format did allow for greater flexibility and applied learning opportunities at home and during discussion sections.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>The aim of the study is to report the creation of a flipped ophthalmology course and preclinical medical student perceptions and knowledge gains before and after a flipped ophthalmology course.<h4>Design</h4>The form of the study discussed is an observational study.<h4>Subjects</h4>The subjects involved in the study are second-year (U.S.) United States medical students at the University of Miami, Miller School of Medicine (<i>n</i> = 401).<h4>Methods</h4>Second-year medical students participated in a 1-week "flipped classroom" ophthalmology course geared toward primary care providers at the University of Miami, Miller School of Medicine. Eleven hours of traditional classroom lectures were condensed into 4.5 hours of short videos with self-assessment quizzes, small group discussions, and a large group case-based discussion. Fifty-seven short videos (<9 minutes) focused on major ophthalmology topics and common conditions were viewed by the students at their leisure. Students completed a pre- and post-course evaluation on their perceptions and opinions of the flipped classroom approach. Final exam scores in the flipped classroom cohort were compared with the final exam scores in the traditional didactic format used in years prior.<h4>Main outcome measures</h4>The main outcome measures include: student final exam performance; student satisfaction, opinions, and perceptions.<h4>Results</h4>Over the course of 2 years, 401 second-year U.S. medical students participated in the flipped classroom ophthalmology course. The majority of students enjoyed the flipped classroom experience (75.3%) and expressed interest in using the approach for future lessons (74.6%). The flipped classroom videos were preferred to live lectures (61.2%). Over 90% of students stated the self-assessment quizzes were useful, 79% reported that the small group discussions were an effective way to apply knowledge, and 76% cited the large group case-based discussion as useful. Pre-course knowledge assessment scores averaged 48%. Final examination scores in the flipped group (average ± standard deviation [SD] = 92.1% ± 6.1) were comparable to that of the traditional group when evaluating identical questions (average ± SD = 91.7% ± 5.54), <i>p</i> = 0.34.<h4>Conclusion</h4>The flipped classroom approach proved to be a well-received and successful approach to preclinical medical education for ophthalmology. This was achieved using 35% less course time than our traditional course. This innovative approach has potential for expansion to other medical schools, medical education abroad, and for other medical school modules.
Project description:In flipped-class pedagogy, students prepare themselves at home before lectures, often by watching short video clips of the course contents. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of flipped classes on motivation and learning strategies in higher education using a controlled, pre- and posttest approach. The same students were followed in a traditional course and in a course in which flipped classes were substituted for part of the traditional lectures. On the basis of the validated Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ), we found that flipped-class pedagogy enhanced the MSLQ components critical thinking, task value, and peer learning. However, the effects of flipped classes were not long-lasting. We therefore propose repeated use of flipped classes in a curriculum to make effects on metacognition and collaborative-learning strategies sustainable.
Project description:Recent reform of medical education highlights the growing concerns about the capability of the current educational model to equip medical school students with essential skills for future career development. In the field of ophthalmology, although many attempts have been made to address the problem of the decreasing teaching time and the increasing load of course content, a growing body of literature indicates the need to reform the current ophthalmology teaching strategies. Flipped classroom is a new pedagogical model in which students develop a basic understanding of the course materials before class, and use in-class time for learner-centered activities, such as group discussion and presentation. However, few studies have evaluated the effectiveness of the flipped classroom in ophthalmology education. This study, for the first time, assesses the use of flipped classroom in ophthalmology, specifically glaucoma and ocular trauma clerkship teaching. A total number of 44 international medical school students from diverse background were enrolled in this study, and randomly divided into two groups. One group took the flipped glaucoma classroom and lecture-based ocular trauma classroom, while the other group took the flipped ocular trauma classroom and lecture-based glaucoma classroom. In the traditional lecture-based classroom, students attended the didactic lecture and did the homework after class. In the flipped classroom, students were asked to watch the prerecorded lectures before the class, and use the class time for homework discussion. Both the teachers and students were asked to complete feedback questionnaires after the classroom. We found that the two groups did not show differences in the final exam scores. However, the flipped classroom helped students to develop skills in problem solving, creative thinking and team working. Also, compared to the lecture-based classroom, both teachers and students were more satisfied with the flipped classroom. Interestingly, students had a more positive attitude towards the flipped ocular trauma classroom than the flipped glaucoma classroom regarding the teaching process, the course materials, and the value of the classroom. Therefore, the flipped classroom model in ophthalmology teaching showed promise as an effective approach to promote active learning.
Project description:<h4>Introduction</h4>The flipped classroom is a pedagogical model in which the typical lecture and homework/self-study elements of a course are reversed or ?flipped'. The flipped model differs from distance and online learning, since students still have face-to-face contact with tutors. Studies have shown that the flipped classroom approach can be effective with clinical skills learning by paramedics, but it is not clear whether anatomy, physiology, pathophysiology and pharmacology can effectively be taught using a flipped approach.<h4>Methods</h4>A flipped classroom approach was taken for a three-hour theory session on the Diploma of Higher Education in Paramedic Practice that would usually have been taught by traditional lecture. Participants, 20 student paramedics already employed by the Ambulance Service as Emergency Care Assistants, completed a two-part questionnaire after the session. Part one comprised 22 Likert style questions, with part two allowing qualitative data with five open ended questions.<h4>Results</h4>All students preferred the traditional lecture over a flipped approach. Time constraints and preparation were seen as major disadvantages of the flipped classroom, as was being unable to ask questions in real time. Flexibility was seen to be an advantage of online lectures, and a blended/combination approach of online resources and traditional lecture was seen as valuable.<h4>Conclusion</h4>The demographic of students may have had an impact upon the results of the study and the lack of popularity of the flipped approach. Employed students have the added pressure of full-time work, and further research is needed into whether different methods should be employed when choosing how to educate employed paramedic students versus those who enter via the undergraduate route and study full time.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Curriculum design and specific topic selection for on-site practical courses in clinical disciplines with limited teaching time is challenging. An electronic learning supported curriculum based on the flipped classroom principle has a high potential to effectively gain knowledge and education along with improving practical experience. Here, we demonstrate the introduction of a flipped classroom curriculum for practical courses in Otorhinolaryngology (ORL) in real world practice to improve the on-site time management and students' experience. METHODS:Educational aims of our practical curriculum were analysed and rearranged into a flipped classroom (FC) framework. Core knowledge was taught preliminary based on a moodle platform in predominantly interactive formats. Two quasi-randomized groups were formed with 212 participants either receiving or not receiving access to the e-learning program to reduce a potential allocation bias to the e-learning group. All students completed a questionnaire with learning related items. Focusing the study on the intervention group, we investigated if students using the flipped classroom more often felt better prepared for the practical course. RESULTS:The online learning platform was highly accepted and frequently used by 66% of participating students in the e-learning group. Students with frequent use of our e-learning platform significantly felt better prepared for the practical course (p =?0.001). The far majority of all students supports the idea of further development of e-learning. More than 70% were generally interested in ORL. Handouts were the overall most important learning resource and more than 50% relied solely on them. CONCLUSIONS:Flipped classroom curricula can save time and help improving the on-site experience in practical courses especially in smaller surgical disciplines. The acceptance of digital learning is high, and most students rely on handouts for learning ORL, emphasizing the need for guidance by the teacher e.g. through electronic learning. Our results underline the high potential of FC to address teaching challenges for smaller medical disciplines with limited teaching time like ORL.
Project description:Severe global shortages in the health care workforce sector have made improving access to essential emergency care challenging. The paucity of trained specialists in low- and middle-income countries translates to large swathes of the population receiving inadequate care. Efforts to expand emergency medicine (EM) education are similarly impeded by a lack of available and appropriate teaching faculty. The development of comprehensive, online medical education courses offers a potentially economical, scalable, and lasting solution for universities experiencing professional shortages.An EM course addressing core concepts and patient management was developed for medical students enrolled at Makerere University College of Health Sciences in Kampala, Uganda. Material was presented to students in two comparable formats: online video modules and traditional classroom-based lectures. Following completion of the course, students were assessed for knowledge gains.Forty-two and 48 students enrolled and completed all testing in the online and classroom courses, respectively. Student knowledge gains were equivalent (classroom 25 ± 8.7% vs. online 23 ± 6.5%, p = 0.18), regardless of the method of course delivery.A summative evaluation of Ugandan medical students demonstrated that online teaching modules are effectively equivalent and offer a viable alternative to traditional classroom-based lectures delivered by on-site, visiting faculty in their efficacy to teach expertise in EM. Web-based curriculum can help alleviate the burden on universities in developing nations struggling with a critical shortage of health care educators while simultaneously satisfying the growing community demand for access to emergency medical care. Future studies assessing the long-term retention of course material could gauge its incorporation into clinical practice.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Physiology is a subject that is considered difficult; it is associated with academic failure and causes high levels of stress and anxiety in students. METHODS:This study compared the effectiveness of a traditional lecture-based methodology with that of a flipped classroom scheme focusing on cooperative ludic learning among gastrointestinal and renal physiology students. Two groups were subjected to these two different methods to teach gastrointestinal and renal physiology content divided into 14 topics. Additionally, two subgroups were identified in each group: entrants and repeaters. There were no differences in age or gender between the subgroups. RESULTS:Levels of self-perceived stress (measured by the SISCO scale), biological stress (measured by awakening salivary cortisol levels), and anxiety (measured by the Zung scale) were high in all of the students; the cortisol levels increased in the entrants and some of the scores in SISCO scale increased in the repeaters, throughout the study. The self-reported study time was longer in the students subjected to the flipped classroom-based method. The final exam results were better only in the new students facing the flipped methodology, but not in the repeaters, who scored lower on the final evaluation. The quantitative and qualitative assessments completed by the participants regarding the different aspects of the flipped-classroom-based methodology were favorable; however, the participants believed that traditional lectures should be maintained for specific topics. CONCLUSIONS:A methodology based on flipped teaching was an effective strategy to improve academic performance ingastrointestinal and renal physiology, but only in new students.
Project description:PURPOSE:The aim of this study was to confirm the applicability of YouTube as a delivery platform of lecture videos for dental students and to assess their learning attitudes towards the flipped classroom model. METHODS:Learning experiences after using the YouTube platform to deliver preliminary video lectures in a flipped classroom were assessed by 69 second-year students (52 males, 17 females) at Dankook College of Dentistry, Korea, who attended periodontology lectures during 2 consecutive semesters of the 2016 academic year. The instructor uploaded the lecture videos to YouTube before each class. At the end of the second semester, the students were surveyed using a questionnaire devised by the authors. RESULTS:Of the students, 53 (76.8%) always watched the lecture before the class, 48 (69.6%) used their smartphones, and 66 (95.7%) stated that they watched the lectures at home. The majority of the students replied that the video lectures were easier to understand than in-person lectures (82.6%) and that they would like to view the videos again after graduation (73.9%). CONCLUSION:Our results indicate that YouTube is an applicable platform to deliver video lectures and to expose students to increased learning opportunities.